NPO Mashinostroyeniya

Last updated
NPO Mashinostroyeniya
Type Joint-stock company
Industry Defense industry
Aerospace industry
Space industry
ProductsMissiles, Ballistic missiles, Cruise missiles, Anti-ship missiles, Spacecraft, Launch vehicles
Revenue$464 million [1]  (2014)
Parent Tactical Missiles Corporation [2]

NPO Mashinostroyeniya (Russian : НПО машиностроения) is a rocket design bureau based in Reutov, Russia. During the Cold War it was responsible for several major weapons systems, including the UR-100N Intercontinental ballistic missile and the military Almaz space station program.


India is Mashinostroyeniya's second largest customer after the Russian Federation for sale of P-70 Ametist, BrahMos, BrahMos-II and P-800 Oniks.


NPO Mashinostroyeniya was founded in 1944 to develop rockets for the Russian military. Under the leadership of cruise missile designer Vladimir Chelomey, the firm was lead developer of the Soviet Union's space satellites, cruise missiles, and intercontinental ballistic missiles. [3] Originally part of the OKB-51 design bureau, it relocated to Reutov, and from 1955 to 1966 was designated OKB-52 (and also OKB-52 MAP). OKB-52 became later known as TsKBM.

The OKB-52 was the main rival of OKB-1 (then the design bureau of Sergei Korolev, later renamed TsKBEM, today RSC Energia) during the Soviet human lunar programs and the Soviet space station program. [4]

At its peak in the mid-1980s, NPO Mashinostroyeniya employed nearly 10,000. By the mid-1980s state support for NPO was dwindling. [3] In the 1980s, the Soviet government directed NPO to develop vegetable oil processing equipment, baking industry equipment, and food storage products. [3] By 1993, Mashinostroyeniya's defense orders dwindled to one-fifth of previous levels. [3]


Air launched orbital vehicles

Crewed spacecraft

Space launched vehicles


Anti-ship missiles

United States sanctions

On July 16, 2014, the Obama administration imposed sanctions through the US Department of Treasury's Office of Foreign Assets Control (OFAC) by adding NPO Mashinostroyeniya and other entities to the Specially Designated Nationals List (SDN) in retaliation for the ongoing Ukrainian crisis, annexation of the Crimean Peninsula by the Kremlin, and the Russian interference in Ukraine. [5] [6]

See also

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  2. "Аффилированные лица". Сетевое издание «Центр раскрытия корпоративной информации». Archived from the original on 26 April 2017. Retrieved 25 April 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 4 "Commercial Prospects For Russian Defense Firms: Profile Of A Firm In Reutov". Business Information Service for the Newly Independent States (BISNIS). Archived from the original on 16 April 1997. Retrieved 21 July 2017.CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  4. "Almaz".
  5. "Ukraine-related Sanctions; Publication of Executive Order 13662 Sectoral Sanctions Identifications List". 16 July 2014.
  6. "Announcement of Treasury Sanctions on Entities Within the Financial Services and Energy Sectors of Russia, Against Arms or Related Materiel Entities, and those Undermining Ukraine's Sovereignty". 16 July 2014.