|内歩進 (内畔戦, 内範置, 鉄騎)|
|Japanese:||naihanchi (ナイハンチ), naihanchin (ナイハンチン), naihanchen (ナイハンチェン)|
|Ryukyuan:||naifanchi (ナイファンチ), naifanchin (ナイファンチン), naifanchen (ナイファンチェン)|
|Shotokan:||tekki (鉄騎), old:kiba-dachi (騎馬立ち)|
Naihanchi (ナイハンチ) (or Naifanchi (ナイファンチ), Tekki (鉄騎)) is a karate Kata, performed in straddle stance (naihanchi-dachi (ナイハンチ立ち) / kiba-dachi (騎馬立ち)). It translates to 'internal divided conflict'. The form makes use of in-fighting techniques (i.e. tai sabaki (whole body movement)) and grappling. In Shorin-Ryu and Matsubayashi-ryū Naihanchi Shodan is the first Ni Kyu (Brown Belt Kata) although it is taught to Yon Kyu (Green Belts) occasionally before Evaluations for the Ni Kyu rank. It is also the first Shorin-ryu and Shindo jinen-ryu kata to start with a technique to the right instead of the left. There are three modern kata derived from this (Shodan, Nidan and Sandan). Some researchers believe Nidan and Sandan were created by Anko Itosu, but others believe that it was originally one kata broken into three separate parts. The fact that only Naihanchi/Tekki Shodan has a formal opening suggests the kata was split.
Whilst the kata is linear, moving side to side, the techniques can be applied against attackers at any angle. The side to side movements in a low stance build up the necessary balance and strength for fast footwork and body shifting. The kata are intricate strategies of attacking and defensive movement, done in either naihanchi (or naifanchi) dachi, a shoulder-width stance with the toes angled inwards, or the kiba dachi, for the purpose of conditioning the legs to develop explosive power. If one rotates one's torso a few degrees to one side or the other while performing Naihanchi/Tekki, the result is the Hachi-monji, or figure eight stance. Some researchersbelieve the form is a non-ballistic two-man grappling exercise.
In his 1922 book titled To-te: Ryūkyū Kenpō / 唐手 琉球拳法 Gichin Funakoshi called this series of forms "Naihanchi/ナイハンチ" and attributes the form to what he calls the "Shōrei-Ryu/昭霊流."Similarly, Motobu Chōki spells the name of this form "Naihanchi/ナイハンチ" in his 1926 Okinawa Kenpō To-te Jutsu/沖縄拳法唐手術. By 1936, in his Karate-do Kyohan/空手道教範 Funakoshi had started referring to this form as “Kibadachi (騎馬立/キバ ダチ)” or “Cavalry Horse Stance,” while still referencing the original “Naihanchi / ナイハンチ” name. In the 1973 "Karate-do Kyohan The Master Text", a translation of the 1956 second edition of the Kyohan book, there is no longer any mention of Naihanchi and the book claims the form, which it calls "Tekki" is named in reference to "the distinctive feature of these kata, their horse-riding (kiba-dachi) stance." Other than the "Shorei-Ryu" reference, none of these books attribute the form to any particular source or practitioner.
Itosu is reported to have learned the kata from Sokon Matsumura, who learned it from a Chinese man living in Tomari. Itosu is thought to have changed the original kata. The form is so important to old style karate that Kentsu Yabu (a student of Itosu) often told his students 'Karate begins and ends with Naihanchi' and admonished his students must practice the kata 10,000 times to make it their own. Before Itosu created the Pinan (Heian) kata, Naihanchi would traditionally be taught first in Tomari-te and Shuri-te schools, which indicates its importance. Gichin Funakoshi learned the kata from Anko Asato. Funakoshi renamed the kata Tekki (Iron Horse) in reference to his old teacher, Itosu, and the form's power.[ citation needed ]
The oldest known reference to Naihanchi are in the books of Motobu Choki. He states the kata was imported from China, but is no longer practiced there. Motobu learned the kata from Sokon Matsumura, Sakuma Pechin, Anko Itosu and Kosaku Matsumora. Motobu taught his own interpretation of Naihanchi, which included te (Okinawan form of martial arts which predates karate) like grappling and throwing techniques.
In the earlier days of karate training, it was common practice for a student to spend two to three years doing nothing but Naihanchi/Tekki, under the strict observation of their teacher. Motobu Choki, famous for his youthful brawling at tsuji (red-light district), credited the kata with containing all that one needs to know to become a proficient fighter.
The Tekki series of kata were renamed by Funakoshi from the Naihanchi kata, which were derived from an older, original kata, Nifanchin.Nifanchin was brought to Okinawa via Fuzhou, China, at some point in the long history of trade between the two kingdoms. It was broken into three distinct segments, possibly by Anko Itosu, Tokumine Pechin, or Motobu Choki. The kata are performed entirely in Kiba dachi ("Horse stance"). The name Tekki itself (and Nifanchin) translates to "Iron Horse." Tekki Shodan (鉄騎初段), literally meaning "Iron Horse Riding, First Level", is the first of the series, followed by Tekki nidan and Tekki sandan.
In the 1960s a kung fu practitioner, Daichi Kaneko, studied a form of Taiwanese white crane kung-fu, known as Dan Qiu Ban Bai He Quan (Half Hillock, Half White Crane Boxing). Kaneko, an acupuncturist who lived in Yonabaru, Okinawa, taught a form called Neixi (inside knee) in Mandarin. This form includes the same sweeping action found in the nami-gaeshi (returning wave) technique of Naihanchi. Neixi is pronounced Nohanchi in Fuzhou dialect, which could indicate Neixi is the forerunner to Naihanchi. Neixi is also the shortened form of the mandarin 内 Nei (internal/inside) 方 Fang (place/location) 膝(厀) Xi (knee). This is closer to the original Nifanchin pronunciation. Taking this one step further, in Classical Chinese, Nei could have had a double meaning. One straightforward reference to the inside knee and one indirect reference to soft styles of traditional Chinese martial arts such as Taichi. See neigong.
The embusen is a straight line, running horizontally to the left and right of the dojo.
Shotokan is a style of karate, developed from various martial arts by Gichin Funakoshi (1868–1957) and his son Gigo (Yoshitaka) Funakoshi (1906–1945). Gichin Funakoshi was born in Okinawa and is widely credited with popularizing "karate do" through a series of public demonstrations, and by promoting the development of university karate clubs, including those at Keio, Waseda, Hitotsubashi (Shodai), Takushoku, Chuo, Gakushuin, and Hosei.
Wadō-ryū (和道流) is one of the four major karate styles and was founded by Hironori Otsuka (1892-1982). The style itself places emphasis on not just striking, but tai sabaki, joint locks and throws. It has its origins within Tomari-te karate, but also gains influence from Shito-Ryu and Shotokan, however it was massively influenced by JiuJitsu, which explains the emphasis on concepts such as tai sabaki, noru and nagashi sabaki.
Shitō-ryū (糸東流) is a form of karate that was founded in 1934 by Kenwa Mabuni. A synthesis of various different Okinawan schools of martial arts, the Shitō-ryū is primarily practiced in Osaka. Due to both controversies in Kenwa Mabuni's line of succession and Mabuni's extensive efforts to popularize the martial art form in Japan, there exist many successor karate schools that claim Shitō-ryū as an influence.
Shōrin-ryū (少林流) is one of the major modern Okinawan martial arts and is one of the oldest styles of karate. It was named by Choshin Chibana in 1933, but the system itself is much older. The characters 少林, meaning "small" and "forest" respectively and pronounced "shōrin" in Japanese, are also used in the Chinese and Japanese words for Shaolin. "Ryū" means "school". Shōrin-ryū combines elements of the traditional Okinawan fighting styles of Shuri-te.
Ankō Itosu is considered by many the father of modern karate, although this title is also often given to Gichin Funakoshi because of the latter spreading karate throughout Japan but after Ankō sensei had introduced the art of Okinawate to the country.
Motobu Chōki was an Okinawan karateka from Akahira Village in Shuri, Okinawa, capital of the Ryūkyū Kingdom when he was born. His older brother Motobu Chōyū was also a noted karateka.
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The Pinan (平安)kata are a series of five empty hand forms taught in many karate styles. The Pinan kata originated in Okinawa and were adapted by Anko Itosu from older kata such as Kusanku and Channan into forms suitable for teaching karate to young students. When Gichin Funakoshi brought karate to Japan, he renamed the kata to Heian, which is translated as "peaceful and safe". Pinan is the Chinese Pinyin notation of 平安, which means also "peaceful and safe". Korean Tang Soo Do, one of 5 original kwan of Korea, also practice these kata; they are termed, "Pyong-an" or "Pyung-Ahn", which is a Korean pronunciation of the term "ping-an".
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The Taikyoku series is a series of kata in use in several types of karate. The name Taikyoku (太極) refers to the Chinese philosophical concept of Taiji. The Taikyoku kata were developed by Yoshitaka Funakoshi and introduced by Gichin Funakoshi as a way to simplify the principles of the already simplified Pinan/Heian series. The embusen, or pattern of the kata's movements, are the same as in Heian shodan. Students of karate systems that use the Taikyoku kata series are often introduced to them first, as a preparation for the Pinan/Heian kata. Gōjū Kai developed five of its own Taikyoku kata, based on the Shotokan katas and retaining the I-shaped embusen. The embusen (pathway) of all the Taikyoku kata is simple :
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Rōhai (鷺牌) meaning “vision of a white heron” or “vision of a white crane” is a family of kata practiced in some styles of karate. The kata originated from the Tomari-te school of Okinawan martial arts. It was called Matsumora Rōhai, after Kosaku Matsumora, who was presumably its inventor. Ankō Itosu later took this kata and developed three kata from it: Rōhai shodan, Rōhai nidan, and Rōhai sandan. In Shorin-ryū and Matsubayashi-ryū this kata introduces Gedan Shotei Ate and Ippon Ashi Dachi. It contains a sequence of Tomoe Zuki exactly the same as the one in Bassai, although the ending of the sequence chains into Hangetsu Geri/Uke.
Gigō Funakoshi (1906–1945) was the third son of Gichin Funakoshi and is widely credited with developing the foundation of the modern karate Shotokan style.
Shōbayashi Shōrin-ryu (少林流) is a style of Okinawan Shorin-ryu karate founded by Eizo Shimabukuro. Eizo Shimabukuro (1925-2017) dropped the Chatan Yara no Kusanku and the Oyadamari no Passai he learned from Chotoku Kyan and he added Kusanku Sho and Dai and Passai Sho and Dai of Yasutsune Itosu lineage. It is said that Eizo Shimabukuro learned these Itosu kata as well as Pinan Shodan to Godan and Naihanchin Shodan to Sandan from Choshin Chibana. However, in his book "Okinawa Karatedo Old Grandmaster Stories" Eizo Shimabukuro says that Chibana was too old to teach and so Chibana referred Shimabukuro to his senior student, Nakazato, for instruction. Eizo Shimabuku also added two kata from his time in Goju-ryu with Chojun Miyagi. These kata being Seiunchin and Sanchin.
Shorin-ryu Seibukan, also known as Sukunaihayashi, is one of the many Okinawan Shorin-ryu styles of karate.
Gichin Funakoshi is the founder of Shotokan karate-do, perhaps the most widely known style of karate, and is known as a "father of modern karate". Following the teachings of Anko Itosu and Anko Asato, he was one of the Okinawan karate masters who introduced karate, but after Ankō Itosu sensei, Funakoshi sensei's teacher, had introduced the art pre-1922, to the Japanese mainland in 1922. He taught karate at various Japanese universities and became honorary head of the Japan Karate Association upon its establishment in 1949.
Okinawan martial arts refers to the martial arts, such as karate, tegumi and Okinawan kobudō, which originated among the indigenous people of Okinawa Island. Due to its central location, Okinawa was influenced by various cultures with a long history of trade and cultural exchange, including Japan, China and Southeast Asia, that greatly influenced the development of martial arts on Okinawa.
Yasuhiro Konishi was one of the first karateka to teach karate on mainland Japan. He was instrumental in developing modern karate, as well as a driving force in the art's acceptance in Japan. He is credited with developing the style known as Shindō