Naitō Torajirō at his home, April 9, 1934
|Died||June 26, 1934 67) (aged|
|Other names||Naitō Konan(内藤 湖南)|
Naitō Torajirō (Japanese: 内藤 虎次郎, August 27, 1866 – June 26, 1934), commonly known as Naitō Konan (内藤 湖南), was a Japanese historian and Sinologist. He was the founder of the Kyoto School of historiography, and along with Shiratori Kurakichi (the founder of the Tokyo School), was one of the leading Japanese historians of East Asia in the early twentieth century. His most well-known book is called Nara .
He was born in what is today Akita Prefecture. He distinguished himself as a journalist. In 1907 he discovered Manwen Laodang in Mukden. As an authority of Chinese history, he was invited to Kyoto Imperial University by Kano Kokichi in 1907 and got involved in the foundation of the Department of Oriental History.
Naitō's most influential contribution to historiography was the recognition and analysis of the "Tang-Song transition" as an important watershed. He argued that the social, political, demographic and economic changes that occurred between the mid-Tang Dynasty and early Song Dynasty represented the transition between the medieval (chūsei) and early modern (kinsei) periods of Chinese history.
In Japanese history, Naitō argued that Yamataikoku was located in Kyūshū rather than in Kinki.
The earliest known written records of the history of China date from as early as 1250 BC, from the Shang dynasty, during the king Wu Ding's reign, who was mentioned as the twenty-first Shang king by the same. Ancient historical texts such as the Book of Documents, the Records of the Grand Historian and the Bamboo Annals mention and describe a Xia dynasty before the Shang, but no writing is known from the period, and Shang writings do not indicate the existence of the Xia. The Shang ruled in the Yellow River valley, which is commonly held to be the cradle of Chinese civilization. However, Neolithic civilizations originated at various cultural centers along both the Yellow River and Yangtze River. These Yellow River and Yangtze civilizations arose millennia before the Shang. With thousands of years of continuous history, China is one of the world's oldest civilizations and is regarded as one of the cradles of civilization.
Chinese historiography is the study of the techniques and sources used by historians to develop the recorded history of China.
Historiography is the study of the methods of historians in developing history as an academic discipline, and by extension is any body of historical work on a particular subject. The historiography of a specific topic covers how historians have studied that topic using particular sources, techniques, and theoretical approaches. Scholars discuss historiography by topic—such as the historiography of the United Kingdom, that of WWII, the British Empire, early Islam, and China—and different approaches and genres, such as political history and social history. Beginning in the nineteenth century, with the development of academic history, there developed a body of historiographic literature. The extent to which historians are influenced by their own groups and loyalties—such as to their nation state—remains a debated question.
The Xia dynasty is the first dynasty in traditional Chinese historiography. According to tradition, the Xia dynasty was established by the legendary Yu the Great, after Shun, the last of the Five Emperors, gave the throne to him. In the traditional historiography, the Xia was later succeeded by the Shang dynasty.
Sima Guang, courtesy name Junshi, was a Chinese historian, writer, official, and politician. He was a high-ranking Song dynasty scholar-official and historian who authored the monumental history book Zizhi Tongjian. Sima was a political conservative who opposed Wang Anshi's reforms.
The Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period (907–979) was an era of political upheaval and division in 10th-century Imperial China. Five states quickly succeeded one another in the Central Plain, and more than a dozen concurrent states were established elsewhere, mainly in South China. It was the last prolonged period of multiple political divisions in Chinese imperial history.
Dynasties in Chinese history, or Chinese dynasties, were hereditary monarchical regimes that ruled over China during much of its history. From the inauguration of dynastic rule by Yu the Great in circa 2070 BC to the abdication of the Xuantong Emperor on 12 February 1912 in the wake of the Xinhai Revolution, China was ruled by a series of successive dynasties. Dynasties of China were not limited to those established by ethnic Han—the dominant Chinese ethnic group—and its predecessor, the Huaxia tribal confederation, but also included those founded by non-Han peoples.
Liang Qichao was a Chinese social and political activist, journalist, and intellectual who lived during the late Qing dynasty and the early Republic of China. His thought had a significant influence on the political reformation of modern China. He inspired Chinese scholars and activists with his writings and reform movements. His translations of Western and Japanese books into Chinese introduced new theories and ideas and inspired young activists.
Southern Han, originally Yue, was one of the ten kingdoms that existed during the Five Dynasties and Ten Kingdoms period. It was located on China's southern coast, controlling modern Guangdong and Guangxi. The kingdom greatly expanded its capital Xingwang Fu. It attempted but failed to annex the independent polity of Jinghai which was controlled by the Vietnamese.
Naitō Nobuchika, was the 7th Naitō daimyō of Murakami Domain under the Edo period Tokugawa shogunate of Japan. He was also known as Naitō Nobumoto (内藤信思). His courtesy title was Kii-no-kami.
Murakami Domain was a feudal domain under the Tokugawa shogunate of Edo period Japan, located in Echigo Province, Japan. It was centered on Murakami Castle in what is now the city of Murakami, Niigata.
Naitō Joan, son of Matsunaga Nagayori, was a Japanese samurai and lord of Yagi Castle. Earlier called, Naitō Tadatoshi, he was baptised into the Catholic Church in 1564 and took the name Joan. He was the brother of a famous woman catechist, Naitō Julia. Following the shogunate’s anti-Christian edict of 1614 he was banished to Manila and died there in 1626.
China and Japan share a long history through trade, cultural exchanges, friendship, and conflict. Cross cultural contacts, before 1600 strongly influenced Japan; particularly from China with its writing system, architecture, culture, religion, philosophy, and law, many of which were introduced by the Kingdom of Baekje. Trade began in the 1860s. Many Chinese students were trained in Japan and political activists were based there before they overthrew the Chinese empire in 1912. A series of wars and confrontations took place between 1880 and 1945, with Japan seizing Taiwan, Manchuria and most of coastal China. Japan was defeated and withdrew in 1945. Since 1950 relations have been tense because of the Korean War and the Cold War. Trade has expanded greatly in the 21st century.
Korean nationalist historiography is a way of writing Korean history that centers on the Korean minjok, an ethnically or racially defined Korean nation. This kind of historiography emerged in the early twentieth century among Korean intellectuals who wanted to foster national consciousness to achieve Korean independence from Japanese domination. Its first proponent was journalist and independence activist Shin Chaeho (1880–1936). In his polemical New Reading of History, which was published in 1908 three years after Korea became a Japanese protectorate, Shin proclaimed that Korean history was the history of the Korean minjok, a distinct race descended from the god Dangun that had once controlled not only the Korean peninsula but also large parts of Manchuria. Nationalist historians made expansive claims to the territory of these ancient "Korean" kingdoms, by which the present state of the minjok was to be judged.
The historiography of Japan is the study of methods and hypotheses formulated in the study and literature of the history of Japan.
Joshua A. Fogel is a Sinologist, historian, and translator who specializes in the history of modern China, especially on the cultural and political relations between China and Japan. He has held a Tier 1 Canada Research Chair at York University, Toronto, Ontario, Canada since 2005. He holds dual American and Canadian citizenship.
Ichisada Miyazaki is a Japanese historian specializing in Chinese history. He represents the second generation of the Kyoto school founded by his teacher Naitō Konan.
Naitō Julia was a Japanese noble lady and religious leader from the Sengoku period to the early Edo period. Julia was one of the prominent Catholic leaders, along with Kyogoku Maria and others women catechist, who strongly resisted the oppressions imposed on Christianity. She faced the rules of samurai governments, staying true to her missionary campaigns even when Christianity was banned in Japan.
Ichirō Inaba was a Japanese historian of China and professor emeritus at Kwansei Gakuin University.