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|Nallur Kandaswamy Temple|
|Creator||'Don Juan' Ragunatha Maapaana Mudaliyar|
|Completed||Founded in 948 ad reconstructed in 1734.|
Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil (Tamil : நல்லூர் கந்தசுவாமி கோவில் Sinhala : නල්ලුරුව ස්කන්ධ කුමාර කෝවිල) is a significant Hindu temple, located in Nallur, Northern Province, Sri Lanka. The presiding deity is Lord Murugan or Katharagama Deviyo in the form of the holy 'Ve l' in the Sanctum, the primary shrine, and in other forms, namely, Shanmugar, Muthukumaraswami, Valli Kaanthar with consorts Valli and Deivayanai, and Thendayuthapani, sans consorts in secondary shrines in the temple.
Tamil is a Dravidian language predominantly spoken by the Tamil people of India and Sri Lanka, and by the Tamil diaspora, Sri Lankan Moors, Douglas, and Chindians. Tamil is an official language of three countries: India, Sri Lanka and Singapore. It is also the official language of the Indian state of Tamil Nadu and the Union Territory of Puducherry. It is used as one of the languages of education in Malaysia, along with English, Malay and Mandarin. Tamil is spoken by significant minorities in the four other South Indian states of Kerala, Karnataka, Andhra Pradesh and Telangana and the Union Territory of the Andaman and Nicobar Islands. It is one of the 22 scheduled languages of India.
Sinhala, also known as Sinhalese, is the native language of the Sinhalese people, who make up the largest ethnic group in Sri Lanka, numbering about 16 million. Sinhala is also spoken as a second language by other ethnic groups in Sri Lanka, totalling about four million. It belongs to the Indo-Aryan branch of the Indo-European languages. Sinhala is written using Sinhala script, which is one of the Brahmic scripts, a descendant of the ancient Indian Brahmi script closely related to the Kadamba script.
A Hindu temple is a symbolic house, seat and body of god. It is a structure designed to bring human beings and gods together, using symbolism to express the ideas and beliefs of Hinduism. The symbolism and structure of a Hindu temple are rooted in Vedic traditions, deploying circles and squares. It also represents recursion and equivalence of the macrocosm and the microcosm by astronomical numbers, and by "specific alignments related to the geography of the place and the presumed linkages of the deity and the patron". A temple incorporates all elements of Hindu cosmos—presenting the good, the evil and the human, as well as the elements of Hindu sense of cyclic time and the essence of life—symbolically presenting dharma, kama, artha, moksa, and karma.
The original, Kandaswamy Temple was founded in 948 ad. According to the Yalpana Vaipava Malai , the temple was developed at the site in the 13th century by Buwanika Bahu, a minister to the King of Kotte. Sapumal Kumaraya (also known as Chempaha Perumal in Tamil), who ruled the Jaffna kingdom on behalf of the Kotte kingdom is credited with building the third Nallur Kandaswamy temple.Nallur served as the capital of the Jaffna kings, with the royal palace situated very close to the temple. Nallur was built with four entrances with gates. There were two main roadways and four temples at the four gateways.
Yalpana Vaipava Malai is a book written by a Tamil poet named Mayil Vaakaanar in Tamil மயில் வாகனார் 1736. This book contains historical facts of the early Tamil city of Jaffna. The book which may have been written around 1736 during the Governorship of Jan Maccara, the then Dutch Governor of Jaffna. It was translated from Tamil by C. Brito, and was first published in 1879. The work is looked upon as one of great authority among the Tamils of Jaffna.
The present rebuilt temple that exist now do not match their original locations which instead are occupied by churches erected by the Portuguese.The center of the city was Muthirai Santhai (market place) and was surrounded by a square fortification around it. There were courtly buildings for the kings, Brahmin priests, soldiers and other service providers. The old Kandaswamy temple functioned as a defensive fort with high walls. In general, the city was laid out like the traditional temple town according to Hindu traditions. Cankilian Thoppu, the facade of the palace of King Cankili II, can still be found in Nallur. The third temple was destroyed by the Portuguese Catholic colonial Filipe de Oliveira in 1624 AD. The original kovil was located where St. James' Church, Nallur is located today. Part of the original Shivalingam of the Nallur Kandaswamy Temple was located in the Vicarage till 1995 when it was destroyed during the recapture of Jaffna by Sri Lanka armed forces and the platform where the shivalingam was mounted on can still be seen in the hallway of the vicarage.
Cankili II was the self-proclaimed last king of the Jaffna kingdom and was a usurper who came to throne with a palace massacre of the royal princess and the regent Arasakesari in 1617. His regency was rejected by the Portuguese colonials in Colombo, Sri Lanka. His reign was secured with military forces from the Thanjavur Nayaks and Karaiyar captains. He was defeated by the Portuguese in 1619 and was taken to Goa and hanged. With his death the Aryacakravarti line of Kings who had ruled the kingdom for over 300 years came to an end.
Portugal, officially the Portuguese Republic, is a country located mostly on the Iberian Peninsula in southwestern Europe. It is the westernmost sovereign state of mainland Europe, being bordered to the west and south by the Atlantic Ocean and to the north and east by Spain. Its territory also includes the Atlantic archipelagos of the Azores and Madeira, both autonomous regions with their own regional governments.
The fourth and the present temple was constructed in 1734 A.D. during the benign Dutch colonial era by 'Don Juan' Ragunatha Maapaana Mudaliyar, who served as a Shroff in the Dutch Katchery, in a place identified then as the 'Kurukkal Valavu. Krishnaiyar a Brahmin, served as the first priest of the temple.
The Netherlands is a country located mainly in Northwestern Europe. The European portion of the Netherlands consists of twelve separate provinces that border Germany to the east, Belgium to the south, and the North Sea to the northwest, with maritime borders in the North Sea with Belgium, Germany and the United Kingdom. Together with three island territories in the Caribbean Sea—Bonaire, Sint Eustatius and Saba—it forms a constituent country of the Kingdom of the Netherlands. The official language is Dutch, but a secondary official language in the province of Friesland is West Frisian.
Initially the temple was built using bricks and stones and had a cadjan roof, enshrining a 'Vel' in the middle. The original shrine had only two small halls.
Ragunatha Maapaana Mudaliyar's descendants continued to administor the temple as Custodians of the temple over the past centuries and to date many additions have been made to bring the temple to its present Glory.
The start of the 'Golden Period' in the history of Nallur Temple is recorded as post 1890, soon after the taking over the temple administration by Arumuga Maapaana Mudaliyar, the 7th Custodian. The first Bell tower was erected by him in 1899 and he made many improvements to the temple including the main Sanctum, renovating it using granite to pave the floor of the Sanctum in 1902. The first enclosing wall was erected in 1909 by him. Likewise, the temple has been gradually renovated from time to time by his successors to date. After the year 1964, the year the present and the 10th Custodian, Kumaradas Maapaana Mudaliyar took over office, extensive improvements have been made to date, virtually rebuilding the entire complex and making it physically the largest Hindu Temple Complex in the country. The custom of annual 'Thiruppani', introduced by him, has seen the temple growing into its present splendor. Today the temple has four Gopurams and six Bell Towers, along with its fortified walls, giving it an appearance of a citadel in Nallur.
The temple has the main entrance facing the east. It has an ornately carved five-story tower or gopuram in the Dravidian architecture style at the main entrance.
A Gopuram or gopura is a monumental entrance tower, usually ornate, at the entrance of a Hindu temple, in the Dravidian architecture of the Tamil Nadu, Andhra Pradesh, Kerala, Karnataka, and Telangana states of Southern India.
Dravidian architecture is an architectural idiom in Hindu temple architecture that emerged in the southern part of the Indian subcontinent or South India, reaching its final form by the sixteenth century. It consists primarily of Hindu temples where the dominating feature is the high gopura or gatehouse; large temples have several. Mentioned as one of three styles of temple building in the ancient book Vastu shastra, the majority of the existing structures are located in the Southern Indian states of Andhra Pradesh, Karnataka, Kerala, Tamil Nadu and Telangana. Various kingdoms and empires such as the Cholas, the Chera, the Kakatiyas, the Pandyas, the Pallavas, the Gangas, the Kadambas, the Rashtrakutas, the Chalukyas, the Hoysalas, and Vijayanagara Empire among others have made substantial contribution to the evolution of Dravidian architecture.
In the surrounding inner veethy or circumbulatory path, it has shrines for Lords Ganesh, Palliyarai, Sandana Gopala r, Goddess Gajavalli Mahavalli, Vairavar and Sooriyan with Consorts, and Vairavar.
Shree Krishna or simply Krishna is a major deity in Hinduism. He is worshipped as the eighth avatar of the god Vishnu and also as the supreme God in his own right. He is the god of compassion, tenderness and love in Hinduism, and is one of the most popular and widely revered among Indian divinities. Krishna's birthday is celebrated every year by Hindus on Krishna Janmashtami according to the lunisolar Hindu calendar, which falls in late August or early September of the Gregorian calendar.
In the southern part of this temple, the holy pond and Thandayudhapaani shrine can be seen. In the northern side, one finds the 'Poonthottam' the holy garden.
The temple is a socially important institution for the Sri Lankan Tamils Hindu identity of north Sri Lanka. In the Sri Lankan Tamil diaspora, many temples have been built in Europe and North America using the same name as a cultural memory. Thanks to its Administration and strict decipline admired and revered by the devotees, Nallur Kovil is the epitome of punctuality, order and neatness, and provides a model for all Saiva temples. Above all it is the manner in which religious ceremonies are conducted with such impeccable timing and strict discipline that makes it a favourite amongst devotees.
On 21 August 2011 the temple unveiled its new Nine storey Raja Gopuram, Named 'Shanmuha Raja Gopuram' with an entrance called ' Swarna Vaasal' ( The Golden Entrance ) at 7:00am local time.
Another New Raja Gopuram was unveiled on 4 September 2015 at 07 a.m. local time, creating a new Northern entrance to the temple complex. It is known as 'Gubera Raja Gopuram', and the entrance named 'Kubera Vaasal'. This tower, slightly over powers the Southern tower and to date recorded as the biggest Gopuram in the Island. 'Guberan' is the deity for wealth and he protects the Northern direction. It is believed by the local people that this Gopuram will attract more wealth to the people of Jaffna peninsula.
The temple hosts the annual festival which begins with the hoisting of the Holy flag – the Kodiyetram.The cloth for hoisting is ceremonially brought to the temple in a small chariot from a family belonging to the Sengunthar dynasty, for centuries.
The festival is spread over a period of twenty five days during which various Yāgams Abishekams and special poojas are conducted. The major religious festivals people flock to witness are the Manjam, Thirukkarthikai, Kailasavahanam, Velvimanam, Thandayuthepani it's a am, Sapparam, Ther festival procession, Theertham – the water cutting festival, and Thirukalyanam – The holy wedding. The Ther Thiruvila (chariot festival) is the most popular of all events is very colourful and commences at 6.15 am . The glamorously dressed Lord Shanmuhar and his consorts are carried out on a Silver Throne called 'Simmasanam', an intricatetly carved masterpiece created by the 7th Custodian, Arumuga Maapaana Mudaliyar in the year 1900. Hundreds of devotees carrying it on their shoulders, and the Simmasanam which floats on the heads of thousands of devotees shouting 'Aro hara' is a sight not to be missed.
The huge and heavy chariot carrying the statue of God Shanmuhar and consorts is paraded along the streets of the Temple. The chariot pulled by a rope of thousands of devotees, rich and poor, old and young stand shoulder to shoulder in pulling it giving God Murugan the opportunity to witness the sincerity and purity of the devotees.
Keerimalai Naguleswaram temple, historically known also as the Thirutambaleswaram Kovil of Keerimalai, is a famous Hindu temple in Keerimalai, located north of Jaffna, Northern Province, Sri Lanka in the suburb of Kankesanthurai. One of the oldest shrines of the region, it is the northernmost of the island's Pancha Ishwarams of Lord Siva, venerated by Hindus across the world from classical antiquity. Hindus believe its adjacent water tank, the Keerimalai Springs, to have curative properties, which irrigation studies attribute to high mineral content sourced from underground.
Keerimalai is a town in Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. Naguleswaram temple is located in this suburb also a mineral water spring called Keerimalai Springs reputed for its curative properties. In Tamil Keerimalai means Mongoose-Hill, see Naguleswaram temple. Keerimalai is situated from 25 km north to Jaffna.
The Sri Mahamariamman Temple(Tamil:ஸ்ரீ மகாமாரியம்மன் திருக்கோவில்,கோலா லம்பூர்) is the oldest Hindu temple in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. Founded in 1873, it is situated at edge of Chinatown in Jalan Bandar. In 1968, a new structure was built, featuring the ornate 'Raja Gopuram' tower in the style of South Indian temples.
Nallur is a suburb in Jaffna, Sri Lanka. It is located 3 km south from the city centre of Jaffna. Nallur is famous for the Nallur Kandaswamy temple a popular place of worship and respectively the largest Saiva temple on the peninsula. It is also famous for being the historical capital of the old Jaffna Kingdom and birthplace of renowned philosopher and theologian Arumuka Navalar.
Kankesanthurai, colloquially known as KKS, is a port suburb, fishing division and resort hub of the Jaffna District, Northern Province, Sri Lanka. Formerly an electoral district, Kankesanthurai is home to the Kankesanthurai beach, Keerimalai Naguleswaram temple and the Maviddapuram Kandaswamy Temple. The port's harbour has served as an arrival and departure point for pilgrims since classical antiquity and is named after the Sri Lankan Tamil god Murukan. Kankesanthurai suburb has many fishing villages and Grama Niladhari and is a northern part of Valikamam, one of the three regions of ancient habitation on the Jaffna peninsula, located on the peninsula's northern coast, 12 miles from Jaffna city, 85 miles from Mannar and 155 miles from Trincomalee.
Pundarikakshan Perumal Temple thiruvellaraitemple.com/ or Thiruvellarai in Thiruvellarai, a village in the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu. Constructed in the Dravidian style of architecture, the temple is glorified in the Divya Prabandha, the early medieval Tamil canon of the Azhwar saints from the 6th–9th centuries AD. It is one of the 108 Divyadesam dedicated to Vishnu, who is worshipped as Pundarikakshan and his consort Lakshmi as Pankajavalli.
Thiru Anbil, or Sundararaja Perumal Temple, in Anbil, a village in the outskirts of Tiruchirappalli in the South Indian state of Tamil Nadu, is dedicated to the Hindu god Vishnu. Constructed in the Dravidian style of architecture, the temple is glorified in the Divya Prabandha, the early medieval Tamil canon of the Azhwar saints from the 6th–9th centuries AD. It is one of the 108 Divyadesam dedicated to Vishnu, who is worshipped as Sundararajan and his consort Lakshmi as Sundaravalli.
Sri Kandaswamy Kovil is a Hindu temple located along Jalan Scott, Brickfields in Kuala Lumpur, Malaysia. The temple is over a century old.
Casuarina Beach is in Karainagar, Jaffna District, Sri Lanka, about 20 kilometers from Jaffna. The Casuarina Beach in Karainagar is also called and written as Casoorina, Cashoorina and few other variants. This is considered to be the best beach in the Jaffna Peninsula with white sand.
Nilavarai is a location in the Jaffna District, Sri Lanka. It is popular for a natural underground Water well where the water never gets depleted and it serves the irrigation of the neighbouring fields. There is another natural Water well in the Jaffna District by the name Idikundu (Idi-kun-du).
Ati Konanayakar or Aathi Koneswaram is a regionally important Hindu temple in Tampalakamam village in the Trincomalee District of Sri Lanka. The name of the temple in Tamil means the "temple of the original lord of Koneswaram". It is situated 24 kilometers (15 mi) from the port town of Trincomalee. The temple was constructed during the 17th century as a successor to the Koneswaram temple that was destroyed by Portuguese colonials in 1622.
Thambiluvil Kannaki Amman Kovil is one of the most significant Hindu temples in the Ampara District of Eastern Province, Sri Lanka. It is situated about 70 km south of Batticaloa town and 11 km south to Akkaraipattu. This is considered as the one of the ancient temples of Mattakkalappu Desam made for Kannaki Amman, the heroine of the great Tamil epic Silappatikaram.
Nainativu Nagapooshani Amman Temple is an ancient and historic Hindu temple located amidst the Palk Strait on the island of Nainativu, Sri Lanka. It is dedicated to Parvati who is known as Nagapooshani or Bhuvaneswari and her consort, Shiva who is named here as Nayinaar. The temple's fame is accredited to Adi Shankaracharya, a 9th-century Hindu philosopher, for identifying it as one of the prominent 64 Shakti Peethams in Shakti Peetha Stotram and its mention in the Brahmanda Purana. The temple complex houses four gopurams ranging from 20–25 feet in height, to the tallest being the eastern Raja Raja Gopuram soaring at 108 feet high. The temple is a significant symbol for the Tamil people, and has been mentioned since antiquity in Tamil literature, such as Manimekalai and Kundalakesi. The present structure was built during 1720 to 1790 after the ancient structure was destroyed by the Portuguese in 1620. The temple attracts around 1000 visitors a day, and approximately 5000 visitors during festivals. The annual 16-day Mahostavam (Thiruvizha) festival celebrated during the Tamil month of Aani (June/July) - attracts over 100,000 pilgrims. There is an estimated 10,000 sculptures in this newly renovated temple.
Ruins of Jaffna kingdom refer to the remains of the Remaining building structures of Jaffna kingdom, the royal abode and structure of the ruling dynasty of the Kingdom of Jaffna, Nallur, Jaffna in Northern Sri Lanka.
Ukanthamalai Murugan Kovil is the well known ancient Hindu temple situated in the Okanda, Ampara District of Eastern Sri Lanka, about 145 km south of Batticaloa town. This alluring temple dedicated to Lord Murugan in the heart of Kumana forest is a main stand for the devotees performing pilgrimage to Katirkamam through dense jungle. In places like Pânama and Kumana, which are close to Ukantai, Tamils and Sinhalese lived in harmony even down to the present day.
Kantharmadam (Tamil: கந்தர்மடம்; is a village in the Northern Province of Sri Lanka. It is located 1 km north of Jaffna Town and 1 km away from a historical Hindu temple named Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil.Nallur Kandaswamy Kovil
St. James' Church is a Church of Ceylon church located in Nallur in northern Sri Lanka.
Maviddapuram Kandaswamy Temple is a Hindu temple in Maviddapuram in northern Sri Lanka.
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