Nadia Comăneci

Last updated

Nadia Comăneci
Nadia Comaneci Montreal1976c.jpg
Comăneci at the 1976 Summer Olympics
Personal information
Full nameNadia Elena Comăneci
Nickname(s)Nana
Country representedFlag of Romania (1965-1989).svg  Romania
Born (1961-11-12) November 12, 1961 (age 59)
Onești, Romania [1]
Residence Norman, Oklahoma, U.S. [2]
Spouse Bart Conner
Height5 ft 4 in (1.63 m) [1]
Discipline Women's artistic gymnastics
LevelSenior Elite
Years on national team1970–1984 (ROU)
GymNational Training Center
College teamPolitehnica University of Bucharest
Former coach(es) Béla Károlyi
Márta Károlyi
ChoreographerGeza Pozsar
Eponymous skills Comăneci salto (uneven bars)
RetiredMay 7, 1984 (official)

Nadia Elena Comăneci Conner (born November 12, 1961), known professionally as Nadia Comăneci ( UK: /ˌkɒməˈnɛ(i)/ , US: /ˈkmən,ˌkməˈn/ , [3] [4] Romanian:  [ ˈ n a d i . a   k o m ə ˈ n e tʃʲ ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )), is a Romanian, retired gymnast and a five-time Olympic gold medalist, all in individual events. In 1976 at the age of 14, Comăneci was the first gymnast to be awarded a perfect score of 10.0 at the Olympic Games. [5] At the same Games (1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal), she received six more perfect 10s for events en route to winning three gold medals. At the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, Comăneci won two more gold medals and attained two more perfect 10s. During her career, Comăneci won nine Olympic medals and four World Artistic Gymnastics Championship medals.

Contents

Comăneci is one of the world's best-known gymnasts and is credited with popularizing the sport around the globe. [6] In 2000, she was named as one of the Athletes of the 20th Century by the Laureus World Sports Academy. [7] She has lived in the United States since 1989, when she defected from then-Communist Romania before its revolution in December that year. She later worked with and married American Olympic, gold-medal gymnast Bart Conner, who set up his own school. In 2001 she became a naturalized United States citizen, and has dual citizenship, also maintaining her Romanian citizenship.

Early life

Onesti (Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej between 1965 and 1989), the town where Comaneci was born Onesti in Romania.png
Onești (Gheorghe Gheorghiu-Dej between 1965 and 1989), the town where Comăneci was born

Nadia Elena Comăneci was born on November 12, 1961, in Onești, a small town in the Carpathian Mountains, in Bacău County, Romania, in the historical region of Western Moldavia. [8] [9] She was born to Gheorghe (1936–2012) and Ștefania Comăneci, and has a younger brother. [10] Her parents separated in the 1970s, and her father later moved to Bucharest, the capital. [11] She and her younger brother Adrian were raised in the Romanian Orthodox Church. [12] In a 2011 interview, Nadia's mother Ștefania said that she enrolled her daughter into gymnastics classes because she was a child who was so full of energy and active that she was difficult to manage. [13] After years of top-level athletic competition, Comăneci graduated from Politehnica University of Bucharest with a degree in sports education, which gave her the qualifications to coach gymnastics. [14]

Early gymnastics career

Nadia Comaneci during the European Championships in Prague, Czechoslovakia in May 1977 Nadia Comaneci Prague1977.jpeg
Nadia Comăneci during the European Championships in Prague, Czechoslovakia in May 1977

Comăneci began gymnastics in kindergarten with a local team called Flacăra ("The Flame"), with coaches Duncan and Munteanu. [15] [16] At age 6, she was chosen to attend Béla Károlyi's experimental gymnastics school after Károlyi spotted her and a friend turning cartwheels in a schoolyard. [17] [18] Károlyi was looking for gymnasts he could train from a young age. When recess ended, the girls quickly went inside and Károlyi went around the classrooms trying to find them; he eventually spotted Comăneci. (The other girl, Viorica Dumitru, developed in a different direction and became one of Romania's top ballerinas.)[ citation needed ]

By 1968, when she was seven, Comăneci started training with Károlyi. She was one of the first students at the gymnastics school established in Onești by Béla and his wife, Márta. As a resident of the town, Comăneci was able to live at home for many years; most of the other students boarded at the school.[ citation needed ]

In 1970, Comăneci began competing as a member of her home town team and, at age nine, became the youngest gymnast ever to win the Romanian Nationals. In 1971, she participated in her first international competition, a dual junior meet between Romania and Yugoslavia, winning her first all-around title, and contributing to the team gold. For the next few years, she competed as a junior in numerous national contests in Romania and dual meets with countries such as Hungary, Italy, and Poland. [19] At the age of 11, in 1973, she won the all-around gold, as well as the vault and uneven bars titles, at the Junior Friendship Tournament (Druzhba), an important international meet for junior gymnasts. [19] [20]

Comăneci's first major international success came at the age of 13, when she nearly swept the 1975 European Women's Artistic Gymnastics Championships in Skien, Norway. She won the all-around and gold medals in every event but the floor exercise, in which she placed second. She continued to enjoy success that year, winning the all-around at the "Champions All" competition, and placing first in the all-around, vault, beam, and bars at the Romanian National Championships. In the pre-Olympic test event in Montreal, Comăneci won the all-around and the balance beam golds, as well as silvers in the vault, floor, and bars. Accomplished Soviet gymnast Nellie Kim won the golds in those events and was one of Comăneci's greatest rivals during the next five years. [19]

1976

American Cup

Comaneci wearing her medals in 1976 Nadia Comaneci 1976.jpg
Comăneci wearing her medals in 1976

In March 1976, Comăneci competed in the inaugural edition of the American Cup at Madison Square Garden in Manhattan. She received rare scores of 10, which signified a perfect routine without any deductions, for her vault in the preliminary stage and for her floor exercise routine in the final of the all-around competition, which she won. [21] During this competition, Comăneci met American gymnast Bart Conner for the first time. While he remembered this meeting, Comăneci noted in her memoirs that she had to be reminded of it later in life. She was 14 and Conner was celebrating his 18th birthday. [22] They both won a silver cup and were photographed together. A few months later, they participated in the 1976 Summer Olympics that Comăneci dominated, while Conner was a marginal figure. Conner later said, "Nobody knew me, and [Comăneci] certainly didn't pay attention to me." [23]

Summer Olympics in Montreal

Comaneci at the 1976 Olympics Nadia Comaneci Montreal1976f.jpg
Comăneci at the 1976 Olympics
Nadia Comaneci in Montreal. Stamp of Romania, 1976 ROM 1976 MiNr3378 mt B002.jpg
Nadia Comăneci in Montreal. Stamp of Romania, 1976

At Montreal [Comăneci] received four of her seven 10s on the uneven bars. The apparatus demands such a spectacular burst of energy in such a short time—only 23 seconds—that it attracts the most fanfare. But it is on the beam that her work seems more representative of her unbelievable skill. She scored three of her seven 10s on the beam. Her hands speak there as much as her body. Her pace magnifies her balance. Her command and distance hush the crowd.

Sports Illustrated , 1976 [18]

On July 18, 1976, Comăneci made history at the Montreal Olympics. During the team compulsory portion of the competition, she was awarded the first perfect 10 in Olympic gymnastics for her routine on the uneven bars. [24] [25] [26] Omega SA, the official Olympics scoreboard manufacturer, had been led to believe that competitors could not receive a perfect ten, and had not programmed the scoreboard to display this score. [27] Comăneci's perfect 10 thus appeared as "1.00," the only means by which the judges could indicate that she had received a 10. [28] [26]

During the remainder of the Montreal Games, Comăneci earned six additional "10s". She won gold medals for the individual all-around, the balance beam and uneven bars. She also won a bronze for the floor exercise and a silver as part of the team all-around. [29] Soviet gymnast Nellie Kim was her main rival during the Montreal Olympics; Kim became the second gymnast to receive a perfect ten, in her case for her performance on the vault. [30] Comăneci took over the media spotlight from gymnast Olga Korbut, who had been the darling of the 1972 Munich Games.[ citation needed ]

Comăneci's achievements are pictured in the entrance area of Madison Square Garden in Manhattan, where she is shown presenting her perfect beam exercise.[ citation needed ]

Comăneci was the first Romanian gymnast to win the Olympic all-around title. She also holds the record as the youngest ever Olympic gymnastics all-around champion [14]. The sport has revised its age-eligibility requirements. Gymnasts must be at least 16 in the same calendar year of the Olympics in order to compete during the Games. When Comăneci competed in 1976, gymnasts had only to be 14 by the first day of the competition. [31] As a result of changes to age eligibility, Comăneci's record cannot be broken.[ citation needed ]

She was ranked as the BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year for 1976 [32] and the Associated Press's 1976 "Female Athlete of the Year". [33] Back home in Romania, Comăneci was awarded the Sickle and Hammer Gold Medal for her success, [34] and she was named a Hero of Socialist Labor. She was the youngest Romanian to receive such recognition during the administration of Nicolae Ceaușescu. [15]

"Nadia's Theme"

"Nadia's Theme" refers to an instrumental piece that became linked to Comăneci shortly after the 1976 Olympics. It was part of the musical score of the 1971 film Bless the Beasts and Children and originally titled "Cotton's Dream". It was also used as the title theme music for the American soap opera The Young and the Restless .

Robert Riger used it in association with slow-motion montages of Comăneci on the television program ABC's Wide World Of Sports . The song became a top-10 single in the fall of 1976, and composers Barry De Vorzon and Perry Botkin, Jr. renamed it as "Nadia's Theme" in Comăneci's honor. [35] Comăneci never performed to "Nadia's Theme", however. Her floor exercise music was a medley of the songs "Yes Sir, That's My Baby" and "Jump in the Line," arranged for piano. [18]

1977–1979

Comăneci successfully defended her European all-around title at the championship competition in 1977. When questions were raised at the competition about the scoring, Ceaușescu ordered the Romanian gymnasts to return home. The team followed orders amid controversy and walked out of the competition during the event finals. [15] [36]

Following the 1977 Europeans, the Romanian Gymnastics Federation removed Comăneci from her longtime coaches, the Károlyis, and sent her to Bucharest on August 23 to train at the sports complex. She did not find this change positive and was struggling with bodily changes as she grew older. Her gymnastics skills suffered, and she was unhappy to the point of losing the desire to live. [15] [37] After surviving a suicide attempt, [38] Comăneci competed in the 1978 World Championships in Strasbourg "seven inches taller and a stone and a half [21 pounds] heavier" than she was in the 1976 Olympics. [27] A fall from the uneven bars resulted in a fourth-place finish in the all-around behind Soviets Elena Mukhina, Nellie Kim, and Natalia Shaposhnikova. Comăneci did win the world title on beam, and a silver on vault. [27]

After the 1978 "Worlds", Comăneci was permitted to return to Deva and the Károlyis' school. [39] In 1979, Comăneci won her third consecutive European all-around title, becoming the first gymnast, male or female, to achieve this feat. At the World Championships in Fort Worth that December, Comăneci led the field after the compulsory competition. She was hospitalized before the optional portion of the team competition for blood poisoning, which had resulted from a cut in her wrist from her metal grip buckle. Against doctors' orders, she left the hospital and competed on the beam, where she scored a 9.95. Her performance helped give the Romanians their first team gold medal. After her performance, Comăneci spent several days recovering in All Saints Hospital. She had to undergo a minor surgical procedure for the infected hand, which had developed an abscess. [40] [41] [42]

1980–1984

1980 Summer Olympics

Comaneci in Moscow, 1980 Nadia Comaneci Moscow1980.jpeg
Comăneci in Moscow, 1980

Comăneci was chosen to participate in the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow. As a result of the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan, President Jimmy Carter declared that the United States would boycott the Olympics (several other countries also participated in the boycott, though their reasons varied). According to Comăneci, the Romanian government "touted the 1980 Olympic games as the first all-Communist Games." However, she also noted in her memoir, "in Moscow, we walked into the mouth of a lion's den; it was the Russians' home turf." [43] She won two gold medals, one for the balance beam and one for the floor exercise (in which she tied with Soviet gymnast Nellie Kim, against whom she had also competed in the 1976 Montreal Olympics and other events). She also won two silver medals, one for the team all-around and one for individual all-around. Controversies arose concerning the scoring in the all-around and floor exercise competitions. [27] As of the 2020 Summer Games, she is the only gymnast to defend her Olympic gold medal in the balance beam apparatus.

Her coach, Bela Károlyi, protested that she was scored unfairly. His protests were captured on television. According to Comăneci's memoir, the Romanian government was upset about Károlyi's public behavior, feeling that he had humiliated them. Life became very difficult for Károlyi from that point on. [44]

"Nadia '81"

Comaneci on the balance beam, 1980 Nadia Comaneci Moscow1980c.jpg
Comăneci on the balance beam, 1980

In 1981, the Gymnastics Federation contacted Comăneci and informed her that she would be part of an official tour of the United States named "Nadia '81" and her coaches Béla and Márta Károlyi would lead the group. During this tour, Comăneci's team shared a bus trip with American gymnasts; it was the third time she had encountered Bart Conner. They had earlier met in 1976. She later remembered thinking, "Conner was cute. He bounced around the bus talking to everyone—he was incredibly friendly and fun." [45]

Her coaches Béla and Márta Károlyi defected on the last day of the tour, along with the Romanian team choreographer Géza Pozsár. Prior to defecting, Károlyi hinted a few times to Comăneci that he might attempt to do so and indirectly asked if she wanted to join him. At that time, she had no interest in defecting, and said she wanted to go home to Romania. After the defection of the Károlyis, life changed drastically for Comăneci in Romania, as she could not have predicted. Officials feared that she would also defect. Feeling she was a national asset, they strictly monitored her actions, refusing to allow her to travel outside the country.[ citation needed ]

1984 Summer Olympics

The government did allow Comăneci to participate in the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles as part of the Romanian delegation. Although a number of Communist nations boycotted the 1984 Summer Olympics in a tit-for-tat against the U.S.-led boycott of the Olympics in Moscow four years before, Romania chose to participate. Comăneci later wrote in her memoir that many believed Romania went to the Olympics because an agreement had been made with the United States not to accept defectors. But Comăneci did not participate in the Games as a member of the Romanian team; she served as an observer. She was able to see Károlyi's new protégé, American gymnast Mary Lou Retton, who dominated the Olympics. The Romanian delegation did not allow her to talk with Károlyi and closely watched her the entire time. [46]

1984–1990

A 2016 Romanian postage stamp showing Comaneci on the balance beam at the 1979 European Gymnastics Championships Nadia Comaneci 2016 stamp of Romania.jpg
A 2016 Romanian postage stamp showing Comăneci on the balance beam at the 1979 European Gymnastics Championships

The Romanian government continued to restrict Comăneci from leaving Romania, aside from a few select trips to Moscow and Cuba. She had started thinking about retiring a few years earlier, but her official retirement ceremony took place in Bucharest in 1984. It was attended by the chairman of the International Olympic Committee. [28]

Comăneci later wrote in her memoir:

Life took on a new bleakness. I was cut off from making the small amount of extra money that had really made a difference in my family's life. It was also insulting that a normal person in Romania had the chance to travel, whereas I could not…. when my gymnastics career was over, there was no longer any need to keep me happy. I was to do as I was instructed, just as I'd done my entire life…. If Bela hadn't defected, I would still have been watched, but his defection brought a spotlight on my life, and it was blinding. I started to feel like a prisoner. [47]

On the night of November 27, 1989, a few weeks before the Romanian Revolution, Comăneci defected with a group of other Romanians, crossing the Hungary–Romania border around Cenad. They were guided by Constantin Panait, a Romanian who later became an American citizen after defecting. Their journey was mostly on foot and at night. They traveled through Hungary and Austria and finally were able to take a plane to the United States. [15] [29] [48] [49]

1990–present

Comaneci and her husband Bart Conner meeting First Lady Michelle Obama, 2009 P093009CK-0293 (3969427553).jpg
Comăneci and her husband Bart Conner meeting First Lady Michelle Obama, 2009

Comăneci moved to Oklahoma in 1991 to help her friend Bart Conner, another Olympic gold medalist, with his gymnastics school. She lived with the family of Paul Ziert and eventually hired him as her manager. [50] Comăneci and Conner initially were just friends. They were together for four years before they became engaged. [51]

She returned to Romania for their 1996 wedding, which was held in Bucharest. This was after the fall of the Communist regime and the establishment of a democratic Romania; the government welcomed her as a national hero. The wedding was televised live throughout Romania, and the couple's reception was held in the former presidential palace. [29] [52]

On May 18th 1997, Nadia Comaneci and Bart Conner guest-starred on the Season 3 finale of Touched by an Angel where they performed a brief floor exercise within a montage scene. [53]

Comăneci became a naturalized US citizen in 2001, while retaining her Romanian citizenship. [54] In 2006, the couple's son Dylan was born. [55] [56]

She was the featured speaker at the 50th annual Independence Day Naturalization Ceremony on July 4, 2012, at Monticello, the first athlete invited to speak in the history of the ceremony. [57] In October 2017, an area in the Olympic Park in Montreal was renamed "Place Nadia Comaneci" in her honor. [58] [59]

Leadership roles

Comaneci at the BRD Nastase Tiriac Trophy, April 2012 Nadia Comaneci at the 2012 BRD Nastase Tiriac Trophy.jpg
Comăneci at the BRD Năstase Țiriac Trophy, April 2012

Comăneci is a well-known figure in the world of gymnastics; she serves as the honorary president of the Romanian Gymnastics Federation, the honorary president of the Romanian Olympic Committee, the sports ambassador of Romania, and as a member of the International Gymnastics Federation Foundation. She and Conner own the Bart Conner Gymnastics Academy, the Perfect 10 Production Company, and several sports equipment shops, and are the editors of International Gymnast Magazine .[ citation needed ]

She is also still involved with the Olympic Games. During the 2004 Summer Olympics in Athens, one of her perfect-10 Montreal uneven bars routines was featured in a commercial for Adidas. [60] In addition, both Comăneci and her husband Bart Conner provided television commentary for the 2008 Summer Olympics in Beijing. [61] A few years later, on July 21, 2012, Comăneci, along with former basketball star John Amaechi, carried the Olympic torch to the roof of the O2 Arena as part of the torch relay for the 2012 Summer Olympics in London. [62] Prior to the 2016 Summer Olympics in Rio de Janeiro, Comăneci appeared in a TIDE advertisement called "The Evolution of Power" with Simone Biles and three-time Olympic gymnast Dominique Dawes. [63] [64] She also offered daily analysis of the 2016 games (along with other Olympic champions such as Mark Spitz, Carl Lewis, and Conner), for the late-night show É Campeão, broadcast on Brazil's SporTV. [65]

In addition, Comăneci is highly involved in fundraising for a number of charities. She personally funded the construction and operation of the Nadia Comăneci Children's Clinic in Bucharest that provides low-cost and free medical and social support to Romanian children. [28] In 2003, the Romanian government appointed her as an honorary consul general of Romania to the United States to deal with bilateral relations between the two nations. [66] In addition, both Comăneci and Conner are involved with the Special Olympics. [67] [68]

To raise money for charity, Comăneci participated in Donald Trump's reality show, The Celebrity Apprentice, season seven. Comăneci was a member of "The Empresario" team (all women), which lost to "The Hydra" team (all men) in the second episode. Trump responded to this loss by firing Comăneci, [69] thwarting her plan for raising money. [70] Comăneci later commented on her participation in the show, saying, "[she] had great fun. I only did it because it was all for charity." [71]

Honors and awards

Special skills

Comăneci was known for her clean technique, innovative and difficult original skills, and her stoic, cool demeanor in competition. [18] [83] [84] On the balance beam, she was the first gymnast to successfully perform an aerial cartwheel-back handspring series. She is also credited as being the first gymnast to perform a double-twist dismount. [18] [83] Her skills on the floor exercise included a tucked double back salto and a double twist. [83]

Book and films

See also

Related Research Articles

Ludmilla Tourischeva Russian gymnast

Ludmilla Ivanovna Tourischeva is a former Russian gymnast, Ukrainian gymnast coach, and a nine-time Olympic medalist for the Soviet Union.

Yelena Viktorovna Davydova is a Russian-Canadian gymnastics coach and judge who competed for the former Soviet Union. She was the women's artistic individual all-around champion at the 1980 Summer Olympics in Moscow, and owns Gemini Gymnastics, a high performance Canadian gymnastics club in Oshawa, Ontario, where she is also the head coach. In July 2012, Davydova was one of the coaches of the Canadian Women's Artistic Gymnastics Team. Kristina Vaculik, coached by Davydova, was a member of the team, which placed fifth over-all in the team event, the best placement for a Canadian gymnastics team in Olympic history. In 2016, Davydova completed the circle, representing Canada as head floor judge at the 2016 Rio Olympics. Davydova was known for her cutting-edge difficulty, innovation and charming performances.

Mary Lou Retton 1984 Olympic Gymnastics all-around champion

Mary Lou Retton is an American retired gymnast. At the 1984 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles, she won a gold medal in the individual all-around competition, as well as two silver medals and two bronze medals. Her performance made her one of the most popular athletes in the United States.

Artistic gymnastics is a discipline of gymnastics in which athletes perform short routines on different apparatuses. The sport is governed by the Fédération Internationale de Gymnastique (FIG), which designs the Code of Points and regulates all aspects of elite international competition. Within individual countries, gymnastics is regulated by national federations like British Gymnastics and USA Gymnastics. Artistic gymnastics is a popular spectator sport at many competitions, including the Summer Olympic Games.

Béla Károlyi Romanian-American gymnastics coach

Béla Károlyi is an ethnic Hungarian Romanian-American gymnastics coach. Early in his coaching career he developed the Romanian centralised training system for gymnastics. One of his earliest protégés was Nadia Comăneci, the first Olympic Games gymnast to be awarded a perfect score. Living under the dictatorship of Nicolae Ceausescu, Károlyi frequently clashed with Romanian officials. He and his wife defected to the United States in 1981.

Nellie Kim Soviet gymnast

Nellie Vladimirovna Kim is a retired Soviet gymnast of Sakhlin Korean and Tatar descent who won three gold medals and a silver medal at the 1976 Summer Olympics in Montreal, and two gold medals at the 1980 Summer Olympics. She was the second woman in Olympic history to earn a perfect 10 score and the first woman to score it on the vault and on the floor exercise, rivaling Nadia Comăneci, Ludmilla Tourischeva, and other strong competitors of the 1970s. Kim worked for a long time as a coach, training several national teams, and judged many major international competitions. As President of the Women's Artistic Gymnastics Technical Committee, she coordinates the introduction of new rules in women's gymnastics, as provided by the new Code of Points, developed by the FIG in 2004–2005 and in effect since 2006. Her gymnastic appearances are remembered for "her strong feminine, temperamental and charismatic appeal".

Lavinia Miloșovici Romanian artistic gymnast

Lavinia Corina Miloșovici is a retired Romanian artistic gymnast. An exceptionally successful athlete on the international competition circuit, Miloșovici, also known as "Milo" in the gymnastics community, is considered to be one of Romania's top gymnasts ever and one of the most prolific female all-around medalists ever, earning a total 19 World Championships or Olympic medals in a span of six years. She medalled in every single World Championships meet, Olympic Games and European Championships between 1991 and 1996, and is only the third female gymnast ever, after Larisa Latynina and Věra Čáslavská, to win at least one World Championships or Olympic title on all four events. Miloșovici was also the last gymnast along with Lu Li to ever receive the perfect mark of 10.0 in an Olympic competition and the last to receive the benchmark score of 9.95 at the World Championships. She was inducted into the International Gymnastics Hall of Fame in 2011. Her trademarks included her four-event mastery, consistency, longevity, versatile skill set, and leadership abilities.

Daniela Silivaș Romanian artistic gymnast

Daniela Viorica Silivaș-Harper, best known as Daniela Silivaș, is a Romanian former artistic gymnast who is most famous to medal in every single event at one Olympics, winning six medals at the 1988 Summer Olympics in Seoul. In doing so, she was the fourth female gymnast to achieve this, after Maria Gorokhovskaya (1952), Larisa Latynina and Věra Čáslavská (1968). As of 2021, Daniela Silivaș is the only one athlete, male or female, having accomplished this feat, in the Modern Era of Artistic Gymnastics, in a non-boycotted Olympics. In her five-year tenure as a member of the Romanian senior national team, Silivaș earned six individual World Championships titles as well as the 1987 European Championships all-around title. In her career, she earned 24 perfect 10 scores, from which 7 were earned in Seoul, equalizing 1976 Nadia Comăneci`s record.

Bart Conner American gymnast

Bart Wayne Conner is a retired American Olympic gymnast. As a member of the US men's gymnastics team at the 1984 Summer Olympic Games, Conner won two gold medals. He currently owns and operates the Bart Conner Gymnastics Academy in Norman, Oklahoma, along with his wife, Romanian Olympic gold medalist Nadia Comăneci. In addition, both Comăneci and Conner are highly involved with the Special Olympics.

Ecaterina Szabo Romanian artistic gymnast

Ecaterina Szabo is a former Romanian artistic gymnast who won 20 Olympic, world and continental medals.

Márta Károlyi

Márta Károlyi is a Hungarian-born Romanian-American gymnastics coach and the former national team coordinator for USA Gymnastics. She and her husband, Béla, are ethnic Hungarians from Transylvania, Romania, who trained athletes in Romania before defecting to the United States in 1981. Béla and Márta Károlyi have trained nine Olympic champions, fifteen world champions, sixteen European medalists and many U.S. national champions, including Mary Lou Retton, Betty Okino, Kerri Strug, Teodora Ungureanu, Phoebe Mills, Nadia Comăneci, Kim Zmeskal, and Dominique Moceanu.

Teodora Ungureanu Romanian gymnast

Teodora Ungureanu is a Romanian former gymnast who competed at the 1976 Summer Olympics. She is a three-time Olympic medalist and a world championships silver medalist. After retiring from gymnastics she has enjoyed a successful career as a gymnastics coach.

Nadia is a 1984 made-for-television biopic directed by Alan Cooke about Olympic gymnast Nadia Comăneci. Comăneci herself had nothing to do with the production of the film. She stated at the time of its release that those involved with the film never made contact with her: "I sincerely don't even want to see it, I feel so badly about it. It distorts my life so totally.

Emilia Eberle Romanian gymnast

Gertrúd Emilia Eberle is a retired Romanian gymnast of German-Hungarian descent.

Melita Ruhn Romanian artistic gymnast

Melita Ruhn is a retired Romanian artistic gymnast who represented Romania at the 1980 Summer Olympics. She belongs to the German minority in Romania. She won three Olympic medals for Romania and scored a perfect ten for the vault optionals in the team competition of the 1980 Olympic Games. In 1979 she was a member of the first world gold medal winning team of Romania. She is also an all around and floor world bronze medalist.

Cristina Elena Grigoraș Romanian gymnast

Cristina Elena Grigoraş is a retired Romanian artistic gymnast. She is a two-time Olympic medalist with the team. Individually, she won four medals at the 1981 European Championships. She is best known for a skill on the balance beam named after her: forward salto tucked with ½ twist (180°) take off from both legs.

Perfect 10 (gymnastics) Gymnastics scoring on 10 point scale, until changed in 2006

A perfect 10 is a score of 10.000 for a single routine in artistic gymnastics, which was once thought to be unattainable—particularly at the Olympic Games—under the code of points set by the International Gymnastics Federation (FIG). It is generally recognized that the first person to score a perfect 10 at the Olympic Games was Romanian Nadia Comăneci, at the 1976 Games in Montreal. Other women who accomplished this feat at the Olympics include Nellie Kim, also in 1976, Mary Lou Retton in 1984, Daniela Silivaș and Yelena Shushunova in 1988, and Lavinia Miloșovici in 1992. The first man to score a perfect 10 is considered to be Alexander Dityatin, at the 1980 Olympics in Moscow.

The Romania women's national artistic gymnastics team represents Romania in FIG international competitions.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 Evans, Hilary; Gjerde, Arild; Heijmans, Jeroen; Mallon, Bill; et al. "Nadia Comăneci". Olympics at Sports-Reference.com. Sports Reference LLC. Archived from the original on April 17, 2020.
  2. Carlson, Jenni (July 31, 2013). "Nadia Comaneci feels at home in Oklahoma". The Oklahoman. Retrieved March 15, 2014.
  3. "Comaneci". Collins English Dictionary . HarperCollins . Retrieved July 27, 2021.
  4. "Comaneci, Nadia" (US) and "Comaneci, Nadia". Oxford Dictionaries UK Dictionary. Oxford University Press . Retrieved May 20, 2019.
  5. Gymnast Nadia Comăneci Became the Queen of the 1976 Montreal Games when she was Awarded the First Perfect Score.
  6. The Columbia Electronic Encyclopedia, 6th ed. (2007). "Gymnastics". infoplease.com. Retrieved September 6, 2007.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
  7. "Nadia Comăneci". CNN. July 7, 2008.
  8. Lafon, Lola. "The Little Communist Who Never Smiled". Serpent's Tail/Profile Books . Retrieved August 27, 2016.
  9. "Gymnastics legend Nadia Comaneci wants to remind everyone she's from Romania". New York Daily News . August 6, 2016. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  10. "Olympic Champion Nadia Comaneci". www.gymn-forum.net.
  11. "Nadia Comăneci despre moartea tatălui său: "Este un moment deosebit de greu"".
  12. Comăneci, p. 5.
  13. "Ştefania Comăneci, mama Nadiei: "Sunt mândră de ea!" | Alte sporturi, Sport". Libertatea. November 11, 2011.
  14. Comăneci, pp. 94 and 121.
  15. 1 2 3 4 5 Fisher, Barbara; Isbister, Jennifer (November 15, 2003). "Nadia Comaneci, a living legend..." Gymnastics Greats. Gymn.ca. Archived from the original on May 28, 2010. Retrieved October 20, 2014.CS1 maint: multiple names: authors list (link)
  16. Comăneci
  17. Comăneci, pp. 17–19.
  18. 1 2 3 4 5 Deford, Frank. "Nadia Awed Ya". Sports Illustrated. August 2, 1976.
  19. 1 2 3 List of competitive results Gymn-Forum
  20. Comăneci, pp. 27–28.
  21. "Gymnast Posts Perfect Mark" Robin Herman, New York Times, March 28, 1976.
  22. Comăneci, p. 53.
  23. "The Adorable Way This Olympic Couple First Met". Oprah: Where Are They Now?. 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  24. "Nadia Comaneci's perfect 10 | Epic Olympic Moments". December 10, 2015 via YouTube.
  25. "Biography: COMANECI, Nadia". U.S. Gymnastics Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 17, 2011.
  26. 1 2 Cousineau, Phil (2003). The Olympic Odyssey: Rekindling the True Spirit of the Great Games. Quest Books. pp.  160–161. ISBN   0835608336.
  27. 1 2 3 4 "50 stunning Olympic moments No5: Nadia Comaneci scores a perfect 10". The Guardian. December 14, 2011. Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  28. 1 2 3 Ziert, Paul (2005). "Still A Perfect 10" (PDF). Olympic Review. Archived from the original (PDF) on June 27, 2008. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
  29. 1 2 3 Legends: Nadia Comăneci International Gymnast magazine
  30. "Nellie Kim (URS)". Archived from the original on February 27, 2011.
  31. "Within the International Federations" (PDF). Olympic Review. 1980. Archived from the original (PDF) on August 8, 2010. Retrieved June 13, 2013.
  32. Dodd, Marc (August 1, 2008). "Top Five: Teenage Sensations". Metro . Retrieved January 11, 2009.
  33. "Associated Press Athletes of the Year". MSN.com. Archived from the original on April 7, 2009.
  34. "Decretul nr. 250/1976 privind conferirea de distinctii ale Republicii Socialiste Romania unor sportivi, antrenori si activisti din domeniul educatiei fizice si sportului" (in Romanian). Archived from the original on April 11, 2019. Retrieved April 6, 2014.
  35. "Nadia Comăneci: The Perfect 10" International Olympic Committee (IOC) website
  36. Comăneci, pp. 61–62.
  37. Comăneci, pp. 64–68.
  38. "Comaneci Confirms Suicide Attempt, Magazine Says". Los Angeles Times. February 19, 1990.
  39. Comăneci, pp. 68–72.
  40. "Nadia." The Epistle, (All Saints Episcopal Hospital), January 1980.
  41. Comăneci, pp. 87–91.
  42. Little Girls in Pretty Boxes. Ryan, Joan. 1995, Doubleday. ISBN   0-385-47790-2.
  43. Comăneci, p. 98.
  44. Comăneci, pp. 99–105.
  45. Comăneci, pp. 111–112.
  46. Comăneci, pp. 125–6.
  47. Comăneci, p. 121.
  48. Comăneci, pp. 137–148.
  49. "Cum a fugit Nadia Comăneci din România". Gazeta Sporturilor. April 12, 2021. Retrieved May 14, 2021.
  50. Comăneci, pp. 160–162.
  51. Comăneci, pp. 162–164.
  52. "Nadia Tumbles over Wedding" Cincinnati Post, April 6, 1996.
  53. imdb.com Touched by an Angel Season 3 Episode 28 A Delicate Balance
  54. "Nadia Comaneci on Winning Carnegie's Great Immigrant Award". Oprah.com. July 14, 2016. Retrieved March 20, 2018.
  55. "Nadia Comăneci, Bart Conner Have a Boy, People, June 6, 2006.
  56. "Former Gymnasts Nadia Comăneci and Bart Conner Baptized Their First Child, Dylan Paul" Archived July 26, 2014, at the Wayback Machine , Catalina Iancu, Jurnalul National, August 28, 2006.
  57. "Olympic champion Nadia Comăneci to be featured July 4 speaker at Monticello". monticello.org. May 11, 2012. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  58. Amadon, Brett (October 4, 2017). "Nadia Comaneci honored with public space next to Montreal's Olympic Stadium". Excelle Sports. Archived from the original on October 17, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  59. "Montreal Olympic Park unveils plaza honouring gymnast Nadia Comaneci". Montreal Gazette . October 4, 2017. Retrieved October 12, 2017.
  60. "2004 Athens Games: Advertising". SFGate . August 12, 2004. Retrieved April 21, 2013.
  61. Roenigk, Alyssa (August 17, 2008). "The First Family of Gymnastics". ESPN The Magazine. Retrieved August 21, 2008.
  62. "London 2012 Olympics: The torch begins its journey across London". The Daily Telegraph . July 21, 2012. Retrieved March 15, 2013.
  63. "Dominique Dawes Predicts How Many Golds for Simone Biles?". June 30, 2016.
  64. "Olympic Gymnasts Simone Biles, Dominique Dawes, And Nadia Comaneci Partner In 'The Evolution of Power' Video". HuffPost. July 14, 2016.
  65. Staff, S. V. G. "Rio 2016: Globosat's SporTV Captivates Olympic Fans in Brazil". Sports Video Group.
  66. Honorary Consulates of Romania in the US Retrieved July 31, 2012.
  67. "Nadia Comaneci, Global Ambassador". Archived from the original on December 9, 2014. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  68. "On Mats, Bars and Boards, Bart Conner and Nadia Comaneci Lead by Example". Archived from the original on September 11, 2017. Retrieved October 16, 2016.
  69. "Celebrity Apprentice: Ivanka Trump vs. Gene Simmons". PEOPLE.com.
  70. Oct 20, foxsports; ET, 2016 at 4:59p. "Sports stars on reality TV". FOX Sports.
  71. "Nadia travels from "10" to Trump". January 10, 2008.
  72. Gerry, Brown; Morrison, Michael, eds. (2003). ESPN Information Please Sports Almanac. New York City: ESPN Books and Hyperion (joint). ISBN   0-7868-8715-X.[ page needed ]
  73. Laszlo, Erika (November 29, 1989). "Comaneci, darling of '76 Olympics, defects". United Press International . Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  74. "Simone Biles chosen as AP's Female Athlete of the Year". CBS News . December 26, 2016. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  75. Dodd, Marc (August 1, 2008). "Top Five: Teenage Sensations". Metro . Retrieved January 11, 2009.
  76. "Olympic Awards presented at the 87th IOC Session" (PDF), Olympic Review '84, International Olympic Committee, retrieved May 15, 2015 via LA84 Foundation
  77. "International Women's Sports Hall of Fame". Women's Sports Foundation. Archived from the original on March 5, 2017. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  78. "Inductees". International Gymnastics Hall of Fame. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  79. "MARCA Leyenda". Marca . Archived from the original on July 17, 2018. Retrieved July 16, 2018.
  80. Leibowitz, Elissa (February 6, 1998). "Comaneci Vaults Back Into the Spotlight; Olympic Gymnast Receives Women's Sports Foundation Award". The Washington Post. p. C2. Retrieved March 9, 2011.(subscription required)
  81. "A new trophy for Nadia Comaneci". International Olympic Committee. March 29, 2004. Archived from the original on April 2, 2015. Retrieved December 19, 2011.
  82. 2016 Great Immigrants Honorees: The Pride of America
  83. 1 2 3 "A Great Leap Backward" Anita Verschoth, Sports Illustrated, April 12, 1976.
  84. "The Games: Up in the Air" Time, August 2, 1976.
  85. Comăneci, p. 1.
  86. Comăneci, p. 15.
  87. Comăneci
  88. Letters to a Young Gymnast. basicbooks.com
  89. "Eternal Princess". Archived from the original on September 16, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  90. "Short Film Eternal Princess, Directed by Katie Holmes, Debuts on espnW". Archived from the original on September 10, 2016. Retrieved August 19, 2016.
  91. "Nadia Comaneci, la gymnaste et le dictateur". ARTE Boutique – Films et séries en VOD, DVD, location VOD, documentaires, spectacles, Blu-ray, livres et BD.
  92. 1 2 Lindsey, Robert (July 29, 1984). "Nadia Comaneci Still Glows as Images of 1976 Recede". New York Times . Retrieved September 4, 2016.
  93. Gloria Sauciuc- Cinemagia- 20 ani de magie de la primul film dublat în limba română

Cited sources

Further reading

Video clips:

Awards and achievements
Preceded by
United Press International
Athlete of the Year

1975, 1976
Succeeded by
Preceded by
BBC Overseas Sports Personality of the Year
1976
Succeeded by
Preceded by
Flo Hyman Memorial Award
1998
Succeeded by