|Publicly funded, public-service broadcaster|
|Founded||1 July 1933|
|Thor Gjermund Eriksen|
|Products||TV, radio, online services|
|Owner||Government of Norway|
Number of employees
|3,419; 266 temporary staff (2017)|
NRK (an abbreviation of the Norwegian: Norsk rikskringkasting AS , generally expressed in English as the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation) is the Norwegian government-owned radio and television public broadcasting company, and the largest media organisation in Norway. NRK broadcasts three national TV channels and three national radio channels on digital terrestrial television, digital terrestrial radio and subscription television. All NRK radio stations are being streamed online at NRK.no, which also offers an extensive TV service. NRK is a founding member of the European Broadcasting Union.
Norwegian is a North Germanic language spoken mainly in Norway, where it is the official language. Along with Swedish and Danish, Norwegian forms a dialect continuum of more or less mutually intelligible local and regional varieties, and some Norwegian and Swedish dialects, in particular, are very close. These Scandinavian languages, together with Faroese and Icelandic as well as some extinct languages, constitute the North Germanic languages. Faroese and Icelandic are hardly mutually intelligible with Norwegian in their spoken form because continental Scandinavian has diverged from them. While the two Germanic languages with the greatest numbers of speakers, English and German, have close similarities with Norwegian, neither is mutually intelligible with it. Norwegian is a descendant of Old Norse, the common language of the Germanic peoples living in Scandinavia during the Viking Era.
Aksjeselskap is the Norwegian term for a stock-based company. It is usually abbreviated AS. An AS is always a limited company, i.e. the owners cannot be held liable for any debt beyond the stock capital. Public companies are called Allmennaksjeselskap (ASA) while companies without limited liability are called Ansvarlig selskap (ANS).
Radio is the technology of signalling or communicating using radio waves. Radio waves are electromagnetic waves of frequency between 30 hertz (Hz) and 300 gigahertz (GHz). They are generated by an electronic device called a transmitter connected to an antenna which radiates the waves, and received by a radio receiver connected to another antenna. Radio is very widely used in modern technology, in radio communication, radar, radio navigation, remote control, remote sensing and other applications. In radio communication, used in radio and television broadcasting, cell phones, two-way radios, wireless networking and satellite communication among numerous other uses, radio waves are used to carry information across space from a transmitter to a receiver, by modulating the radio signal in the transmitter. In radar, used to locate and track objects like aircraft, ships, spacecraft and missiles, a beam of radio waves emitted by a radar transmitter reflects off the target object, and the reflected waves reveal the object's location. In radio navigation systems such as GPS and VOR, a mobile receiver receives radio signals from navigational radio beacons whose position is known, and by precisely measuring the arrival time of the radio waves the receiver can calculate its position on Earth. In wireless remote control devices like drones, garage door openers, and keyless entry systems, radio signals transmitted from a controller device control the actions of a remote device.
94% of NRK's funding comes from a mandatory annual licence fee payable by anyone who owns or uses a TV or device capable of receiving TV broadcasts. The remainder comes from commercial activities such as programme and DVD sales, spin-off products and certain types of sponsorship. NRK's license income in 2012 was more than 5 billion kroner. In the autumn of 2015 the government announced that it planned to change the way NRK is financed. This is in part a reaction to the decline of TV ownership in Norway. Some kind of "media charge" is planned, but it is not yet clear how such a system would work. The feeling is that the current license system is not sustainable in the long term.
A television licence or broadcast receiving licence is a payment required in many countries for the reception of television broadcasts, or the possession of a television set where some broadcasts are funded in full or in part by the licence fee paid. The fee is sometimes also required to own a radio or receive radio broadcasts. A TV licence is therefore effectively a hypothecated tax for the purpose of funding public broadcasting, thus allowing public broadcasters to transmit television programmes without, or with only supplemental, funding from radio and television advertisements. However, in some cases the balance between public funding and advertisements is the opposite – the Polish TVP broadcaster receives more funds from advertisements than from its TV tax.
Kringkastningselskapet, a privately owned company and the predecessor of NRK, started regular radio broadcasts in Norway in 1925. NRK itself was founded in 1933. Based on a model similar to that of the BBC and located in Oslo, it was a replacement for privately operated radio stations in larger cities. NRK initially set out to cover the entire country and had a monopoly on broadcasting in Norway. The monopoly was gradually dissolved from 1975 onwards, resulting in the introduction of cable TV in 1982, regional TV channels and satellite TV in 1986 (culminating in the launch of TV3 in 1987 and TVNorge in 1988) and the launch of the second free-to-air channel TV 2 in 1992.
The British Broadcasting Corporation (BBC) is a British public service broadcaster. Its headquarters are at Broadcasting House in Westminster, London, and it is the world's oldest national broadcasting organisation and the largest broadcaster in the world by number of employees. It employs over 20,950 staff in total, 16,672 of whom are in public sector broadcasting. The total number of staff is 35,402 when part-time, flexible, and fixed-contract staff are included.
Oslo is the capital and most populous city of Norway. It constitutes both a county and a municipality. Founded in the year 1040 as Ánslo, and established as a kaupstad or trading place in 1048 by Harald Hardrada, the city was elevated to a bishopric in 1070 and a capital under Haakon V of Norway around 1300. Personal unions with Denmark from 1397 to 1523 and again from 1536 to 1814 reduced its influence. After being destroyed by a fire in 1624, during the reign of King Christian IV, a new city was built closer to Akershus Fortress and named Christiania in the king's honour. It was established as a municipality (formannskapsdistrikt) on 1 January 1838. The city functioned as a co-official capital during the 1814 to 1905 Union between Sweden and Norway. In 1877, the city's name was respelled Kristiania in accordance with an offical spelling reform – a change that was taken over by the municipal authorities only in 1897. In 1925 the city, after incorporating the village retaining its former name, was renamed Oslo.
Cable television is a system of delivering television programming to consumers via radio frequency (RF) signals transmitted through coaxial cables, or in more recent systems, light pulses through fiber-optic cables. This contrasts with broadcast television, in which the television signal is transmitted over the air by radio waves and received by a television antenna attached to the television; or satellite television, in which the television signal is transmitted by a communications satellite orbiting the Earth and received by a satellite dish on the roof. FM radio programming, high-speed Internet, telephone services, and similar non-television services may also be provided through these cables. Analog television was standard in the 20th century, but since the 2000s, cable systems have been upgraded to digital cable operation.
During the Nazi German occupation, Norwegian transmitters were used to broadcast Nazi German war propaganda to Northern Europe (particularly Scotland and the northern half of Ireland, where the sea path ensured a good signal) and Scandinavia.
Prior to the Nazi German occupation, NRK had also been partly financed by radio commercials.
NRK was one of 23 founding broadcasting organisations of the European Broadcasting Union, which was founded in 1950. In 1954, NRK started broadcasting television shows, on a trial basis. Regular broadcasts started in 1960.
The European Broadcasting Union is an alliance of public service media organisations, established on 12 February 1950. The organisation is made up of 117 member organisations in 56 countries, and 34 associate members from a further 21 countries. It is best known for producing the Eurovision Song Contest. It also hosted debates between candidates for the European Commission presidency for the 2014 parliamentary elections but is unrelated to the European Union itself.
NRK was the last of the major European public broadcasters to introduce a second radio station,[ citation needed ] officially starting as late as 1984. In 1993 NRK launched a third radio station, the youth-oriented P3 . A 24-hour station for classical music, Alltid Klassisk (now called "NRK Klassisk"), introduced in 1995, was the first of its kind to be broadcast digitally using DAB. The 24-hour news station Alltid Nyheter started in 1997, followed by a radio station for teenagers, mP3, in 2000, which mostly plays dance music.
NRK P3 is a nationwide digital radio channel operated by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK). It was established as NRK's third radio channel in 1993, and was the result of the NRK radio channel reform initiated in 1992 by radio director Tor Fuglevik.
NRK Klassisk is a digital radio channel operated by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK) which broadcasts classical music 24 hours a day.
In 1996, a second television channel, NRK2, was launched. The original television channel is now known as NRK1. On 3 September 2007 NRK launched its third channel: a youth channel called NRK3. Later that year, on 1 December, NRK launched its fourth television channel, NRK Super, which is aimed at children. NRK3 and NRK Super share the same channel, with NRK Super broadcasting from 06:00 to 19:30 and NRK3 from 19:30 to 06:00.
In 1999, following NRK Interaktiv's relaunch as NRK.no, NRK introduced a new corporate logo which similar to its predecessor. The new corporate logo made its first appearance in an ident in 2000 by making its overhaul to NRK's radio and television channels.
A traditional music radio station, NRK Alltid folkemusikk (now known as "NRK Folkemusikk") was launched in 2004 on DAB and internet radio.
NRK's international radio transmissions, known as Utenlandssendingen, began shortwave transmission in 1948. Initially broadcasting in Norwegian, English-language programs were added later. The service was discontinued on 1 January 2002. All NRK broadcasting activities on shortwave ceased on 1 January 2004. NRK's mediumwave transmitter at Kvitsøy on 1314 kHz used to be widely heard internationally and was one of the most commonly heard trans-Atlantic DX signals in eastern North America. The frequency carried a mixture of NRK's radio channels P1 and P2, and was called Europakanalen (literally "The Europe Channel"). However, these mediumwave transmissions were discontinued on 1 July 2006.
All of NRK's radio stations are now available on the internet. Several of NRK's television programmes are also available on the internet.
On 16 April 2015, the Norwegian Ministry of Culture announced its intention to eventually switch off all FM transmitters in the country, with the first such transmitter expected to be switched off on 11 January 2017, therefore making Norway the first country in the world to completely transition to digital radio. According to the Ministry of Culture, the decision was justified because transmitting through the FM network was 8 times more expensive than transmitting through DAB, and also because there are only 5 national radio stations transmitting on FM, compared to the 42 digital radio stations allocated in Norway, with 22 stations transmitting on the latter. NRK Radio is expected to transition from FM to digital radio before commercial radio stations do likewise.
NRK claims to have the longest running radio show, Lørdagsbarnetimen (lit. The Saturday Children's Hour), running since 20 December 1924.[ citation needed ]
The CEO began major organisational changes in 2008, with the aim of creating a more agile NRK, while still adhering to the principles of the broadcaster-producer model introduced in January 2001.[ citation needed ] By January 2009 the number of programme-producing divisions had been reduced from five to three, separated more along geographical than functional lines, and at the same time simplifying trading in the internal market.[ citation needed ] The programme producing divisions are:
Thor Gjermund Eriksen has been Director-General of the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation since 12 March 2013.The previous directors were Olav Midttun (1934–1947, except during the Nazi occupation), Kaare Fostervoll (1948–1962), Hans Jacob Ustvedt (1962–1971), Torolf Elster (1972–1981), Bjartmar Gjerde (1981–1988), Einar Førde (1989–2001), John G. Bernander (2001–2007) and Hans-Tore Bjerkaas (2007-2012)
The chairman of the board is Birger Magnus, Marius Lillelien heads the broadcasting department, and the head of the news department is Marius Tetlie.In 2017, NRK employed 3 419 and 266 temporary staff.
c DAB only
NRK has 12 regional offices around Norway. Each office has its own broadcasts on both television (on NRK 1) and radio (on NRK P1), as well their own news sites on the internet. They also contribute news coverage to national news programmes. NRK's headquarters are at Marienlyst in Oslo and Tyholt in Trondheim.
Norway was the first country to announce a complete switch-off of national FM radio stations, including NRK P1 with regional services, NRK P2 and NRK P3, NRK mP3 and NRK Alltid Nyheter. Switch off started on 11 January 2017, and ended on 13 December 2017.
From 2018, all FM transmitters are replaced with broadcast via DAB +, internet and cable.
NRK has an HD outside broadcast van, producing high-definition video.The first Norwegian series filmed in HD was En Udødelig Mann ("An Immortal Man") about the young Henrik Ibsen. The action six-part miniseries called Kodenavn Hunter was also filmed in HD. Promotional videos are freely downloadable from NRK's site, and the full-length last episode is available.
NRK uses H.264 as the compression codec for the digital terrestrial network which is commonly used to compress videos stored as mp4.
NRK has also started to offer HD content via BitTorrent. This is currently a very limited offer due to rights restrictions, but it is growing steadily.
In preparation for the Winter Olympic Games in Vancouver, NRK announced that they would launch a high-definition channel, and their first native HD broadcast would be from Vancouver. NRK1 HD is a simulcast of NRK1..
Its website, nrk.no, has had an online presence supporting its TV and radio programmes and web-only initiatives since 1996. Its development had started in 1995. It is the second most-visited Norwegian website, surpassed only by the website of the country's leading tabloid, Verdens Gang .[ citation needed ]
Digital audio broadcasting (DAB) is a digital radio standard for broadcasting digital audio radio services, used in many countries around the world, though not North America.
In-band on-channel (IBOC) is a hybrid method of transmitting digital radio and analog radio broadcast signals simultaneously on the same frequency.
Digital radio is the use of digital technology to transmit or receive across the radio spectrum. Digital transmission by radio waves includes digital broadcasting, and especially digital audio radio services.
BBC Radio Nottingham is a BBC Local Radio station serving the English county of Nottinghamshire. It broadcasts on FM, DAB radio and Freeview from studios located on London Road in Nottingham city centre.
The Crystal Palace transmitting station, officially known as Arqiva Crystal Palace, is a broadcasting and telecommunications site in the Crystal Palace area of the London Borough of Bromley, England. It is located on the site of the former television station and transmitter, operated by John Logie Baird, from 1933.
The Chesterfield transmitting station is a television and radio transmitter which serves the town of Chesterfield in Derbyshire and surrounding areas. It transmits digital television which it is line fed from Sheffield (Crosspool). The Chesterfield transmitter sits on a hillside to the north of the town and transmits digital television and radio services. Before the digital switchover it was one of the few transmitters in the UK to transmit digital television but not analogue channel Channel 5, and a number of its digital multiplexes were transmitted on the same channels as Emley Moor so it was not uncommon for co-channel interference to be a problem; similar problems still exist with Sutton Coldfield and Waltham. These co-channel issues with Emley meant that its output was attenuated to the North.
The Oxford transmitting station is a broadcasting and telecommunications facility, situated on land 129.5 metres (425 ft) above Ordnance Datum to the north east of the city of Oxford, in Oxfordshire, England. It has a guyed steel lattice mast which is 154.4 metres (507 ft) in height to the top of the main steel structure. The UHF television antenna, which consist of a vertical array of transmitting panels, is mounted above the steel structure. The total height of the mast to the top of this UHF antenna is 165.7 metres (544 ft). It is owned and operated by Arqiva.
NRK Super is a Norwegian TV & radio channel aimed at children, run by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation. The TV channel is broadcast on the digital terrestrial network, on the same frequency as NRK3 from 7am to 7pm, and was launched 1 December 2007. The NRK Super radio channel is broadcast on DAB radio and the internet, and was originally named NRK Barn. It was launched on 16 October 2007.
NRK Alltid nyheter is a Norwegian all-news radio channel operated by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK). It was launched on 14 April 1997 as part of an effort to attract listeners to DAB digital radio, and was the world's first all-digital news channel.
Norkring AS is a provider of digital terrestrial television and radio transmitting in Norway and Belgium. In Norway, Norkring operates a Digital Video Broadcasting – Terrestrial (DVB-T) network for Norges Televisjon, as well as a FM and Digital Audio Broadcasting (DAB) radio. In Belgium, Norkring operates a DVB-T, DVB-T2, FM, DAB and DAB+ network. It operated a DVB-T network in Slovenia between 2010 and 2012. Norkring is owned by Telenor; Norkring België is owned 75 percent by Norkring and 25 percent by Participatiemaatschappij Vlaanderen.
The radio technology known as Digital Audio Broadcasting, and its TV sibling, Digital Multimedia Broadcasting (DMB), is being operated in several regions worldwide, either in the form of full services, or as feasibility studies.
NRK P1 is a nationwide digital radio channel operated by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK). It is the result of the NRK radio channel reform initiated in 1993 by radio director Tor Fuglevik.
NRK P2 is one of three main, nationwide radio channels produced by the Norwegian Broadcasting Corporation (NRK). Its current format – focusing on news and current affairs, debate, analysis, culture, science, and society – is the result of the NRK radio channel reform initiated in 1993 by radio director Tor Fuglevik. In style and content, the channel is similar to the Danish DR P1 and the Swedish SR P1. The original P2, established as NRK's second radio channel in 1984, had carried lighter programming.
There are many radio stations in Norway. For a more comprehensive list see List of Norwegian-language radio stations. Norway is in the process of transitioning all radio stations away from FM broadcasting to Digital Audio Broadcasting only. The country's national radio outlets transitioned to DAB on December 13, 2017. Local radio stations remain available in FM.
DR Radio was a division of Danish Broadcasting Corporation - DR - concerned with radio programming. The radio stations are now part of several divisions: DR Medier (P1), DR Ung (P3), DR Musik, DR Danmark.
The St Hilary transmitting station is a facility for telecommunications situated close to the village of St Hilary, Glamorgan in the Vale of Glamorgan, Wales, in the UK. It comprises a 229-metre (750 ft) guyed mast with antennas attached at various heights. The site was established in 1958 for Independent Television transmission on VHF. Current transmissions from the site include FM Radio, DAB Radio and Mobile Telephone signals.
NRK Folkemusikk is NRK's tenth radio channel, and was the first in Norway to be broadcast exclusively via DAB and Internet. The channel broadcasts music only, without presenters. The music consists of both new and old traditional Norwegian folk music in addition to some world music. The channel uses and includes recordings of folk music from the NRK archives, which contain over 50,000 recordings dating from 1934 until today, as well as other recordings. The channel started broadcasting as NRK Alltid Folkemusikk on 7 December 2004 but later simplified its name to the present NRK Folkemusikk.
New Hellenic Radio, Internet and Television or NERIT (ΝΕΡΙΤ) was the state-owned public broadcaster for Greece from 4 May 2014 to 11 June 2015. Antonis Samaras's coalition government established NERIT to replace the Hellenic Broadcasting Corporation (ERT) in 2013: NERIT began broadcasting under their identity on 4 May 2014, replacing the transitional service Dimosia Tileorasi.
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