Nanakshahi calendar

Last updated

Guru Nanak Dev Guru Nanak Dev by Raja Ravi Varma.jpg
Guru Nanak Dev

The Nanakshahi (Punjabi : ਨਾਨਕਸ਼ਾਹੀ, nānakashāhī) calendar is a tropical solar calendar which is used in Sikhism and is based on the 'Barah Maha' (Punjabi : ਬਾਰਹ ਮਾਹਾ). Barah Maha was composed by the Sikh Gurus and translates as the "Twelve Months". It is a poem reflecting the changes in nature which are conveyed in the twelve-month cycle of the Year. [1] The year begins with the month of Chet, with 1 Chet corresponding to 14 March. The first year of the Nanakshahi Calendar starts in 1469 CE: the year of the birth of Guru Nanak Dev. [2]

Punjabi language Indo-Aryan language spoken in India and Pakistan

Punjabi is an Indo-Aryan language with more than 100 million native speakers in the Indian subcontinent and around the world. It is the native language of the Punjabi people, an ethnic group of the cultural region called the Punjab, which encompasses northwest India and eastern Pakistan.

A solar calendar is a calendar whose dates indicate the season or almost equivalently the apparent position of the Sun relative to the stars. The Gregorian calendar, widely accepted as standard in the world, is an example of a solar calendar. The main other type of calendar is a lunar calendar, whose months correspond to cycles of Moon phases. The months of the Gregorian calendar do not correspond to cycles of Moon phase.

Sikhism, or SikhiSikkhī, pronounced [ˈsɪkːʰiː], from Sikh, meaning a "disciple", "seeker," or "learner") is a monotheistic religion that originated in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent around the end of the 15th century. It is one of the youngest of the major world religions, and the world's fifth largest organized religion, as well as being the world's ninth-largest overall religion. The fundamental beliefs of Sikhism, articulated in the sacred scripture Guru Granth Sahib, include faith and meditation on the name of the one creator, divine unity and equality of all humankind, engaging in selfless service, striving for justice for the benefit and prosperity of all, and honest conduct and livelihood while living a householder's life. In the early 21st century there were nearly 25 million Sikhs worldwide, the great majority of them living in Punjab, according to the Encyclopaedia Britannica.

Contents

Etymology

The Nanakshahi Calendar is named after the founder of the Sikh religion, Guru Nanak Dev. [3]

History

Sikhs have traditionally recognised two eras and luni-solar calendars: the Nanakshahi and Khalsa. Traditionally, both these calendars closely followed the Bikrami calendar with the Nanakshahi year beginning on Katak Pooranmashi (full moon) and the Khalsa year commencing with Vaisakhi. [4] The methods for calculating the beginning of the Khalsa era were based on the Bikrami calendar. The year length was also the same as the Bikrami solar year. [5] According to Steel (2000), (since the calendar was based on the Bikrami), the calendar has twelve lunar months that are determined by the lunar phase, but thirteen months in leap years which occur every 2–3 years in the Bikrami calendar to sync the lunar calendar with its solar counterpart. [6] Kay (2011) abbreviates the Khalsa Era as KE. [7]

Katak is the eighth month of the Nanakshahi calendar. This month coincides with Kartik in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and October and November in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 30 days long.

Vaisakhi Major spring time Sikh festival, harvest and traditional new year festival for many Hindus

Vaisakhi, also known as Baisakhi, Vaishakhi, or Vasakhi is a historical and religious festival in Hinduism and Sikhism. It is usually celebrated on 13 or 14 April every year, which commemorates the formation of Khalsa panth of warriors under Guru Gobind Singh in 1699.

References to the Nanakshahi Era have been made in historic documents. [8] Banda Singh Bahadur adopted the Nanakshahi calendar in 1710 C.E. after his victory in Sirhind (12 May 1710 C.E.) [9] according to which the year 1710 C.E. became Nanakshahi 241. However, Singh (2008) states the date of the victory as 14 May 1710 CE. [10] According to Dilagira (1997), Banda "continued adopting the months and the days of the months according to the Bikrami calendar". [11] Banda Singh Bahadur also minted new coins also called Nanakshahi. [12] Herrli (1993) states that "Banda is supposed to have dated his coins according to his new calendar. Although Banda may have proclaimed this era, it cannot be traced in contemporary documents and does not seem to have been actually used for dating". [13] According to The Panjab Past and Present (1993), it is Gian Singh who "is the first to use Nanak Shahi Samvats along with those of Bikrami Samvats" in the Twarikh Guru Khalsa. [14] According to Singha (1996), Gian Singh was a Punjabi author born in 1822. [15] Gian Singh wrote the Twarikh Guru Khalsa in 1891. [16]

Sirhind-Fategarh City in Punjab, India

Sirhind-Fatehgarh is a city and a municipal council in Fatehgarh Sahib district in the Indian state of Punjab.

The revised Nanakshahi calendar was designed by Pal Singh Purewal to replace the Bikrami calendar. [17] The epoch of this calendar is the birth of the first Sikh Guru, Nanak Dev in 1469 and the Nanakshahi year commences on 1 Chet. New Year's Day falls annually on what is 14 March in the Gregorian Western calendar. [18] The start of each month is fixed. [19] According to Kapel (2006), the solar accuracy of the Nanakshahi calendar is linked to the Gregorian civil calendar. [20] This is because the Nanaskhahi calendar uses the tropical year [21] instead of using the sidereal year which is used in the Bikrami calendar or the old Nanakshahi and Khalsa calendars.

Chet is a first month of the Nanakshahi calendar, which govern the activities within Sikhism. This month coincides with This month coincides with Chaitra in the Hindu calendar and the Indian national calendar, and March and April in the Gregorian and Julian calendars and is 31 days long. Also during this month, the second son of Guru Gobind Singh, Sahibzada Jujhar Singh was born on 9 April 1691.

New Year first day of a calendar year, in particular, January 1 in the Julian and Gregorian calendar

New Year is the time or day at which a new calendar year begins and the calendar's year count increments by one.

The Gregorian calendar is the calendar used in most of the world. It is named after Pope Gregory XIII, who introduced it in October 1582. The calendar spaces leap years to make the average year 365.2425 days long, approximating the 365.2422-day tropical year that is determined by the Earth's revolution around the Sun. The rule for leap years is:

Every year that is exactly divisible by four is a leap year, except for years that are exactly divisible by 100, but these centurial years are leap years if they are exactly divisible by 400. For example, the years 1700, 1800, and 1900 are not leap years, but the year 2000 is.

The amended Nanakshahi calendar was adopted in 1998 [22] but implemented in 2003 [23] [24] by the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee to determine the dates for important Sikh events. The calendar was implemented during the SGPC presidency of Sikh scholar Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar at Takhat Sri Damdama Sahib in the presence of Sikh leadership. [18] Nanakshahi Calendar recognizes the adoption event, of 1999 CE, in the Sikh history when SGPC released the first calendar with permanently fixed dates in the Tropical Calendar. Therefore, the calculations of this calendar do not regress back from 1999 CE into the Bikrami era, and accurately fixes for all time in the future. [25]

Features of the Nanakshahi calendar (2003)

Features of the Original Nanakshahi calendar (2003 Version): [26] [27]

Months

No.Name Punjabi DaysGregorian MonthsSeason [31]
1 Chet ਚੇਤ3114 March – 13 AprilBasant (Spring)
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖ3114 April – 14 MayBasant (Spring)
3 Jeth ਜੇਠ3115 May – 14 JuneGarikham (Summer)
4 Harh ਹਾੜ3115 June – 15 JulyGarisham (Summer)
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣ3116 July – 15 AugustRut Baras (Rainy season)
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂ3016 August – 14 SeptemberRut Baras (Rainy season)
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂ3015 September – 14 OctoberSard (Autumn)
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕ3015 October – 13 NovemberSard (Autumn)
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰ3014 November – 13 DecemberSisiar (Winter)
10 Poh ਪੋਹ3014 December – 12 JanuarySisiar (Winter)
11 Magh ਮਾਘ3013 January – 11 FebruaryHimkar (late Winter/early Spring)
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣ30/3112 February – 13 MarchHimkar (late Winter/early Spring)

Controversy

In 2010, the Shiromani Gurdwara Prabhandak Committee ("SGPC") modified the calendar so that the dates for the start of the months are movable so that they coincide with the Bikrami calendar and changed the dates for various Sikh festivals so they are based upon the lunar phase. This has created controversy with some bodies adopting the original 2003 version, also called the "Mool Nanakshahi Calendar" [32] and others, the 2010 version. [33] By 2014, the SGPC had scrapped the original Nanakshahi calendar from 2003 and reverted to the Bikrami calendar entirely, however it was still published under the name of Nanakshahi. [34] The Sikh bodies termed it a step taken under pressure from the RSS and Shiromani Akali Dal. [35] There is also some controversy about the acceptance of the calendar altogether among certain sectors of the Sikh world. [27]

SGPC president, Gobind Singh Longowal, on 13 March 2018 urged all Sikhs to follow the current (2010) Nanakshahi calendar. [36] The previous SGPC President before Longowal, Prof. Kirpal Singh Badungar, tried to appeal the Akal Takht to celebrate the birthday of Guru Gobind Singh on 23 Poh (5 January) as per the original Nanakshahi calendar, but the appeal was denied. [37] The PSGPC and a majority of the other gurdwara managements across the world are opposing the modified version of the calendar citing that the SGPC reverted to the Bikrami calendar. They argue that in the Bikrami calendar, dates of many gurpurbs coincide, thereby creating confusion among the Sikh Panth. [35]

According to Ahaluwalia (2003), the Nanakshahi calendar goes against the use of lunar Bikrami dates by the Gurus themselves and is contradictory. It begins with the year of birth of Guru Nanak Dev, but the first date, 1 Chet, is when Guru Har Rai was installed the seventh Guru. [38] However, the first date of the Nanakshahi calendar (1 Chet) is based upon the Barah Maha of the Guru Granth Sahib, which has Chet as the first month. [39] Pal Singh Purewal, as reported in the Edmonton Journal (March 2018) has stated that his aims in formulating the Nanakshahi calendar were, "first and foremost, it should respect sacred holy scriptures. Second, it should discard the lunar calendar and use only a solar one. Third, all the dates should be fixed and not vary from year to year." [34] In reality however, state Haar and Kalsi (2009), the introduction of the Nanakshahi calendar has resulted in many festivals being "celebrated on two dates depending on the choice of the management of the local gurdwaras." [40]

Months (2010 version)

The start date of the months in the current Nanakshahi calendar are not fixed. [3]

No.Name Punjabi Gregorian MonthsSeason [31]
1 Chet ਚੇਤMarch – AprilBasant (Spring)
2 Vaisakh ਵੈਸਾਖApril – MayBasant (Spring)
3 Jeth ਜੇਠMay – JuneGarikham (Summer)
4 Harh ਹਾੜJune – JulyGarisham (Summer)
5 Sawan ਸਾਵਣJuly – AugustRut Baras (Rainy season)
6 Bhadon ਭਾਦੋਂAugust – SeptemberRut Baras (Rainy season)
7 Assu ਅੱਸੂSeptember – OctoberSard (Autumn)
8 Katak ਕੱਤਕOctober – NovemberSard (Autumn)
9 Maghar ਮੱਘਰNovember – DecemberSisiar (Winter)
10 Poh ਪੋਹDecember – JanuarySisiar (Winter)
11 Magh ਮਾਘJanuary – FebruaryHimkar (late Winter/early Spring)
12 Phagun ਫੱਗਣFebruary – MarchHimkar (late Winter/early Spring)

Festivals and events (2003 version)

Dates of observance of festivals as determined by reference to the 2003 version.

Festivals and events (Original Nanakshahi calendar) [41] Nanakshahi dateGregorian date
Guru Har Rai becomes the 7th Guru
Nanakshahi New Year Commences
1 Chet 14 Mar
Guru Hargobind merges back to the Creator6 Chet 19 Mar
The ordination of the Khalsa
Birth of Guru Nanak (Vaisakhi Date) [42]
1 Vaisakh 14 Apr
Guru Angad merges back to the Creator
Guru Amar Das becomes the 3rd Guru
Guru Harkrishan merges back to the Creator
Guru Tegh Bahadur becomes the 9th Guru
3 Vaisakh 16 Apr
Birth of Guru Angad, the 2nd Guru
Birth of Guru Tegh Bahadur, the 9th Guru
5 Vaisakh 18 Apr
Birth of Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru19 Vaisakh 2 May
Birth of Guru Amar Das, the 3rd Guru9 Jeth 23 May
Guru Hargobind becomes the 6th Guru28 Jeth 11 Jun
Guru Arjan, the 5th Guru, is martyred2 Harh 16 Jun
Foundation Day of the Akaal Takht 18 Harh 16 Jun
Birth of Guru Hargobind, the 6th Guru21 Harh 5 Jul
Miri-Piri is established by Guru Hargobind 6 Sawan 21 Jul
Birth of Guru Harkrishan, the 8th Guru8 Sawan 23 Jul
The writing of the Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is completed15 Bhadon 30 Aug
Guru Granth Sahib, the Sikh Scripture, is installed at the Golden Temple for the first time17 Bhadon 1 Sep
Guru Amar Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Ram Das becomes the 4th Guru
Guru Ram Das merges back to the Creator
Guru Arjan becomes the 5th Guru
2 Assu 16 Sep
Guru Angad becomes the 2nd Guru4 Assu 18 Sep
Guru Nanak merges back to the Creator8 Assu 22 Sep
Birth of Guru Ram Das, the 4th Guru25 Assu 9 Oct
Guru Har Rai merges back to the Creator
Guru Harkrishan becomes the 8th Guru
The Guru Granth Sahib is declared as the Guru for all times to come by Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th and the last human Guru
6 Katak 20 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh merges back to the Creator7 Katak 21 Oct
Guru Gobind Singh becomes the 10th Guru11 Maghar 24 Nov
Guru Tegh Bahadur martyred in Delhi by Aurangzeb for defending the oppressed11 Maghar 24 Nov
Ajit Singh, and Jujhar Singh, the two elder sons of Guru Gobind Singh, martyred in the battle of Chamkaur 8 Poh 21 Dec
Zorawar Singh, and Fateh Singh, the two younger sons of Guru Gobind Singh, executed in Sirhind 13 Poh 26 Dec
Birth of Guru Gobind Singh, the 10th Guru23 Poh 5 Jan
Birth of Guru Har Rai, the 7th Guru19 Magh 31 Jan

Movable dates for Sikh Festivals in the 2003 and 2010 versions. (These change every year in line with the Lunar Phase) [43]

Year Hola Mohalla Bandi Chhor Divas Birth of Guru Nanak Dev
200319 Mar25 Oct8 Nov
20047 Mar12 Nov26 Nov
200526 Mar1 Nov15 Nov
200615 Mar21 Oct5 Nov
20074 Mar9 Nov24 Nov
200822 Mar28 Oct13 Nov
200911 Mar17 Oct2 Nov
20101 Mar5 Nov21 Nov
201120 Mar26 Oct10 Nov
20129 Mar13 Nov28 Nov
201328 Mar3 Nov17 Nov
201417 Mar23 Oct6 Nov
20156 Mar11 Nov25 Nov
201624 Mar30 Oct14 Nov
201713 Mar19 Oct4 Nov
20182 Mar7 Nov23 Nov
201921 Mar27 Oct12 Nov
202010 Mar14 Nov30 Nov

See also

Related Research Articles

Nankana Sahib City in Punjab, Pakistan

Nankana Sahib is a city and capital of Nankana Sahib District in the Punjab province of Pakistan. It is named after the first Guru of the Sikhs, Guru Nanak, who was born in the city and first began preaching here. Today it is a city of high historic and religious value and a popular pilgrimage site for Sikhs from all over the world. It is located about 91 km (57 mi) west of Lahore and about 75 km (47 mi) east of Faisalabad. The city has a population of approximately 70,000.

Outline of Sikhism Overview of and topical guide to Sikhism

The following outline is provided as an overview of and topical guide to Sikhism:

Dal Khalsa is a Sikh organisation, based in the city of Amritsar. The organisation was formed in 1978 and came to promencne under the inspiration and time of Jarnail Singh Bhindranwale in 1981 They claim that their primary aim of Dal Khalsa is to achieve the independence of the Punjabi-speaking Sikh majority region of North West India through peaceful and democratic means in order to establish a sovereign Sikh state, Khalistan.

Guru Nanak Gurpurab Sikh festival

Guru Nanak Gurpurab, also known as Guru Nanak's Prakash Utsav and Guru Nanak Jayanti, celebrates the birth of the first Sikh Guru and Sindhi Community in Guru Guru Nanak. This is one of the most sacred festivals in Sikhism, or Sikhi and Sindhis.

Hola Mohalla Annual Sikh Festival Held in March, Often Concurrent With Holi

Hola Mohalla, also called Hola, is a one-day Sikh festival which most often falls in March and takes place on the second day of the lunar month of Chett, a day after the Hindu spring festival Holi but sometimes coincides with Holi. Hola Mohalla is a big festive event for Sikhs around the world.

The history of Sikhism started with Guru Nanak Dev Ji. He was the first Guru of the fifteenth century in the Punjab region in the northern part of the Indian subcontinent. The religious practices were formalised by Guru Gobind Singh Ji on 13 April 1699. The latter baptised five persons from different social backgrounds to form Khalsa (ਖ਼ਾਲਸਾ). The first five, Pure Ones, then baptised Gobind Singh into the Khalsa fold. This gives the order of Khalsa, a history of around 300 years.

The role of women in Sikhism is outlined in the Sikh scriptures, which state that women are equal to men.

The Sikh Rehat Maryada is a code of conduct and conventions for Sikhism, approved by the Shiromani Gurdwara Parbandhak Committee, Amritsar in 1945. It is one of many Rahitnama written for Sikhs.

A Gurpurab ( ) in Sikh tradition is a celebration of an anniversary of a Guru's birth marked by the holding of a festival.

The book "Gur Partap Suraj Parkash Granth" popularly known as the Suraj Parkash is detailed work of 51,829 verses describing the lives of all Sikh Gurus, Baba Banda Bahadur, Guru sahibs Sikhs and the fights fought by them. It was finished in 1843 by Bhai Santokh Singh. It is a sequel to his own Nanak Prakash, describing the life of the first Guru.

In Sikhism, only lacto-vegetarian food is served in the Gurdwara Sikhs are bound to be meat-free. The general consensus is that Sikhs are not supposed to eat meat because doing so would harm another living being Sikhs, once they become Amritdhari (baptised) via the Amrit Sanchaar, are forbidden from eating Kutha or ritually-slaughtered meat because it transgresses one of the four restrictions in the Sikh Code of Conduct.

Harjinder Singh Dilgeer is considered an authority on Sikh history, Gurbani and philosophy. He is the only author who has written Complete History of the Sikhs and has translated Guru Granth Sahib in English and has published DILGEER KOSH Encyclopedia of Sikh literature and Punjab & Sikh History. He has written in detail about the concept and the history of Akal Takht Sahib, Sikh culture, Shiromani Akali Dal, the history of Anandpur Sahib, and Kiratpur Sahib, Dictionary of Sikh Philosophy etc. The Sikh Reference Book is his magnum opus. 'The Sikh Reference Book' is an encyclopaedia consisting of more than 2400 biographies, complete chronology of Sikh history, 400 concepts of Sikh philosophy as well more than 800 Sikh shrines. He has produced a Sikh Encyclopaedia CD-ROM. His latest works are Encyclopaedia of Jalandhar (English), Banda Singh Bahadur, Sikh Twareekh in five volumes, Sikh History in ten volumes ; and English translations of Nitnaym and Sukhmani Sahib.. His latest work is English translation of Guru Granth Sahib, in seven volumes.

Guru Nanak Founder of Sikhism

Guru Nanak was the founder of Sikhism and the first of the ten Sikh Gurus. His birth is celebrated worldwide as Guru Nanak Gurpurab on Kartik Pooranmashi, the full-moon day in the month of Katak, October–November.

The Punjabi calendar is used by the Punjabi people of the Indian subcontinent, but varies by religions. Historically, the Punjabi Sikhs and Punjabi Hindus have used the ancient Indian Bikrami (Vikrami) calendar, which started in 57 BCE with legendary Emperor Vikramaditya. Punjabi Muslims use the Arabic Hijri calendar. Some festivals in Punjab, Pakistan are determined by the Punjabi calendar, such as Muharram which is celebrated twice, once according to the Muslim year and again on the 10th of harh. The Bikrami calendar is the one the rural (agrarian) population follows in Punjab, Pakistan.

Balwant Singh Nandgarh is a Sikh politician and Jathedar of Takht Sri Damdama Sahib, one of five seats of temporal authority of Sikhism.

Jathedar of Akal Takht

The Jathedar of the Akal Takht, is the appointed head of the Akal Takht and the Sikhs of the world. Sikh clergy consists of five Jathedars, one each from five Takhts.

The Mool Nanakshahi Calendar is gathering momentum across the world as Sikhs yearn to follow fixed dates which are an accurate historic representation of the Sikh History. This provides the platform for Sikhs to agree on a common calendar. Sardar Pal Singh Purewal, the main architect of the calendar, has written scholarly articles on this issue and explains the difference between the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar and Bikrami Calendars. There is a difference between the Nanakshai Calendar and the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar as such as the Mool Nanakshahi Calendar fixes dates which were movable in the Nanakshahi Calendar.

References

  1. W. H. McLeod (2009). The A to Z of Sikhism . Scarecrow Press.
  2. Singh, Jagraj (2009). A complete guide to Sikhism. Unistar Books.
  3. 1 2 J. Gordon Melton, Martin Baumann (2010) Religions of the World: A Comprehensive Encyclopedia of Beliefs and Practices, 2nd Edition [6 volumes]. ABC-Clio
  4. Singh, Harbans (1998) The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism: S-Z. Publications Bureau
  5. Proceedings – Punjab History Conference, Volume 27, Part 1 (1996) Punjabi University
  6. Steel, Duncan (2000) v. Wiley
  7. Kay, Michael (2011) XSLT 2.0 and XPath 2.0 Programmer's Reference. John Wiley & Sons
  8. Harajindara Siṅgha Dilagīra, A. T. Kerr (1995) Akal Takht Sahib. Sikh Educational Trust in collaboration with the Sikh University Centre, Denmark
  9. Gandhi, Surjit Singh (1999) Sikhs in the Eighteenth Century: Their Struggle for Survival and Supremacy. Singh Bros
  10. Singh, Patwant (2008) Empire of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Maharaja Ranjit Singh. Peter Owen
  11. Dilagīra, Harajindara Singha (1997) The Sikh Reference Book. Sikh Educational Trust for Sikh University Centre, Denmark
  12. Dhillon, Harish (2013) First Raj of the Sikhs: The Life and Times of Banda Singh Bahadur. Hay House
  13. Herrli, Hans (1993) The Coins of the SikhsIndian Coin Societ
  14. The Panjab Past and Present, Volume 27, Issue 1. Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University
  15. Siṅgha, Sukhadiāla (1996) Historical analysis of Giani Gian Singh's writings.UICS
  16. The Panjab Past and Present, Volume 32 (2001) Department of Punjab Historical Studies, Punjabi University
  17. Chilana, Rajwant Singh (2006) International Bibliography of Sikh Studies. Springer Science & Business Media
  18. 1 2 "What is the Sikh Nanakshahi calendar". allaboutsikhs.com. Archived from the original on 10 May 2008. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  19. Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies
  20. Kepel, Martin (2006) The Structure and Mathematics of the Principal Calendars of the Western World: Muslim, Gregorian, Jewish, and Other Systems. Edwin Mellen Press
  21. Melton, J. Gordon (2011) Religious Celebrations: L-Z. ABC-Clio
  22. Louis E. Fenech, W. H. McLeod (2014) Historical Dictionary of Sikhism. Rowman & Littlefield
  23. Knut A. Jacobsen (2008) South Asian Religions on Display: Religious Processions in South Asia and in the Diaspora. Routledge
  24. Nesbitt, Eleanor (2016) Sikhism: A Very Short Introduction. Oxford University Press
  25. Bodiwala, Community Contributor Suresh. "Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two -day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar". Naperville Sun. Retrieved 29 March 2018.
  26. Abstracts of Sikh Studies, Volume 5 (2003) Institute of Sikh Studies
  27. 1 2 "Nanakshahi Calendar at BBC". BBC. 29 July 2003. Retrieved 9 May 2008.
  28. Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurbani And Nanakshahi Calendar" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  29. "Bara Maha – SikhiWiki, free Sikh encyclopedia". www.sikhiwiki.org. sikhiwiki.org. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  30. Parkash, Chander (14 March 2003). "Nanakshahi calendar out". www.tribuneindia.com. The Tribune. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  31. 1 2 Kohli, Surindar Singh (1992) A Conceptual Encyclopaedia of Guru Granth Sahib.Manohar Publishers & Distributors
  32. Chicago Tribune (18 November 2017) Sikh Religious Society Organizes Two-day Conference in Chicago to Implement Mool Nanakshahi Calendar
  33. Singh, Surjit( 6 March 2018) Hindustan Times) HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar
  34. 1 2 Sikhs around world celebrate new year using Edmonton man's calendar (14 March 2018) Edmonton Journal by Juris Graney
  35. 1 2 Singh, Surjit (6 March 2018). "HT Explainer: Know about the controversial Nanakshahi calendar". Hindustan Times. HT Media. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  36. Tribune India (14.03.2018) SGPC: Follow Nanakshahi calendar
  37. Singh, Surjit (13 November 2017). "Guru Gobind Singh's birth anniversary: Akal Takht rejects SGPC plea to extend parkash parv date". Hindustan Times. HT Media. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  38. Āhalūwālīā, Jasabīra Siṅgha (2003) Liberating Sikhism from 'the Sikhs': Sikhisim's [sic] Potential for World Civilization. Unistar books
  39. Singh Purewal, Pal. "Reply to Mr. Gurcharanjit Singh Lamba's criticism of Nanakshahi Calendar first implemented in 1999 CE" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 15 March 2018.
  40. Haar, Kristen and Kalsi, Sewa Singh (2009) Sikhism. Infobase Publishing
  41. Singh Purewal, Pal. "Gurpurbs (Fixed Dates)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.
  42. Singh Purewal, Pal. "Birth Date of Guru Nanak Sahib" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 4 February 2018.
  43. Singh Purewal, Pal. "Movable Dates of Gurpurbs (Change Every Year)" (PDF). www.purewal.biz. purewal.biz. Retrieved 13 March 2018.