Nakhon Ratchasima

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Nakhon Ratchasima

โคราช
Korat
City of Nakhon Ratchasima
เทศบาลนครนครราชสีมา
Square - panoramio (8).jpg
Koratfootball.jpg
2019 02 Central Mall Korat exterior.jpg
Chum Phon Gate (I).jpg
nakonrachiyashimaYi .jpg
(From top, left to right): Thao Suranaree Monument Downtown, 80th Birthday Stadium, CentralPlaza Nakhon Ratchasima, The City Gate, and Nakhon Ratchasima railway station
Seal of Nakhon Ratchasima.png
Seal
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Nakhon Ratchasima
Location in Thailand
Coordinates: 14°58′50″N102°6′00″E / 14.98056°N 102.10000°E / 14.98056; 102.10000
Country Flag of Thailand.svg  Thailand
Province Nakhon Ratchasima
District Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima
Settled1656 (Ayutthaya Period)
Sanitation 3 Jan 1908
Town 10 Dec 1935
City 24 Sept 1995
Government
  Type City municipality
  MayorSurawuth Cherdchai
  Municipal ClerkArlom Tangtaku
Area
   City municipality 37.5 km2 (14.5 sq mi)
  Metro
767.98 km2 (296.52 sq mi)
Area rank13th
Elevation
180 m (590 ft)
Population
 (2019) [1]
   City municipality 126,391
(Registered residents)
  Rank9th
  Density3,370/km2 (8,700/sq mi)
   Metro
444,023
  Metro density578.17/km2 (1,497.5/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+7 (ICT)
Postcode
30000
Calling code 044
Website koratcity.go.th

Nakhon Ratchasima (Thai : นครราชสีมา, pronounced [ná(ʔ).kʰɔ̄ːn râːt.t͡ɕʰā.sǐː.māː] ) is one of the four major cities of Isan, Thailand, known as the "big four of Isan". The city is commonly known as Korat (โคราช, pronounced [kʰōː.râːt] ), a shortened form of its name. It is the governmental seat of the Nakhon Ratchasima Province and Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District. Nakhon Ratchasima is the heart of the Nakhon Ratchasima metropolitan area.

Contents

Korat is at the western edge of the Korat Plateau. Historically, it once marked the boundary between Lao and Siam territory. It is the gateway to the Lao-speaking northeast (Isan). Its location is 14°58.5′N102°6′E / 14.9750°N 102.100°E / 14.9750; 102.100 Coordinates: 14°58.5′N102°6′E / 14.9750°N 102.100°E / 14.9750; 102.100 . As of 2019, the municipal area had a population of 126,391. [1]

Toponymy

Archaeological evidence suggests that in Sung Noen District 32 km west of present-day Nakhon Ratchasima (Korat) there were two ancient towns called Sema ("Bai sema" (ใบเสมา) are notable artifacts of the Korat plateau)[ citation needed ] and Khorakapura. (Pali púra becomes Sanskrit puri, hence Thai (buri), all connoting the same as Thai mueang : "city with defensive wall".) N The latter name was shortened to Nakhon Raj. (Nakhon (นคร) derives from Sanskrit nagara (नगर), "city"; Raj (ราช), from Sanskrit Raj, "sovereign.") The present city name is a portmanteau of Nakhon Raj and Sema.

The city is commonly known as "Korat" (Thai: โคราช), which is a short version of the ancient Khmer name "ankor raj".

History

Ya Mo Entrance Gate at the junction of Ratchadamnoen Rd and Hwy 224 Nakhonratchasima.JPG
Ya Mo Entrance Gate at the junction of Ratchadamnoen Rd and Hwy 224

Prior to the 14th century, the area of Nakhon Ratchasima was under Khmer empire suzerainty and known in Khmer as Angkor raj, Nokor Reach Seyma, or Nokor Reach Borei, and Koreach. Phimai, to the north, was probably more important.

King Narai of Ayutthaya in the 17th century, ordered a new city built on the site to serve as a stronghold on Ayutthaya's northeastern frontier. Nakhon Ratchasima was thereafter mentioned in Siamese chronicles and legal documents as a "second-class" city of the Ayutthaya Kingdom. A royal governor ruled the city in a hereditary position.

After the final phase of the Ayutthaya kingdom ended with its complete destruction by the Burmese in 1767, a son of King Boromakot attempted to set himself up ruler in Phimai, holding sway over Korat and other eastern provinces. King Taksin of the Thonburi Kingdom (1768–1782) sent two of his generals, brothers Thong Duang and Boonma, to defeat the prince, who was executed in 1768. Thong Duang later became King Rama I of the kingdom, and Korat became his strategic stronghold on the northeastern frontier to supervise the Lao and Khmer tributary states.

Nakhon Ratchasima Railway Station 2019 0211 Nakhon Ratchasima train station.jpg
Nakhon Ratchasima Railway Station

In 1826, Vientiane King Chao Anouvong, perceiving Siam as weakened, attacked Korat in the Laotian Rebellion against King Rama III that was to rage on for two years. [2] Lady Mo, the wife of the deputy governor at the time, is credited with having freed the city from Anouvong's army, and has been honored with a statue in the center of downtown Korat. A full account of the war and its impact on Laos and Siam, is detailed in the book, Lady Mo and Heroism at Tung Samrit, written by Frank G Anderson. The city's old wall, east of the monument was designed and built by a French engineer who is believed to be the one who also built Naraimaharaj Palace in Lopburi. The French-based design is reflected in the moat system that surrounds the innermost portion of the city.

Nakhon Ratchasima continued to be an important political and economic center in the northeastern region under the Monthon administrative reforms of the late-19th century. In November 1900, the Royal State Railways of Siam began operation of the Nakhon Ratchasima Line from Bangkok with Korat Station as its terminus. The Ubon Ratchathani Line to the town of Warin opened 1 November 1922. The Thanon Chira Junction to Khon Kaen opened on 1 April 1933. Korat station was changed to Nakhon Ratchasima Railway Station in 1934.

In October 1933, after the Siamese revolution of 1932 ended the absolute monarchy, Nakhon Ratchasima became the headquarters of the Boworadet Rebellion, an abortive uprising against the new government in Bangkok.[ citation needed ]

During World War II, the troops from Nakhon Ratchasima joined the fight in Franco-Thai War, The Thai army was able to temporarily recapture some of the territory. After the war, the United States helped build Mittraphap Road from Saraburi to Nakhon Ratchasima.

In April 1981 during another attempted coup, the government, together with the royal family, took refuge in Korat.[ citation needed ]

From 1962 to 1976, during the Vietnam War, Korat Royal Thai Air Force Base hosted components of the Royal Thai Air Force, the United States Air Force, and a complement of the Royal New Zealand Air Force (RNZAF). After the US withdrawal in 1976, the Thai Air Force assumed full control. During the 1980s and early-1990s, the airfield was jointly operated as a civil airport for Nakhon Ratchasima. This ended with the opening of Nakhon Ratchasima Airport in the early-1990s.

On 13 August 1993, Thailand's worst disaster happened in the city, the collapse of the Royal Plaza Hotel, killing 137 people. [3]

On 8 and 9 February 2020, Thailand's most deadly shooting occurred in the city, when an offduty Royal Thai Army Sergeant shot 29 people dead and wounded 58 others, mostly at the local Terminal 21 mall, before being killed by responding officers. [4]

Panorama from Fort Suranaree wo bld2.jpg
Korat City from Fort Suranaree Hospital

Administration

On 4 January 1908 Pho Klang subdistrict became Nakhon Ratchasima sanitation. [5] The sanitation changed to town municipality ( thesaban mueang ) on 11 December 1935. [6] On 8 March 1937 the municipality was enlarged to 4.4 sq.km. [7] and later on 1 January 1983 to 37.5 sq. km. or 5 percent of Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District. The status was upgraded to city municipality ( thesaban nakhon ) on 25 September 1995. [8] The administration of the city is responsible for a population of 126,391 registered residents in 71,022 households. [1]

Climate

Nakhon Ratchasima has a tropical savanna climate (Aw in the Köppen climate classification), with the large majority of its rain falling between May and October.

Climate data for Nakhon Ratchasima (1981–2010)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)37.7
(99.9)
39.4
(102.9)
40.8
(105.4)
42.2
(108.0)
41.4
(106.5)
39.2
(102.6)
39.2
(102.6)
37.2
(99.0)
36.7
(98.1)
35.1
(95.2)
36.1
(97.0)
36.0
(96.8)
42.2
(108.0)
Average high °C (°F)30.7
(87.3)
33.6
(92.5)
35.6
(96.1)
36.5
(97.7)
35.0
(95.0)
34.4
(93.9)
33.8
(92.8)
33.2
(91.8)
32.2
(90.0)
31.0
(87.8)
30.1
(86.2)
29.3
(84.7)
33.0
(91.4)
Daily mean °C (°F)24.3
(75.7)
26.9
(80.4)
28.9
(84.0)
30.0
(86.0)
29.1
(84.4)
29.1
(84.4)
28.6
(83.5)
28.1
(82.6)
27.4
(81.3)
26.7
(80.1)
25.4
(77.7)
23.6
(74.5)
27.3
(81.1)
Average low °C (°F)18.5
(65.3)
21.0
(69.8)
23.2
(73.8)
24.9
(76.8)
25.0
(77.0)
25.1
(77.2)
24.7
(76.5)
24.5
(76.1)
24.0
(75.2)
23.2
(73.8)
21.1
(70.0)
18.3
(64.9)
22.8
(73.0)
Record low °C (°F)9.6
(49.3)
12.4
(54.3)
13.0
(55.4)
19.0
(66.2)
21.5
(70.7)
22.0
(71.6)
21.3
(70.3)
21.7
(71.1)
20.4
(68.7)
16.6
(61.9)
12.5
(54.5)
8.3
(46.9)
8.3
(46.9)
Average rainfall mm (inches)8.2
(0.32)
16.1
(0.63)
37.1
(1.46)
72.2
(2.84)
154.1
(6.07)
104.5
(4.11)
120.9
(4.76)
157.2
(6.19)
228.3
(8.99)
146.3
(5.76)
23.9
(0.94)
2.7
(0.11)
1,071.5
(42.19)
Average rainy days1.02.35.48.413.912.914.317.318.612.33.90.9111.2
Average relative humidity (%)64626165737273758078716670
Mean monthly sunshine hours 226.3211.9201.5186.0155.0114.0117.8117.8108.0145.7186.0226.31,996.3
Mean daily sunshine hours 7.37.56.56.25.03.83.83.83.64.76.27.35.5
Source 1: Thai Meteorological Department [9]
Source 2: Office of Water Management and Hydrology, Royal Irrigation Department (sun and humidity) [10]

Economy

One of the halls inside Terminal 21 Shopping Mall 2019 0210 Terminal 21 Korat 05.jpg
One of the halls inside Terminal 21 Shopping Mall
CentralPlaza at sunset 2019 02 Central Mall Korat exterior.jpg
CentralPlaza at sunset

Korat's economy has traditionally been heavily dependent on agriculture. It is known as a processing centre for Isan's production of rice, tapioca, and sugar. The Isan region accounts for half of Thailand's exports of those commodities. Together, these three agricultural commodities employ 700,000 Isan families. Korat is also one of two sites in Thailand manufacturing disk drives by Seagate Technology, employing 12,100 workers in Korat. [11] [12]

Retail

Korat has become the commercial hub, not only for Isan, but also for neighbouring Cambodia and Laos. All three of Thailand's largest Bangkok-based department store chains have invested in expansive outlets in the city, which will provide one million square metres of retail space by late 2017. [11]

Transport

Air

Nakhon Ratchasima Airport lies 26 kilometres (16 mi) east of the city. [13] There are no scheduled air services operating from the airport.

Rail

Nakhon Ratchasima is on the northeastern railway line, connecting Bangkok with Ubon Ratchathani and Nong Khai. There are two main railway stations in the city: Nakhon Ratchasima Railway Station on Mukkhamontri Road and Thanon Chira Junction Railway Station on Watcharasarit Road. In 2017, a 60 km (37 mi) dual-track line will connect Korat to Khon Kaen. It is the first segment of a dual track network that will connect Isan with the Laem Chabang seaport. [11] A high-speed rail line to Bangkok is due to open in 2023. [14]

Road

Passing near the city is Mittraphap Road (Thailand Route 2), the main arterial road that joins Bangkok with the province capitals of Saraburi, Nakhon Ratchasima. Khon Kaen, Udon Thani, and Nong Khai (the major gateway to Laos). A new motorway connecting Korat to Bangkok is under construction in 2016 and will reduce travel time on the 250 km (160 mi) journey to just over two hours. [11]

Education

Statue of Lady Mo, Korat city centre. Thao Suranaree statue.jpg
Statue of Lady Mo, Korat city centre.

Universities

There are four universities in the area.

Schools

International schools

Hospitals

Bangkok-Ratchasima Hospital Bangkok Hospital (Korat).jpg
Bangkok-Ratchasima Hospital

Sports

His Majesty the King's 80th Birthday Anniversary, 5 December 2007 Sports Complex. Korat v Thailand XI.JPG
His Majesty the King's 80th Birthday Anniversary, 5 December 2007 Sports Complex.

The 80th Birthday Stadium is the main stadium in His Majesty the King's 80th Birthday Anniversary, 5th December 2007 Sports Complex. It is home to Nakhon Ratchasima FC that competes in the national first tier football level, Thailand Premier League and it was used for the 2007 Southeast Asian Games.

The stadium is in the former SEA Games sports complex on Highway 304 (Pak Thong Chai Road) to the southwest of the city. The stadium is all-seats with a capacity of 20,000.

Nakhon Ratchasima is the home of the four-times Men's Volleyball Thailand League winner, Nakhon Ratchasima the Mall and the three-times Women's Volleyball Thailand League winner, Nakhon Ratchasima the Mall. It is also the birthplace of football player Thanayut Kaewjohor.

Sister cities

Nantes, France 2020

Dresden, Germany 2020

Brno, Czechia 2020

See also

Related Research Articles

Khon Kaen City Municipality in Thailand

Khon Kaen is one of the four major cities of Isan, Thailand, also known as the "big four of Isan", the others being Udon Thani, Nakhon Ratchasima, and Ubon Ratchathani. It is the capital of Khon Kaen Province and the Mueang Khon Kaen District. Khon Kaen lies 450 kilometres (280 mi) north-northeast of Bangkok.

Isan Region in Nakhon Ratchasima

Northeast Thailand or Isan consists of 20 provinces in the northeastern region of Thailand. Isan is Thailand's largest region, located on the Khorat Plateau, bordered by the Mekong River to the north and east, by Cambodia to the southeast and the Sankamphaeng Range south of Nakhon Ratchasima. To the west it is separated from northern and central Thailand by the Phetchabun Mountains. Isan covers 167,718 km2 (64,756 sq mi) making it about half the size of Germany and roughly the size of England and Wales. The total forest area is 25,203 km2 (9,731 sq mi) or 15 percent of Isan area.

Nakhon Ratchasima Province Province of Thailand

Nakhon Ratchasima is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in lower northeastern Thailand also called Isan. It is the country's largest province by area, has a population of approximately 2.7 million, and generates about 250 billion baht in GDP, the highest in Isan. Neighbouring provinces are Chaiyaphum, Khon Kaen, Buriram, Sa Kaeo, Prachinburi, Nakhon Nayok, Saraburi, and Lopburi.

Khon Kaen Province Province of Thailand

Khon Kaen is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in central northeastern Thailand also called Isan. Neighboring provinces are Nong Bua Lamphu, Udon Thani, Kalasin, Maha Sarakham, Buriram, Nakhon Ratchasima, Chaiyaphum, Phetchabun, and Loei.

Udon Thani City Municipality in Thailand

Udon Thani is one of the four major cities of Isan, Thailand's north-eastern region, an area the size of England with Wales or roughly half the size of Germany. The city is the capital of Udon Thani Province and with a population of approximately 130,531 is the 7th largest urban settlement in the country.

Buriram Province Province in Thailand

Buriram Province, is one of Thailand's seventy-six provinces (changwat) lies in lower northeastern Thailand also called Isan. Neighboring provinces are Sa Kaeo, Nakhon Ratchasima, Khon Kaen, Maha Sarakham, and Surin. To the southeast it borders Oddar Meanchey Province of Cambodia. The name "Buriram" means 'city of happiness'.

Phra Nakhon Si Ayutthaya Province Province of Thailand

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Monthon

Monthon were administrative subdivisions of Thailand at the beginning of the 20th century. The Thai word monthon is a translation of the word mandala, in its sense of a type of political formation. The monthon were created as a part of the Thesaphiban bureaucratic administrative system, introduced by Prince Damrong Rajanubhab which, together with the monthon, established step-by-step today's present provinces (changwat), districts (amphoe), and communes (tambon) throughout Thailand. Each monthon was led by a royal commissioner called Thesaphiban (เทศาภิบาล), later renamed to Samuhathesaphiban (สมุหเทศาภิบาล). The system was officially adopted by the 1897 Local Administration Act, after some monthon had been established and administrative details were sorted out.

History of Isan

The history of Isan has been determined by its geography, situated as it is on the Korat Plateau between Cambodia, Laos, and Thailand.

Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District District in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima is one of 32 districts of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeastern Thailand.

Mueang Yang District District in Nakhon Ratchasima, Thailand

Mueang Yang is a district (amphoe) in the northeastern part of Nakhon Ratchasima Province, northeastern Thailand.

Mueang Khon Kaen District District in Khon Kaen, Thailand

Mueang Khon Kaen is the capital district of Khon Kaen Province, northeastern Thailand.

Sikhism is a recognised minority religion in Thailand, with about 70,000 adherents. The religion was brought by migrants from India who began to arrive in the late 19th century. There are about twenty Sikh temples or Gurdwaras in the country, including the Gurdwara Sri Guru Singh Sabha in Bangkok.

Khorat Thai, Korat Thai or Thai Khorat refers to an ethnic group named for their main settlement area in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, unofficially called "Korat". Korat Thai people call themselves Thai Boeng, Thai Doeng, or Thai Khorat. Other tribes in northern Thailand also refer to them by those names.

Lao rebellion (1826–1828) Rebellion of the Kingdom of Vientiane against Siam

The Lao rebellion, also known as Anouvong's Rebellion or Lao–Siamese War, was an attempt by King Anouvong of the Kingdom of Vientiane to end the suzerainty of Siam and recreate the former kingdom of Lan Xang. In January 1827 the Lao armies of the kingdoms of Vientiane and Champasak moved south and west across the Khorat Plateau, advancing as far as Saraburi. The Siamese quickly mounted a counterattack, forcing the Lao forces to retreat. The Siamese continued north to defeat Anouvong's army. His rebellion had failed, which led to his capture, the destruction of his city of Vientiane in retaliation, a massive resettlement of Lao people to the west bank of the Mekong River, and direct Siamese administration of the former territories of the Kingdom of Vientiane. The legacy of the Lao rebellion is controversial. It is viewed in Thailand as a ruthless and daring rebellion that had to be suppressed, and has given rise to the folk heroes such as Thao Suranari. In Laos, King Anouvong is now revered as a national hero who died in pursuit of complete independence, even though he both lost his life in an ill-advised revolt against heavy odds and virtually guaranteed that the Lao-speaking provinces across the Mekong River would remain as part of Siam.

Thanon Chira Junction railway station

Thanon Chira Junction railway station is the main railway station in Nakhon Ratchasima Province, Thailand. The station is on the south side of the city moat in Nakhon Ratchasima. There are 18 daily trains serving the station. There are also four to six special trains during the Thai New Year, Songkran, and other festivals. In the 2008 census, Thanon Chira Junction railway station served nearly 350,000 passengers.

This is a list of articles related to Thailand, sorted by alphabetical order. It represents the majority of articles contained within the Thailand category. For a list of key articles arranged by topic, see Outline of Thailand.

Northeastern Line (Thailand)

Northeastern Line is a Railway line in Thailand that connects the capital Bangkok with the northeast region of Isan. The section from Bangkok to Nakhon Ratchasima is Thailand's first line that that opened for passenger service. The line is also a key section of the central route on the Kunming–Singapore railway.

Khok Kruat railway station is a railway station in Isan region, located in Khok Kruat Sub-District, Mueang Nakhon Ratchasima District, Nakhon Ratchasima Province (Korat).

References

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