Nagasaki Prefecture

Last updated
Nagasaki Prefecture

長崎県
Japanese transcription(s)
   Japanese 長崎県
   Rōmaji Nagasaki-ken
Flag of Nagasaki Prefecture.svg
Flag
Emblem of Nagasaki Prefecture.svg
Symbol
Map of Japan with highlight on 42 Nagasaki prefecture.svg
Country Japan
Region Kyushu
Island Kyushu
Capital Nagasaki
Subdivisions Districts: 4, Municipalities: 21
Government
   Governor Hōdō Nakamura
Area
  Total4,130.88 km2 (1,594.94 sq mi)
Area rank 37th
Population
 (June 1, 2019)
  Total1,328,478
  Rank 26th
  Density320/km2 (830/sq mi)
ISO 3166 code JP-42
Website www.pref.nagasaki.jp/en
Symbols
Bird Mandarin duck (Aix galericulata)
FlowerUnzentsutsuji ( Rhododendron  serpyllifolium)
Tree Sawara (Chamaecyparis pisifera)

Nagasaki Prefecture(長崎県,Nagasaki-ken) is a prefecture of Japan located on the island of Kyushu. [1] The capital is the city of Nagasaki. [2]

Prefectures of Japan countrys 47 first-order subnational jurisdictions

Japan is divided into 47 prefectures, forming the first level of jurisdiction and administrative division. They consist of 43 prefectures proper, two urban prefectures, one "circuit" or "territory" and one "metropolis". In 1868, the Meiji Fuhanken sanchisei administration created the first prefectures to replace the urban and rural administrators in the parts of the country previously controlled directly by the shogunate and a few territories of rebels/shogunate loyalists who had not submitted to the new government such as Aizu/Wakamatsu. In 1871, all remaining feudal domains (han) were also transformed into prefectures, so that prefectures subdivided the whole country. In several waves of territorial consolidation, today's 47 prefectures were formed by the turn of the century. In many instances, these are contiguous with the ancient ritsuryō provinces of Japan.

Japan Island country in East Asia

Japan is an island country in East Asia. Located in the Pacific Ocean, it lies off the eastern coast of the Asian continent and stretches from the Sea of Okhotsk in the north to the East China Sea and the Philippine Sea in the south.

Kyushu Third largest island of Japan

Kyushu is the third largest island of Japan's five main islands. Its alternative ancient names include Kyūkoku(九国, "Nine Countries"), Chinzei(鎮西, "West of the Pacified Area"), and Tsukushi-no-shima(筑紫島, "Island of Tsukushi"). The historical regional name Saikaidō referred to Kyushu and its surrounding islands.

Contents

History

Nagasaki Prefecture was created by merging of the western half of the former province of Hizen with the island provinces of Tsushima and Iki. [3] Facing China and Korea, the region around Hirado was a traditional center for traders and pirates.

Hizen Province province of Japan

Hizen Province was an old province of Japan in the area of Saga and Nagasaki prefectures. It was sometimes called Hishū (肥州), with Higo Province. Hizen bordered on the provinces of Chikuzen and Chikugo. The province was included in Saikaidō. It did not include the regions of Tsushima and Iki that are now part of modern Nagasaki Prefecture.

Tsushima Province province of Japan

Tsushima Province was an old province of Japan on Tsushima Island which occupied the area corresponding to modern-day Tsushima, Nagasaki. It was sometimes called Taishū (対州).

Iki Province province of Japan

Iki Province was a province of Japan which consisted of the Iki Islands, now a part of modern Nagasaki Prefecture. Its abbreviated name was Isshū (壱州). Iki is classified as one of the provinces of the Saikaidō. Under the Engishiki classification system, Iki was ranked as an "inferior country" (下国) and a "far country" (遠国).

Kuichi Uchida's image of Nagasaki in 1872 Kuichi Uchida View of Nagasaki Japan 1872 Hand-colored Vintage Albumen Print.jpg
Kuichi Uchida's image of Nagasaki in 1872

During the 16th century, Catholic missionaries and traders from Portugal arrived and became active in Hirado and Nagasaki, which became a major center for foreign trade. After being given free rein in Oda Nobunaga's period, the missionaries were forced out little by little, until finally, in the Tokugawa era, Christianity was banned under the Sakoku national isolation policy: Japanese foreign trade was restricted to Chinese and Dutch traders based at Dejima in Nagasaki. However, Kirishitan (Japanese Christian) worship continued underground. These Kakure Kirishitan (hidden Christians) were tried at every step, forced to step on fumi-e ("trample pictures", images of the Virgin Mary and saints) to prove that they were non-Christian. With the banishment of all Catholic missionaries, traders from Catholic countries were also forced out of the country. Along with them, their children, half Japanese and half European, were forced to leave. The majority was sent to Jagatara (Jakarta) and are still remembered by the locals as the people who wrote the poignant letters which were smuggled across the sea to their homeland.

Missionary work of the Catholic Church has often been undertaken outside the geographically defined parishes and dioceses by religious orders who have people and material resources to spare, and some of which specialized in missions. Eventually, parishes and dioceses would be organized worldwide, often after an intermediate phase as an apostolic prefecture or apostolic vicariate. Catholic mission has predominantly been carried out by the Latin Church in practice.

Portugal Republic in Southwestern Europe

Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.

Oda Nobunaga samurai daimyo and warlord of Japan

Oda Nobunaga was a powerful daimyō of Japan in the late 16th century who attempted to unify Japan during the late Sengoku period, and successfully gained control over most of Honshu. Nobunaga is regarded as one of three unifiers of Japan along with his retainers Toyotomi Hideyoshi and Tokugawa Ieyasu. During his later life, Nobunaga was widely known for most brutal suppression of determined opponents, eliminating those who by principle refused to cooperate or yield to his demands. His reign was noted for innovative military tactics, fostering free trade, and encouraging the start of the Momoyama historical art period. He was killed when his retainer Akechi Mitsuhide rebelled against him at Honnō-ji.

Today, Nagasaki has prominent Catholic churches, and the Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region, have been included on the UNESCO World Heritage List.

Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region

Hidden Christian Sites in the Nagasaki Region is a group of twelve sites in Nagasaki Prefecture and Kumamoto Prefecture relating to the history of Christianity in Japan. The Nagasaki churches are unique in the sense that each tells a story about the revival of Christianity after a long period of official suppression.

UNESCO Specialised agency of the United Nations

The United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization is a specialized agency of the United Nations (UN) based in Paris, France. Its declared purpose is to contribute to promoting international collaboration in education, sciences, and culture in order to increase universal respect for justice, the rule of law, and human rights along with fundamental freedom proclaimed in the United Nations Charter. It is the successor of the League of Nations' International Committee on Intellectual Cooperation.

Nagasaki Prefect Office, Meiji Period Prefect Office Nagasaki.jpg
Nagasaki Prefect Office, Meiji Period

During the Meiji Restoration, Nagasaki and Sasebo became major ports for foreign trade, and eventually major military bases and shipbuilding centers for the Imperial Japanese Navy and the Mitsubishi Heavy Industries up to World War II. On August 9, 1945, the United States dropped an atomic bomb on Nagasaki, which destroyed all buildings in a 1.6 kilometres (1.0 mi) radius from the point of impact and extensively damaged other parts of the city. Roughly 39,000 people were killed, including 27,778 Japanese munitions workers, 2,000 Korean forced workers, and 150 Japanese soldiers. About 68-80% of the industrial production was destroyed to the point it would not recover for months or at least a year.

Meiji Restoration restoration of imperial rule in Japan

The Meiji Restoration, also known as the Meiji Renovation, Revolution, Reform, or Renewal, was an event that restored practical imperial rule to the Empire of Japan in 1868 under Emperor Meiji.

Sasebo, Nagasaki Core city in Kyushu, Japan

Sasebo is a core city located in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. As of 1 June 2019, the city has an estimated population of 247,739 and a population density of 581 persons per km². The total area is 426.06 km2 (165 sq mi).

Imperial Japanese Navy Naval branch of the Empire of Japan

The Imperial Japanese Navy was the navy of the Empire of Japan from 1868 until 1945, when it was dissolved following Japan's surrender in World War II. The Japan Maritime Self-Defense Force (JMSDF) was formed after the dissolution of the IJN.

Nagasaki Prefecture contains many areas prone to heavy rain and landslide damage. In July 1957, mainly in the Isahaya area, damage from heavy rains, flooding and landslides lead to a death toll of 586, with 136 people missing and 3,860 injured. In July 1982, typhoon damage in the Nagasaki area lead to 299 fatalities, according to a report by the Japanese government.[ citation needed ]

Geography

Nagasaki borders Saga Prefecture on the east, and is otherwise surrounded by water, including Ariake Bay, the Tsushima Straits (far from Busan and South Gyeongsang Province, South Korea), and the East China Sea. It also includes a large number of islands such as Tsushima and Iki. Most of the prefecture is near the coast and there are a number of ports such as Nagasaki and a United States Navy base at Sasebo.

As of 1 April 2014, 18% of the total land area of the prefecture was designated as Natural Parks, namely the Saikai and Unzen-Amakusa National Parks; Genkai and Iki-Tsushima Quasi-National Parks; and Hokushō, Nishi Sonogi Hantō, Nomo Hantō, Ōmurawan, Shimabara Hantō, and Taradake Prefectural Natural Parks. [4]

Cities

Map of Nagasaki Prefecture
City Town Map of Nagasaki Prefecture Ja.svg
Map of Nagasaki Prefecture
     City     Town
Night view of Nagasaki City Nagasaki City view from Mt Inasa04s.jpg
Night view of Nagasaki City
Sasebo Nishi-Kyushu Exp Sasebo Chuo IC 2011.JPG
Sasebo
Shimabara 140321 A view from Shimabara Castle Shimabara Nagasaki pref Japan04s3.jpg
Shimabara

Thirteen cities are located in Nagasaki Prefecture:

Districts

These are the towns and villages of each district:

Mergers

The following municipalities have been dissolved since the year 2000.

Culture

Religion

Nagasaki is the most Christianized area in Japan with Roman Catholic missions having been established there as early as the 16th century. Shusaku Endo's novel Silence draws from the oral history of the local Christian (Kirishitan) communities, both Kakure Kirishitan and Hanare Kirishitan.

As of 2002, there are 68,617 Catholics in Nagasaki Prefecture, accounting for 4.52 percent of the population of the prefecture.

Sports

The Nagasaki Saints of the Shikoku-Kyūshū Island League make Nagasaki Prefecture their home.

Tourism

Lighthouse at Osezaki in Goto Osezaki lighthouse.jpg
Lighthouse at Osezaki in Gotō
Grave of William Adams in Hirado MiuraAnjinNoHaka.jpg
Grave of William Adams in Hirado
Castle in Shimabara ShimabaraCastle.jpg
Castle in Shimabara
Sofuku-ji Obaku Zen temple in Nagasaki NagasakiSofukuji.jpg
Sōfuku-ji Ōbaku Zen temple in Nagasaki
Kuju-ku Islands in Sasebo Sasebo99IslandsSunset2A.jpg
Kujū-ku Islands in Sasebo

Transportation

Rail

Tram

Roads

Expressways and toll roads

  • Nagasaki Expressway
  • West Kyushu Expressway
  • Nagasaki Dejima Road
  • Kawahira Toll Road
  • Kunimi Toll Road
  • Kawahira Toll Road

National highways

Ports

Airports

Politics

The current governor of Nagasaki is former vice-governor Hōdō Nakamura. First elected in 2010 to succeed Genjirō Kaneko, he was reelected for a second term in 2014.

The prefectural assembly of Nagasaki has a regular membership of 46, elected in 16 electoral districts in unified regional elections (last round: 2011). As of April 2014, the LDP-led caucus has 23 members, the DPJ-SDP-led caucus 17.

In the National Diet, Nagasaki is represented by four directly elected members of the House of Representatives and two (one per ordinary election) of the House of Councillors. After the most recent national elections of 2010, 2012 and 2013, Nagasaki sends an all-LDP delegation to the Diet (excluding members who lost election in Nagasaki districts, but were elected to the proportional representation segment of the House of Representatives in the Kyūshū block).

Notes

  1. Nussbaum, Louis-Frédéric. (2005). "Nagasaki prefecture" in Japan Encyclopedia, p. 683 , p. 683, at Google Books.
  2. Nussbaum, "Nagasaki" in p. 683 , p. 683, at Google Books.
  3. Nussbaum, "Provinces and prefectures" in p. 780 , p. 780, at Google Books.
  4. "General overview of area figures for Natural Parks by prefecture" (PDF). Ministry of the Environment. 1 April 2014. Retrieved 8 February 2015.

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Unzen-Amakusa National Park national park of Japan

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Saihi Motor

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Kitamatsuura Peninsula is a peninsula located in northwest Kyūshū, projecting northwest from an imaginary line drawn between Imari in Saga Prefecture and Sasebo in Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. The peninsula is bounded by the East China Sea on the west and southwest, and by the Sea of Japan on the north. Most of the peninsula is within the boundaries of the city of Hirado and Nagasaki Prefecture. The general area of and near the peninsula is commonly called the Hokushō Region.

Naru Island island in Gotō Islands, Nagasaki, Japan

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Politics of Nagasaki, as in all prefectures of Japan, takes place in the framework of local autonomy that is guaranteed by the Constitution and laid out in the Local Autonomy Law. The administration is headed by a governor directly elected by the people every four years in first-past-the-post elections. Legislation, the budget and the approval of personnel appointments, including the vice governor, are handled by the prefectural assembly that is directly elected by the people every four years by single-non transferable vote.

Hichiku dialect

The Hichiku dialect is a group of the Japanese dialects spoken in the western Kyushu. The name Hichiku (肥筑) is constructed by extracting a representative kanji from Hizen (前), Higo (後), Chikuzen (前) and Chikugo (後), names of old provinces in there.

Hario Island island in Nagasaki, Japan

Hario Island (針尾島), is a large island located in the mouth of Ōmura Bay, part of the Nagasaki Prefecture, Japan. It is the 7th largest and 6th most populous island of the islands in Nagasaki Prefecture. The island, 33.16 km² in area, had 9767 inhabitants as of 2015. The island is dominated by the Citrus unshiu plantations. The island access is by road and rail transport from the mainland of Kyushu through seven bridges linking it to Sasebo and Saikai cities. The main access routes are Japan National Route 202 and Japan National Route 205.

References

Coordinates: 32°58′N129°48′E / 32.967°N 129.800°E / 32.967; 129.800