Nagasaki

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Nagasaki

長崎市
Nagasaki City
Inasamachi, Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture 852-8011, Japan - panoramio.jpg
Nagasaki City Office Main Building 2008.jpg
Former the archbishop hall of the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Nagasaki01s3.jpg
Nagasaki City view from Hamahira01s3.jpg
Nagasaki Shianbashi bar street night view.jpg
Flag of Nagasaki, Nagasaki.svg
Flag
Nagasaki Nagasaki chapter.svg
Seal
Nickname(s): 

City of Peace
Naples of the Orient
Nagasaki in Nagasaki Prefecture Ja.svg
Map of Nagasaki Prefecture with Nagasaki highlighted in pink
Japan location map with side map of the Ryukyu Islands.svg
Red pog.svg
Nagasaki
 
Asia laea location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Nagasaki
Nagasaki (Asia)
World location map (equirectangular 180).svg
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Nagasaki
Nagasaki (Earth)
Coordinates: 32°47′N129°52′E / 32.783°N 129.867°E / 32.783; 129.867 Coordinates: 32°47′N129°52′E / 32.783°N 129.867°E / 32.783; 129.867
CountryJapan
Region Kyushu
Prefecture Nagasaki Prefecture
Government
  Mayor Tomihisa Taue (2007-)
Area
  Total406.35 km2 (156.89 sq mi)
  Land241.20 km2 (93.13 sq mi)
  Water165.15 km2 (63.76 sq mi)
Population
 (March 1, 2017)
  Total425,723
  Density1,000/km2 (2,700/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+9 (Japan Standard Time)
- Tree Chinese tallow tree
- Flower Hydrangea
Phone number095-825-5151
Address2-22 Sakura-machi, Nagasaki-shi, Nagasaki-ken
850-8685
Website www.city.nagasaki.lg.jp
Nagasaki
Nagasaki (Chinese characters).svg
Nagasaki in kanji
Japanese name
Kanji 長崎

Nagasaki(Japanese:長崎市, Hepburn:Nagasaki-shi, pronounced  [naɡaꜜsaki] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); meaning "long cape") is the capital and the largest city of Nagasaki Prefecture on the island of Kyushu in Japan. It became a centre of colonial Portuguese and Dutch influence in the 16th through 19th centuries, and the Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region have been recognized and included in the UNESCO World Heritage List. Part of Nagasaki was home to a major Imperial Japanese Navy base during the First Sino-Japanese War and Russo-Japanese War.

Japanese is an East Asian language spoken by about 128 million people, primarily in Japan, where it is the national language. It is a member of the Japonic language family, and its relation to other languages, such as Korean, is debated. Japanese has been grouped with language families such as Ainu, Austroasiatic, and the now-discredited Altaic, but none of these proposals has gained widespread acceptance.

Hepburn romanization is a system for the romanization of Japanese that uses the Latin alphabet to write the Japanese language. It is used by most foreigners learning to spell Japanese in the Latin alphabet and by the Japanese for romanizing personal names, geographical locations, and other information such as train tables, road signs, and official communications with foreign countries. Largely based on English writing conventions, consonants closely correspond to the English pronunciation and vowels approximate the Italian pronunciation.

Cities of Japan administrative division of Japan

A city is a local administrative unit in Japan. Cities are ranked on the same level as towns and villages, with the difference that they are not a component of districts. Like other contemporary administrative units, they are defined by the Local Autonomy Law of 1947.

Contents

During World War II, the American atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki made Nagasaki the second and, to date, last city in the world to experience a nuclear attack (at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945 'Japan Standard Time (UTC+9)'). [1]

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Atomic bombings of Hiroshima and Nagasaki the use of atomic weapons by the United States on Japan towards the end of World War II

During the final stage of World War II, the United States detonated two nuclear weapons over the Japanese cities of Hiroshima and Nagasaki on August 6 and 9, 1945, respectively, with the consent of the United Kingdom, as required by the Quebec Agreement. The two bombings killed 129,000–226,000 people, most of whom were civilians, and remain the only use of nuclear weapons in the history of armed conflict.

As of 1 March 2017, the city has an estimated population of 425,723 and a population density of 1,000 people per km2. The total area is 406.35 km2 (156.89 sq mi). [2]

History

Christian Nagasaki

Nagasaki was a small fishing village set in a secluded harbor and had little historical significance until contact with Portuguese explorers in 1543. An early visitor was Fernão Mendes Pinto, who came from Sagres on a Portuguese ship which landed nearby in Tanegashima.

Fernão Mendes Pinto Portuguese explorer and writer

Fernão Mendes Pinto was a Portuguese explorer and writer. His voyages are recorded in Pilgrimage (1614), his autobiographical memoir. The historical accuracy of the work is debatable due to the many events which seem far fetched or at least exaggerated, earning him the nickname "Fernão Mentes Minto". Some aspects of the work can be verified, particularly through Pinto's service to the Portuguese Crown and by his association with Jesuit missionaries.

Vila do Bispo Municipality in Algarve, Portugal

Vila do Bispo is a municipality (concelho) in the Portuguese Algarve. The population in 2011 was 5,258, in an area of 179.06 km2.

Tanegashima island in Kagoshima, Japan

Tanegashima (種子島) is one of the Ōsumi Islands belonging to Kagoshima Prefecture, Japan. The island, 444.99 km² in area, is the second largest of the Ōsumi Islands, and has a population of 33,000 persons. Access to the island is by ferry, or by air to New Tanegashima Airport. Administratively, the island is divided into the city, Nishinoomote, and the two towns, Nakatane and Minamitane. The towns belong to Kumage District.

Portuguese (green) and Spanish (yellow) trade routes to Macao and Nagasaki Macau Trade Routes.png
Portuguese (green) and Spanish (yellow) trade routes to Macao and Nagasaki

Soon after, Portuguese ships started sailing to Japan as regular trade freighters, thus increasing the contact and trade relations between Japan and the rest of the world, and particularly with mainland China, with whom Japan had previously severed its commercial and political ties, mainly due to a number of incidents involving Wokou piracy in the South China Sea, with the Portuguese now serving as intermediaries between the two Asian countries.

Nanban trade Period in Japanese history

The Nanban trade or the Nanban trade period in the history of Japan extends from the arrival of the first Europeans – Portuguese explorers, missionaries and merchants – to Japan in 1543, to their near-total exclusion from the archipelago in 1614, under the promulgation of the "Sakoku" Seclusion Edicts.

<i>Wokou</i> pirates who raided the coastlines of China, Japan and Korea, of mixed ethnicities

Wokou were pirates who raided the coastlines of China and Korea from the 4th century to the 16th century. The wokou came from Japanese, Korean, and Chinese ethnicities which varied over time and raided the mainland from islands in the Sea of Japan and East China Sea. Wokou activity in Korea declined after the Gihae Eastern Expedition of the Joseon in 1419, but continued in Ming China and peaked during the Jiajing wokou raids in the mid-1500s, but Chinese reprisals and strong clamp downs on pirates by Japanese authorities saw the wokou virtually disappear by the 1600s.

South China Sea A marginal sea of the Pacific Ocean from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan

The West Philippine Sea is a marginal sea that is part of the Pacific Ocean, encompassing an area from the Karimata and Malacca Straits to the Strait of Taiwan of around 3,500,000 square kilometres (1,400,000 sq mi). The sea carries tremendous strategic importance; one-third of the world's shipping passes through it, carrying over $3 trillion in trade each year, it contains lucrative fisheries, which are crucial for the food security of millions in Southeast Asia. Huge oil and gas reserves are believed to lie beneath its seabed.

Despite the mutual advantages derived from these trading contacts, which would soon be acknowledged by all parties involved, the lack of a proper seaport in Kyūshū for the purpose of harboring foreign ships posed a major problem for both merchants and the Kyushu daimyōs (feudal lords) who expected to collect great advantages from the trade with the Portuguese.

<i>Daimyō</i> powerful territorial lord in pre-modern Japan

The daimyō were powerful Japanese feudal lords who, until their decline in the early Meiji period, ruled most of Japan from their vast, hereditary land holdings. In the term, dai (大) means "large", and myō stands for myōden(名田), meaning private land.

In the meantime, Spanish Jesuit missionary St. Francis Xavier arrived in Kagoshima, South Kyūshū, in 1549, and soon initiated a thorough campaign of evangelization throughout Japan, and left for China in 1552 and died soon afterwards. His followers who remained behind converted a number of daimyōs. The most notable among them was Ōmura Sumitada. In 1569, Ōmura granted a permit for the establishment of a port with the purpose of harboring Portuguese ships in Nagasaki, which was finally set up in 1571, under the supervision of the Jesuit missionary Gaspar Vilela and Portuguese Captain-Major Tristão Vaz de Veiga, with Ōmura's personal assistance. [3]

The little harbor village quickly grew into a diverse port city, [4] and Portuguese products imported through Nagasaki (such as tobacco, bread, textiles and a Portuguese sponge-cake called castellas ) were assimilated into popular Japanese culture. Tempura derived from a popular Portuguese recipe originally known as peixinho-da-horta, and takes its name from the Portuguese word, 'tempero,' seasoning, and refers to the tempora quadragesima, forty days of Lent during which eating meat was forbidden, another example of the enduring effects of this cultural exchange. The Portuguese also brought with them many goods from China.

Due to the instability during the Sengoku period, Sumitada and Jesuit leader Alexandro Valignano conceived a plan to pass administrative control over to the Society of Jesus rather than see the Catholic city taken over by a non-Catholic daimyō. Thus, for a brief period after 1580, the city of Nagasaki was a Jesuit colony, under their administrative and military control. It became a refuge for Christians escaping maltreatment in other regions of Japan. [5] In 1587, however, Toyotomi Hideyoshi's campaign to unify the country arrived in Kyūshū. Concerned with the large Christian influence in southern Japan, as well as the active and what was perceived as the arrogant role the Jesuits were playing in the Japanese political arena, Hideyoshi ordered the expulsion of all missionaries, and placed the city under his direct control. However, the expulsion order went largely unenforced, and the fact remained that most of Nagasaki's population remained openly practicing Catholic.

In 1596, the Spanish ship San Felipe was wrecked off the coast of Shikoku, and Hideyoshi learned from its pilot [6] that the Spanish Franciscans were the vanguard of an Iberian invasion of Japan. In response, Hideyoshi ordered the crucifixions of twenty-six Catholics in Nagasaki on February 5 of the next year (i.e. the "Twenty-six Martyrs of Japan"). Portuguese traders were not ostracized, however, and so the city continued to thrive.

Some of Nagasaki's stone bridges over the Nakashima River in the 1870s C1870`s Nagasaki Nakashima River - UCHIDA KUICHI.png
Some of Nagasaki's stone bridges over the Nakashima River in the 1870s

In 1602, Augustinian missionaries also arrived in Japan, and when Tokugawa Ieyasu took power in 1603, Catholicism was still tolerated. Many Catholic daimyōs had been critical allies at the Battle of Sekigahara, and the Tokugawa position was not strong enough to move against them. Once Osaka Castle had been taken and Toyotomi Hideyoshi's offspring killed, though, the Tokugawa dominance was assured. In addition, the Dutch and English presence allowed trade without religious strings attached. Thus, in 1614, Catholicism was officially banned and all missionaries ordered to leave. Most Catholic daimyo apostatized, and forced their subjects to do so, although a few would not renounce the religion and left the country for Macau, Luzon and Japantowns in Southeast Asia. A brutal campaign of persecution followed, with thousands of converts across Kyūshū and other parts of Japan killed, tortured, or forced to renounce their religion (see Martyrs of Japan).

Catholicism's last gasp as an open religion and the last major military action in Japan until the Meiji Restoration was the Shimabara Rebellion of 1637. While there is no evidence that Europeans directly incited the rebellion, Shimabara Domain had been a Christian han for several decades, and the rebels adopted many Portuguese motifs and Christian icons. Consequently, in Tokugawa society the word "Shimabara" solidified the connection between Christianity and disloyalty, constantly used again and again in Tokugawa propaganda.[ citation needed ] The Shimabara Rebellion also convinced many policy-makers that foreign influences were more trouble than they were worth, leading to the national isolation policy. The Portuguese, who had been previously living on a specially constructed island-prison in Nagasaki harbour called Dejima, were expelled from the archipelago altogether, and the Dutch were moved from their base at Hirado into the trading island.

Seclusion era

The Great Fire of Nagasaki destroyed much of the city in 1663, including the Mazu shrine at the Kofuku Temple patronized by the Chinese sailors and merchants visiting the port. [7]

In 1720 the ban on Dutch books was lifted, causing hundreds of scholars to flood into Nagasaki to study European science and art. Consequently, Nagasaki became a major center of what was called rangaku , or "Dutch Learning". During the Edo period, the Tokugawa shogunate governed the city, appointing a hatamoto , the Nagasaki bugyō , as its chief administrator.

Plan of Nagasaki, Hizen province, 1778 Nagasaki illustration2.jpeg
Plan of Nagasaki, Hizen province, 1778

Consensus among historians was once that Nagasaki was Japan's only window on the world during its time as a closed country in the Tokugawa era. However, nowadays it is generally accepted that this was not the case, since Japan interacted and traded with the Ryūkyū Kingdom, Korea and Russia through Satsuma, Tsushima and Matsumae respectively. Nevertheless, Nagasaki was depicted in contemporary art and literature as a cosmopolitan port brimming with exotic curiosities from the Western World. [8]

In 1808, during the Napoleonic Wars the British Royal Navy frigate HMS Phaeton entered Nagasaki Harbor in search of Dutch trading ships. The local magistrate was unable to resist the British demand for food, fuel, and water, later committing seppuku as a result. Laws were passed in the wake of this incident strengthening coastal defenses, threatening death to intruding foreigners, and prompting the training of English and Russian translators.

The Tōjinyashiki (唐人屋敷) or Chinese Factory in Nagasaki was also an important conduit for Chinese goods and information for the Japanese market. Various colourful Chinese merchants and artists sailed between the Chinese mainland and Nagasaki. Some actually combined the roles of merchant and artist such as 18th century Yi Hai. It is believed that as much as one-third of the population of Nagasaki at this time may have been Chinese. [9]

Meiji Japan

With the Meiji Restoration, Japan opened its doors once again to foreign trade and diplomatic relations. Nagasaki became a treaty port in 1859 and modernization began in earnest in 1868. Nagasaki was officially proclaimed a city on April 1, 1889. With Christianity legalized and the Kakure Kirishitan coming out of hiding, Nagasaki regained its earlier role as a center for Roman Catholicism in Japan. [10]

During the Meiji period, Nagasaki became a center of heavy industry. Its main industry was ship-building, with the dockyards under control of Mitsubishi Heavy Industries becoming one of the prime contractors for the Imperial Japanese Navy, and with Nagasaki harbor used as an anchorage under the control of nearby Sasebo Naval District. During World War II, at the time of the nuclear attack, Nagasaki was an important industrial city, containing both plants of the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, the Akunoura Engine Works, Mitsubishi Arms Plant, Mitsubishi Electric Shipyards, Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works, several other small factories, and most of the ports storage and trans-shipment facilities, which employed about 90% of the city's labor force, and accounted for 90% of the city's industry. These connections with the Japanese war effort made Nagasaki a major target for strategic bombing by the Allies during the war. [11] [12]

Atomic bombing of Nagasaki during World War II

Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over Nagasaki at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945 Nagasakibomb.jpg
Mushroom cloud from the atomic explosion over Nagasaki at 11:02 a.m., August 9, 1945

For 12 months prior to the nuclear attack, Nagasaki had experienced five small-scale air attacks by an aggregate of 136 U.S. planes which dropped a total of 270 tons of high explosive, 53 tons of incendiary, and 20 tons of fragmentation bombs. Of these, a raid of August 1, 1945, was most effective, with a few of the bombs hitting the shipyards and dock areas in the southwest portion of the city, several hitting the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works, and six bombs landing at the Nagasaki Medical School and Hospital, with three direct hits on buildings there. While the damage from these few bombs was relatively small, it created considerable concern in Nagasaki and a number of people, principally school children, were evacuated to rural areas for safety, thus reducing the population in the city at the time of the atomic attack. [11] [13] [14] [15]

On the day of the nuclear strike (August 9, 1945) the population in Nagasaki was estimated to be 263,000, which consisted of 240,000 Japanese residents, 10,000 Korean residents, 2,500 conscripted Korean workers, 9,000 Japanese soldiers, 600 conscripted Chinese workers, and 400 Allied POWs. [15] That day, the Boeing B-29 Superfortress Bockscar , commanded by Major Charles Sweeney, departed from Tinian's North Field just before dawn, this time carrying a plutonium bomb, code named "Fat Man". The primary target for the bomb was Kokura, with the secondary target being Nagasaki, if the primary target was too cloudy to make a visual sighting. When the plane reached Kokura at 9:44 a.m. (10:44 a.m. Tinian Time), the city was obscured by clouds and smoke, as the nearby city of Yahata had been firebombed on the previous day - the steel plant in Yahata also had their workforce intentionally set fire to containers of coal tar, to produce target-obscuring black smoke. [16] . Unable to make a bombing attack on visual due to the clouds and smoke and with limited fuel, the plane left the city at 10:30 a.m. for the secondary target. After 20 minutes, the plane arrived at 10:50 a.m. over Nagasaki, but the city was also concealed by clouds. Desperately short of fuel and after making a couple of bombing runs without obtaining any visual target, the crew was forced to use radar in order to drop the bomb. At the last minute, the opening of the clouds allowed them to make visual contact with a racetrack in Nagasaki, and they dropped the bomb on the city's Urakami Valley midway between the Mitsubishi Steel and Arms Works in the south, and the Mitsubishi-Urakami Ordnance Works in the north. [17] 53 seconds after its release, the bomb exploded at 11:02 a.m. at an approximate altitude of 1,800 feet. [18]

Less than a second after the detonation, the north of the city was destroyed and 35,000 people were killed. [19] Among the deaths were 6,200 out of the 7,500 employees of the Mitsubishi Munitions plant, and 24,000 others (including 2,000 Koreans) who worked in other war plants and factories in the city, as well as 150 Japanese soldiers. The industrial damage in Nagasaki was high, leaving 68–80% of the non-dock industrial production destroyed. It was the second and, to date, the last use of a nuclear weapon in combat, and also the second detonation of a plutonium bomb. The first combat use of a nuclear weapon was the "Little Boy" bomb, which was dropped on the Japanese city of Hiroshima on August 6, 1945. The first plutonium bomb was tested in central New Mexico, United States, on July 16, 1945. The Fat Man bomb was somewhat more powerful than the one dropped over Hiroshima, but because of Nagasaki's more uneven terrain, there was less damage. [20] [21] [22] [23]

After the war

The city was rebuilt after the war, albeit dramatically changed. The pace of reconstruction was slow. The first simple emergency dwellings were not provided until 1946. The focus of redevelopment was the replacement of war industries with foreign trade, shipbuilding and fishing. This was formally declared when the Nagasaki International Culture City Reconstruction Law was passed in May 1949. [24] New temples were built, as well as new churches, owing to an increase in the presence of Christianity. [25] Some of the rubble was left as a memorial, such as a one-legged torii at Sannō Shrine and an arch near ground zero. New structures were also raised as memorials, such as the Atomic Bomb Museum. Nagasaki remains primarily a port city, supporting a rich shipbuilding industry, setting a strong example of perseverance and peace.

Torii, Nagasaki, Japan. One-legged torii in the background Sanno torii boxed in red.jpg
Torii , Nagasaki, Japan. One-legged torii in the background

On January 4, 2005, the towns of Iōjima, Kōyagi, Nomozaki, Sanwa, Sotome and Takashima (all from Nishisonogi District) were officially merged into Nagasaki.

Geography and climate

Nagasaki and Nishisonogi Peninsulas are located within the city limits. The city is surrounded by the cities of Isahaya and Saikai, and the towns of Togitsu and Nagayo in Nishisonogi District.

Nagasaki lies at the head of a long bay that forms the best natural harbor on the island of Kyūshū. The main commercial and residential area of the city lies on a small plain near the end of the bay. Two rivers divided by a mountain spur form the two main valleys in which the city lies. The heavily built-up area of the city is confined by the terrain to less than 4 square miles (10 km2).

Nagasaki has the typical humid subtropical climate of Kyūshū and Honshū, characterized by mild winters and long, hot, and humid summers. Apart from Kanazawa and Shizuoka it is the wettest sizeable city in Japan. In the summer, the combination of persistent heat and high humidity results in unpleasant conditions, with wet-bulb temperatures sometimes reaching 26 °C (79 °F). In the winter, however, Nagasaki is drier and sunnier than Gotō to the west, and temperatures are slightly milder than further inland in Kyūshū. Since records began in 1878, the wettest month has been July 1982, with 1,178 millimetres (46 in) including 555 millimetres (21.9 in) in a single day, whilst the driest month has been September 1967, with 1.8 millimetres (0.07 in). Precipitation occurs year-round, though winter is the driest season; rainfall peaks sharply in June and July. August is the warmest month of the year. On January 24, 2016, a snowfall of 17 centimetres (6.7 in) was recorded. [26]

Climate data for Nagasaki, Nagasaki (1981~2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)21.3
(70.3)
22.6
(72.7)
24.4
(75.9)
29.0
(84.2)
34.6
(94.3)
36.4
(97.5)
37.7
(99.9)
37.6
(99.7)
36.1
(97.0)
33.7
(92.7)
27.4
(81.3)
23.8
(74.8)
37.7
(99.9)
Average high °C (°F)10.4
(50.7)
11.7
(53.1)
14.8
(58.6)
19.7
(67.5)
23.5
(74.3)
26.4
(79.5)
30.1
(86.2)
31.7
(89.1)
28.6
(83.5)
23.8
(74.8)
18.3
(64.9)
13.1
(55.6)
21.0
(69.8)
Daily mean °C (°F)7.0
(44.6)
7.9
(46.2)
10.9
(51.6)
15.4
(59.7)
19.4
(66.9)
22.8
(73.0)
26.8
(80.2)
27.9
(82.2)
24.8
(76.6)
19.7
(67.5)
14.3
(57.7)
9.4
(48.9)
17.2
(63.0)
Average low °C (°F)3.8
(38.8)
4.4
(39.9)
7.3
(45.1)
11.6
(52.9)
15.8
(60.4)
20.0
(68.0)
24.3
(75.7)
25.1
(77.2)
21.8
(71.2)
16.1
(61.0)
10.8
(51.4)
5.9
(42.6)
13.9
(57.0)
Record low °C (°F)−5.2
(22.6)
−4.8
(23.4)
−3.6
(25.5)
0.2
(32.4)
5.3
(41.5)
8.9
(48.0)
15.0
(59.0)
17.0
(62.6)
11.1
(52.0)
4.9
(40.8)
−0.2
(31.6)
−3.9
(25.0)
−5.2
(22.6)
Average precipitation mm (inches)64.0
(2.52)
85.7
(3.37)
132.0
(5.20)
151.3
(5.96)
179.3
(7.06)
314.6
(12.39)
314.4
(12.38)
195.4
(7.69)
188.8
(7.43)
85.8
(3.38)
85.6
(3.37)
60.8
(2.39)
1,857.7
(73.14)
Average snowfall cm (inches)2
(0.8)
1
(0.4)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
0
(0)
1
(0.4)
4
(1.6)
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.5 mm)11.19.912.510.810.613.511.69.89.76.29.010.0124.7
Average snowy days1.20.90.20.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.00.22.5
Average relative humidity (%)66646668727980757367676670
Mean monthly sunshine hours 102.8119.7148.5174.7184.4135.3178.7210.7172.8181.4137.9119.11,866
Source #1: Japan Meteorological Agency [27]
Source #2: Japan Meteorological Agency (records) [28]

Education

Universities

Junior colleges

Transportation

A busy street in Nagasaki Nagasaki Trolley M5199.jpg
A busy street in Nagasaki

The nearest airport is Nagasaki Airport in the nearby city of Ōmura. The Kyushu Railway Company (JR Kyushu) provides rail transportation on the Nagasaki Main Line, whose terminal is at Nagasaki Station. In addition, the Nagasaki Electric Tramway operates five routes in the city. The Nagasaki Expressway serves vehicular traffic with interchanges at Nagasaki and Susukizuka. In addition, six national highways crisscross the city: Route 34, 202, 206, 251, 324, and 499.

Demographics

On August 9, 1945 the population was estimated to be 263,000. As of 1 March 2017, the city had population of 425,723 and a population density of 1,000 persons per km2.

Sports

Nagasaki is represented in the J. League of football with its local club, V-Varen Nagasaki.

Main sites

Nagasaki panorama.jpg
Panorama of Nagasaki

Events

Nagasaki Lantern Festival Nagasaki Lantern Festival - 01.jpg
Nagasaki Lantern Festival

The Prince Takamatsu Cup Nishinippon Round-Kyūshū Ekiden, the world's longest relay race, begins in Nagasaki each November.

Kunchi, the most famous festival in Nagasaki, is held from 7–9 October.

The Nagasaki Lantern Festival, [34] celebrating the Chinese New Year, is celebrated from February 18 to March 4.

Cuisine

Notable people

Twin towns

The city of Nagasaki maintains sister cities or friendship relations with other cities worldwide. [35]

See also

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The Immaculate Conception Cathedral (無原罪の聖母司教座聖堂) also St. Mary's Cathedral, often known as Urakami Cathedral after its location Urakami, is a Roman Catholic cathedral located in Motoomachi, Nagasaki, Japan.

Nagasaki University is a national university of Japan. Its nickname is Chōdai (長大). The main campus is located in Bunkyo-machi, Nagasaki City, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan.

Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum military museum

The Nagasaki Atomic Bomb Museum is in the city of Nagasaki, Japan. The museum is a remembrance to the atomic bombing of Nagasaki by the United States of America 9 August 1945 at 11:02:35 am. Next to the museum is the Nagasaki National Peace Memorial Hall for the Atomic Bomb Victims, built in 2003. The bombing marked a new era in war, making Nagasaki a symbolic location for a memorial. The counterpart in Hiroshima is the Hiroshima Peace Memorial Museum. These locations symbolize the nuclear age, remind visitors of the vast destruction and indiscriminate death caused by nuclear weapons, and signify a commitment to peace.

Nagasaki Station railway station and tram station in Nagasaki, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan

Nagasaki Station is a railway station in Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan, operated by the Kyushu Railway Company. It is the terminus of the Nagasaki Main Line.

Urakami Station railway station and tram station in Nagasaki, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan

Urakami Station is a railway station in Kawaguchi-chō, Nagasaki, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. It is operated by JR Kyushu and is on the Nagasaki Main Line. It is the station where the old line and new line sections of the Nagasaki Line intersect. In front of the station is the Urakami Ekimae stop on the Nagasaki Electric Tramway.

Nagayo Station railway station in Nagayo, Nishisonogi district, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan

Nagayo Station is a railway station in Nagayo, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. It is operated by JR Kyushu and is on the Nagasaki Main Line.

Matsura Takanobu daimyo of the Sengoku period. a.k.a. Dōka

Matsura Takanobu or Taqua Nombo was a 16th-century Japanese samurai and 25th hereditary lord of the Matsura clan of Hirado. He was one of the most powerful feudal lords of Kyūshū and one of the first to allow trading with Europeans, particularly the Portuguese, through whom he amassed great profits in the import of western firearms. He was also an early host and patron to the Jesuits, who he hoped would help secure an increase in trade with the Portuguese and other European traders.

Isahaya Station railway station in Isahaya, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan

Isahaya Station is a railway station in Eishō-chō, Isahaya, Nagasaki, Japan. It is owned by Kyushu Railway Company, and is the junction between three lines: the Nagasaki Main Line, Ōmura Line and the private Shimabara Railway Line.

Tsutomu Yamaguchi Japanese national

Tsutomu Yamaguchi was a survivor of both the Hiroshima and Nagasaki atomic bombings during World War II. Although at least 70 people are known to have been affected by both bombings, he is the only person to have been officially recognized by the government of Japan as surviving both explosions.

Ōmura Station (Nagasaki) railway station in Omura, Nagasaki prefecture, Japan

Ōmura Station is the major railway station in the city of Ōmura, Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. It is operated by JR Kyushu and is on the Ōmura Line.

Christian missionaries arrived with Francis Xavier and the Jesuits in the 1540s and briefly flourished, with over 100,000 converts, including many daimyōs in Kyushu. It soon met resistance from the highest office holders of Japan. Emperor Ogimachi issued edicts to ban Catholicism in 1565 and 1568, but to little effect. Beginning in 1587 with imperial regent Toyotomi Hideyoshi's ban on Jesuit missionaries, Christianity was repressed as a threat to national unity. After the Tokugawa shogunate banned Christianity in 1620 it ceased to exist publicly. Many Catholics went underground, becoming hidden Christians, while others lost their lives. Only after the Meiji Restoration was Christianity re-established in Japan.

Fukuda was a village in Nishisonogi District, Nagasaki Prefecture. It was absorbed into Nagasaki city in 1955.

Portuguese Nagasaki or Ecclesiastical Nagasaki refers to the period during which the city of Nagasaki was under foreign administration, between the years of 1580 and 1587. Formally granted to the Jesuits, a representative of the Portuguese Crown was considered the highest authority in the city when present, as per Portuguese rights of Padroado.

The Okamoto Daihachi incident (岡本大八事件) of 1612 refers to the exposure of the intrigues involving the Japanese Christian daimyō and retainers of the early Tokugawa shogunate in Japan. The conspiracy - motivated by the Christian daimyō Arima Harunobu's desire to retake Arima lands in Hizen that were lost in the Sengoku wars - did much to shake the confidence that the Tokugawa regime placed on its Christian subjects, and was attributed as one of the reasons the Tokugawa eventually took an anti-Christian stance, which culminated in the persecution of Christians throughout the country.

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Bibliography