Last updated

南宁市 · Namzningz Si
Nanning Montage.jpg
Clockwise from top: Nanning skyline (2008), Nanning Mosque, View from Diwang International Commerce Center, Jinhu Square, Nanning International Convention and Exhibition Center
Guangxi subdivisions - Nanning.svg
Location of Nanning City jurisdiction in Guangxi
China edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Location in China
Coordinates(Guangxi People's Government): 22°49′00″N108°19′39″E / 22.8167°N 108.3275°E / 22.8167; 108.3275 Coordinates: 22°49′00″N108°19′39″E / 22.8167°N 108.3275°E / 22.8167; 108.3275
Country China
Region Guangxi
Municipal seat Qingxiu District
  Type Prefecture-level city
  Body Nanning Municipal People's Congress
   CCP Secretary Wang Xiaodong
   Congress ChairmanFeng Xuejun
   Mayor Sun Daguang
   CPPCC ChairmanDu Wei
   Prefecture-level city 22,189 km2 (8,567 sq mi)
   Prefecture-level city 7,254,100
  Density330/km2 (850/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+8 (China Standard)
Postal code
Area code(s) 0771
ISO 3166 code CN-GX-01
License plate prefixes 桂A
NN name.svg
"Nánníng" in Traditional (top) and Simplified (bottom) Chinese characters
Chinese name
Simplified Chinese 南宁
Traditional Chinese 南寧
Hanyu Pinyin Nánníng
Literal meaning"Southern tranquility"
Zhuang name
Zhuang Namzningz
1957 orthography Namƨniŋƨ

Nanning (Chinese :南宁; pinyin :Nánníng; Zhuang : Namzningz) is the capital and largest city by population of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region in Southern China. [1] It is known as the "Green City" because of its abundance of lush subtropical foliage. Located in the South of Guangxi, Nanning is surrounded by a hilly basin, with a warm, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate. As of 2018 sampling, Nanning had a population of 7,241,100, of which 4,417,600 live in the urban area and 3,839,800 live in its 6 suburban districts. [2]


Beginning in 1949, Nanning's economy began developing beyond its former role as essentially a commercial and administrative centre, as it underwent sustained industrial growth. [3] Today, Nanning is considered the economic, financial and cultural center of Guangxi, and the chief centre for the training of the Zhuang minority in Guangxi. The People's Park is located in the center of the city.

The city is home to several notable universities, including Guangxi University, Guangxi Medical University, Guangxi University for Nationalities and Guangxi Arts University.


Nanning, an ancient city with a long history and rich culture, was part of Baiyue ethnic groups in the ancient time. In the first year of Daxing period of Eastern Jin Dynasty (AD 318), Jinxing County, established here as one of the county towns, ushered a history of 1700 years of Nanning organizational system. During the Zhenguan period of Tang dynasty (AD 632), it was renamed Yong prefecture (Yongzhou) and established Yongzhou government seat, which is why it has been called Yong for short. In the first year of Taiding period of Yuan dynasty (AD1318), Yongzhou was renamed Nanning, meaning the Pacified South.

Nanning was once the territory of the Baiyue people and became the capital of Jinxing Prefecture which was separated from Yulin Prefecture of the Eastern Jin Dynasty.

In 1076 during the Lý–Song War Yongshou was besieged by Lý forces. Under the leadership of Su Jian, the garrison held out for forty-two days before succumbing. The city was razed to the ground and its people massacred by Lý dynasty.

In the Yuan dynasty in 1324, it was renamed Nanning Lu (Nanning Circuit) of Yongzhou. Historically, Nanning was famous for trade, and had permanent business offices from other areas in China since the Song dynasty.

In the Ming dynasty Nanning developed into an economic center of the Zuo River and the You River with the reputation of "Little Nanjing".

On 4 December 1949, Nanning was captured by the CPC; in January 1950, Nanning municipality was set up, and identified as the capital city of Guangxi on 8 February of the same year; in March 1958, the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region was established, and Nanning municipality was the capital city.

Nanning serves as host for the annual China-ASEAN EXPO (CASEAN EXPO) which began in 2004 and was the venue for the 2006 "World Robotics Olympiad".

Administrative divisions

Nanning has jurisdiction over 7 districts, 5 counties, and 6 development zones.

NameChineseHanyu Pinyin Zhuang Population (2010)Area (km2)Density (/km2)
City proper
Xingning District 兴宁区Xīngníng QūSinghningz Gih398,789722.68551.82
Qingxiu District 青秀区Qīngxiù QūCinghsiu Gih709,721865.27820.23
Jiangnan District 江南区Jiāngnán QūGyanghnanz Gih567,9991,183.26480.03
Xixiangtang District 西乡塘区Xīxiāngtáng QūSihsienghdangz Gih1,153,3051,076.001071.84
Liangqing District 良庆区Liángqìng QūLiengzcing Gih344,7681,368.88251.86
Yongning District 邕宁区Yōngníng QūYunghningz Gih259,7211,230.73211.03
Wuming District 武鸣区Wǔmíng QūVujmingz Gih544,4783,388.91160.66
Long'an County 隆安县Lóng'ān XiànLungzanh Yen300,2152,305.59130.21
Mashan County 马山县Mǎshān XiànMajsanh Yen390,9002,340.76167.00
Shanglin County 上林县Shànglín XiànSanglinz Yen343,5901,871.00183.64
Binyang County 宾阳县Bīnyáng XiànBinhyangz Yen782,2552,298.17340.38
Heng County 横县Héng XiànHwngz Yen863,0013,448.06250.29

Development Zones:


Nanning is home of the 21st tallest building [4] in the People's Republic of China, the Diwang International Commerce Center, at 276 m (906 ft), currently the tallest building in Guangxi and southwestern China (excluding Chongqing). The second tallest building in Nanning is the World Trade Commerce City at 218 meters. The city currently has seven buildings taller than 100 m (330 ft), built or under construction.

Nanning has many parks with tropical lush green landscape, it is one of the "greenest" cities in China, and it's known as "Green City"(绿城). Nanning's downtown skyline is rapidly changing and the city is becoming an important hub in China.

Recently, the government has begun a citywide beautification plan which aimed to further clean up the city and improve its image. This involved curtailing the number of street-side food vendors operating without proper licenses and restricting parking in busy streets. The program has achieved initial success, long-term efforts are still needed to deliver lasting results.[ citation needed ]


Nanning Street NanningStreet.jpg
Nanning Street

Nanning's GDP in 2015 was 341 billion RMB. [5] The GDP per capita was $7,844.

Foreign exports in 2007 were US$10 billion. Foreign fixed asset investment was 34.3 billion RMB. Nanning has six development zones and industrial parks, three of which accounted for 6 billion RMB of Nanning's GDP, more than 8 percent of Nanning's total.

Mineral resources include gold, iron, manganese, aluminum, quartz, silver, indium, coal, marble, and granite. One third of China's different types of mineral resources are found in Nanning.

Industrial zones


Nanning East Railway Station Nanning East Railway Station - 29325657007.jpg
Nanning East Railway Station
Nanning train station Nanning Station.jpg
Nanning train station
Metro map Nanning Rail Transit Linemap.svg
Metro map


Nanning Metro system is known for its Nanning Rail Transit (NNRT), expected to comprise a total of nine lines. The first was completed and put into operation in June 2016, the second begin operation in December 2017, while lines 3 and 4 are now under construction. Line 1 connects the East and West of Nanning, linking the financial and political center and the academic and research center of Nanning.

Stations of Line 1 from the West to East are: SHIBU - Nanning College for Vacational Technology - PENGFEI LU - XIXIANGTANG Coach Station - Guangxi University for Nationalities - QINGCHUAN - Nanning Zoo - LUBAN LU - Guangxi University - BAICANGLING - Nanning Railway Station - CHAOYANG Square - XINMIN LU - MINZU Square - MACUN - NANHU - JINHU Square - Convention & Exhibition Center - WANXIANGCHENG - ASEAN Business District - FENGLING -!LANGDON Coach Station - BAIHUALING - FOZILING - Nanning East Railway Station.



Nanning has two major railway stations: Nanning railway station and Nanning East railway station. The latter one is newer and also the main destination of high-speed trains. A third, Nanning North railway station, is set to open in 2023 with the Guiyang–Nanning high-speed railway.

Nanning railway station is a railway junction for the Nanning–Kunming, Nanning–Guangzhou and Hunan–Guangxi Railways. There are also plans to build a high-speed railway to Pingxiang on the Vietnamese border. [6] The goal is to better integrate Pan-Pearl River Delta and southeast China with members of the ASEAN. [7]

At the end of 2013, some high-speed service has been introduced on the Hunan–Guangxi railway and on the railway line that connects Nanning with Beihai (as well as its branch to Fangchenggang). [8] [9]

Guangxi is also a conjunction of Guangzhou-Guiyang Highspeed Rail.


Flora and fauna

Nanning's warm climate gives it a large amount of biodiversity. There are many species of animals and more than 3,000 species of plants. The city flower is the Jaba flower, an evergreen shrub, and the city tree is the almond tree which is regarded as the backbone tree used for greening and landscaping throughout the city.


Nanning (labelled as NAN-NING (YUNG-NING) Nan Ning  (Yong Zhu )
) (1954) Txu-oclc-10552568-nf49-5.jpg
Nanning (labelled as NAN-NING (YUNG-NING) 南甯 (邕寧)) (1954)
Map including Nanning Txu-pclmaps-oclc-22834566 j-11a.jpg
Map including Nanning

Nanning is located in the southern part of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, 160 km (99 mi) from the border with Vietnam. It has an administrative area of 22,293 km2 (8,607 sq mi). [10]

Nanning is situated in a hilly basin with elevations between 70 and 500 m (230 and 1,640 ft) above sea-level. Qingxiu Mountain dominates the southern part of town.


Nanning has a warm, monsoon-influenced humid subtropical climate (Köppen Cwa), with an annual mean temperature of 21.83 °C (71.3 °F). Summers are hot and humid with July, the hottest month, having a 24-hour average temperature of 28.4 °C (83.1 °F). Winters are mild and somewhat damp with January, the coolest month, averaging 12.9 °C (55.2 °F). From February to August, rain is most frequent and relative humidity consistently averages above 80 percent; the annual rainfall is 1,290 millimetres (50.8 in). The area is also frost-free for all but 3 or 4 days a year and snowfall is virtually unheard of in the city, with a unique exception since 1900: in December 1975 snow fell on the city albeit without sticking to the ground. Extreme temperatures have ranged from −2.1 to 40.4 °C (28 to 105 °F). [11] With monthly percent possible sunshine ranging from 17 percent in March to 51 percent in September, the city receives 1,585 hours of bright sunshine annually.

Climate data for Nanning (1981−2010 normals, extremes 1951−2010)
Record high °C (°F)32.6
Average high °C (°F)17.2
Daily mean °C (°F)12.9
Average low °C (°F)10.0
Record low °C (°F)−2.1
Average rainfall mm (inches)38.6
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Average relative humidity (%)77818180808282817875747379
Mean monthly sunshine hours 69.656.761.891.4144.0161.1196.8186.1185.6163.7144.2123.71,584.7
Percent possible sunshine 21181724354048475146443736
Source: China Meteorological Administration (precipitation days, sun 19712000), [12] [13] all-time extreme temperature [11]

Twin towns – sister cities

Nanning is twinned with: [14]


At 2010 census, the total population of Nanning was 6,611,600, among which 2,875,220 were urban residents (after the adjustment of administrative divisions) and 2,480,340 in the built up area made of 5 out of 6 urban districts. [16] [ full citation needed ] Nanning is a city in which Zhuang ethnic group live in compact communities. Thirty-five ethnic groups live in compact communities in Nanning, including people of Zhuang, Han, Yao, Hui, Miao, Dong, and Man minorities.


Nanning is the center of science and technology, education, culture and health in Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. There are altogether 54 scientific research institutes subordinate to districts. 10 colleges and 50 trade schools are training specialised personnel of all kinds. Now there are 62 mass cultural organizations, 13 performing groups, 8 cinemas, 285 projecting units, over 70 karaoke halls and over 1000 newsstands. Bookshops and cultural markets can be found everywhere.


Nanning has not only local cuisine but also food from other areas of China and abroad. Traditional food culture can be found around most streets of Nanning. Nanning food shares the style of Cantonese food and of Southeast Asia. Chinese cuisine including Guangdong, Sichuan, Hunan and Jiangsu as well as Japanese, Thai and Western cuisines can be found.

Rice noodles are very popular among the Nanning people. Laoyou rice noodles are the most famous, while other noodle dishes such as Guilin rice noodles and hand made noodles can be found. Laoyou rice noodles (means old friend rice noodles) are made of fry up pepper, sour bamboo shoots, black beans and garlic, then pork, and then soup and rice noodles. The sour-spicy tasting noodles are a very popular and cheap favorite street food for all meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) in Nanning.


Nanning is close to scenic Guilin, with its world-famous hillscape, northern and western Guangxi and its minority villages, and the border with Vietnam in the south.

Tourist attractions in Nanning include Guangxi Museum, People's Park with the Zhenning Fort, Mount Qingxiu, Guangxi Medicinal Herb Botanical Garden, [17] and Yangmei Ancient Town. [18]

Other places of interest include Nanhu Park, Shishan Park and Nanning Zoo.

Colleges and universities

Note: Institutions without full-time bachelor programs are not listed.

See also

Related Research Articles

Shenyang Prefecture-level & Sub-provincial city in Liaoning, China

Shenyang, formerly known as Fengtian or by its Manchu name Mukden, is a major Chinese sub-provincial city and the provincial capital of Liaoning province. Located in central-north Liaoning, it is the province's most populous city, with a total metropolitan population up to 8.1 million. The largest city in Northeast China by urban population, with 6.3 million people, Shenyang is also the central city of one of the major megalopolises in China, the Greater Shenyang Metropolitan Area, which has a total population over 23 million. The city's administrative region includes the ten metropolitan districts of Shenyang proper, the county-level city of Xinmin, and two counties: Kangping and Faku.

Lanzhou Prefecture-level city in Gansu, China

Lanzhou is the capital and largest city of Gansu Province in Northwest China. Located on the banks of the Yellow River, it is a key regional transportation hub, connecting areas further west by rail to the eastern half of the country. Historically, it has been a major link on the Northern Silk Road and it stands to become a major hub on the New Eurasian Land Bridge. The city is also a center for heavy industry and petrochemical industry.

Guilin Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Guilin is a prefecture-level city in the northeast of China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. It is situated on the west bank of the Li River and borders Hunan to the north. Its name means "forest of sweet osmanthus", owing to the large number of fragrant sweet osmanthus trees located in the region. The city has long been renowned for its scenery of karst topography.

Yulin, Guangxi Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Yulin, alternately romanized as Watlam, is one of the fourteen prefecture-level cities of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, People's Republic of China. Its Chinese name was changed in 1956 from the historical name "鬱林", which is homophonous in Standard Mandarin, but different in the local dialect of Yue Chinese; "鬱" is [uat˥] while "玉" is [ȵok˨]. The former romanization follows the pronunciation of the historical name in Yue Chinese. Its built-up area is made of two urban districts, and Beiliu City was home to 2,309,600 inhabitants as of 2016 census.

Baise Prefecture-level city in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Baise, or Bose, is the westernmost prefecture-level city of Guangxi, China bordering Vietnam as well as the provinces of Guizhou and Yunnan. The city has a population of 4.3 million, of which 1.4 million live in the urban area.

Binyang County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Binyang County is a county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi, with a permanent population of 782,255 and a hukou population of 1,051,373 as of the 2010 Census. It borders the prefecture-level cities of Laibin to the northeast and Guigang to the east. The main highways passing near the county seat are China National Highways 322 and 324. The local economy is based mostly on industry and services. The county seat is Binzhou Town, known as one of the oldest towns in Guangxi which has population over 200,000 people. People speak Binyanghua in Binyang, which is a branch of Cantonese.

Yongning District District in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Yongning District is one of 7 districts of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. The district was approved to build from the dissolution of the former Yongning County (邕宁县) by the Chinese State Council on September 15, 2004. The district's total area is 1295 square kilometers, and its population in 2004 was 316,000 people.

Qingxiu District District in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Qingxiu District is one of 7 districts of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. It is Xincheng District (新城区) approved to rename to the present name by the Chinese State Council on September 15, 2004.

Xingning District District in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Xingning District is one of 7 districts of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China.

Xixiangtang District District in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Xixiangtang District is one of 7 districts of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. The district was approved to establish by merging the former two districts of Yongxin and Chengbei (城北区) by the Chinese State Council on September 15, 2004.

Liangqing District District in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Liangqing District is one of 7 districts of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China. The district was approved to establish from parts of the former Yongning County (邕宁县) by the Chinese State Council on September 15, 2004.

Jiangnan District District in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Jiangnan District is one of seven districts of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, South China.

Heng County County in Guangxi, Peoples Republic of China

Heng County, or Hengxian is a county of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, China, it is under the administration of the prefecture-level city of Nanning, the capital of Guangxi, with a permanent population of 863,001 and a hukou population of 1,200,521 as of the 2010 Census. The easternmost county-level division of Nanning City, it borders the prefecture-level cities of Guigang to the northeast, Yulin to the east, and Qinzhou to the south. 60% speak Pinghua as there mother tongue and a further 30% speak Pingua as a second language.

Hunan–Guangxi railway

The Hunan–Guangxi railway or Xianggui railway, is a mostly electrified railroad in southern China that connects Hunan province and the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. The shortform name of the line, Xianggui, is named after the Chinese short names of Hunan, Xiang and Guangxi, Gui. The line runs 1,013 km (629 mi) from Hengyang in Hunan to Friendship Pass on Guangxi's border with Vietnam. Major cities along route include Hengyang, Yongzhou, Guilin, Liuzhou, Nanning, Pingxiang, and Friendship Pass.

Nanning Metro Rapid transit system in Nanning, China

Nanning Metro or Nanning Nanning Rail Transit (NNRT) is a rapid transit system in Nanning, the capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Line 1 officially started construction on December 29, 2011. The first 11.2 km section, from Nanhu to Nanning East railway station, began operation June 28, 2016. The line opened fully on December 28, 2016. It is 32.1 km long, with 25 stations. Line 2 started construction in 2012 and was completed on December 28, 2017. Currently, Lines 3, 4, 5 and an extension of Line 2 are under construction. It is planned that by 2021 there will be four vertical and four horizontal lines totaling 252 km of subway. The system is projected to carry over 5 million passengers per day.

The Nanning–Guangzhou high-speed railway, also known as the Southern Guangzhou high-speed railway or the South Canton high-speed railway, connects Nanning, capital of Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region, and Guangzhou, capital of Guangdong Province, in China. Construction started on November 9, 2008; Nanning to Wuzhou was completed by April 18, 2014, while the full route opened on December 26, 2014. The total cost was about 41 billion RMB. The railway is expected to spur economic development, and increase mobility across the Guangxi and western Guangdong regions.

Yu Yuanhui is a Chinese politician of ethnic Yao heritage who spent most of his career in Southwest China's Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region. Until 2015, he served as the Communist Party Secretary of Nanning, capital of Guangxi, and was a Standing Committee member of the regional party organization. In May 2015, he was put under investigation by the Communist Party of China's anti-corruption agency. An alternate member of the Central Committee from 2007 until his downfall, Yu was duly expelled from the party and lost his Central Committee seat in 2015 and was sentenced to 11 years in jail.

Guangxi Autonomous region of China

Guangxi, officially the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region (GZAR), is an autonomous region of the People's Republic of China, located in South China and bordering Vietnam and the Gulf of Tonkin. Formerly a province, Guangxi became an autonomous region in 1958. Its current capital is Nanning.

Nanning–Kunming high-speed railway is a high-speed railway connecting Nanning and Kunming, respectively the capitals of the Guangxi Zhuang Autonomous Region and Yunnan Province. It will have a total length of 715.8 km (444.8 mi) of electrified double-track railways, built to the Grade 1 standard. Positioned as part of China's "long-term railway network plan", to improve the layout and the development of South-Western China with critical infrastructure, it will be Yunnan Province's first high-speed transport corridor to the sea. With future Pan-Asian railways to Laos, Thailand and Vietnam planned or under construction, this railway will be seen as a crucial link between the economic powerhouse of the Pearl River Delta Economic Zone and Indochina under the One Belt-One Road initiative.

Nanning East railway station

Nanning East railway station is a metro station and a railway station of Liuzhou–Nanning intercity railway and Nanning–Guangzhou high-speed railway. The station is located in Qingxiu District, Nanning, Guangxi, China. The station, located in 66 Changhong Road, was opened Dec 26, 2014. It is a transportation center of high-speed railways, regular trains, buses, metro line 1 and coaches.


  1. "Illuminating China's Provinces, Municipalities and Autonomous Regions". PRC Central Government Official Website. Archived from the original on 19 June 2014. Retrieved 17 May 2014.
  2. "China: Guăngxī (Prefectures, Cities, Districts and Counties) - Population Statistics, Charts and Map".
  3. "Nanning | China". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 13 June 2019.
  4. According to the table on List of tallest buildings in the People's Republic of China
  5. Huang, Yanmei (黄艳梅); Yang, Zhixiong (杨志雄) (25 March 2008). 2007南宁市GDP总量首次突破一千亿元人民币. 中新广西网 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 23 July 2015. Retrieved 23 July 2015 via Xinhua Guangxi.
  6. "High-speed railway to boost trade". Archived from the original on 22 January 2011. Retrieved 19 February 2011.
  7. "China starts construction of Nanning-Guangzhou high-speed rail line". Xinhua. 9 November 2008. Archived from the original on 4 March 2009. Retrieved 28 August 2010.
  8. Nanning train schedule Archived 2 January 2014 at the Wayback Machine (in Chinese)
  9. 广西再开通运营9对动车组 陈武宣布高铁开通 [Guangxi opens new CRH service, with 9 pairs of train a day. Chen Wu announces the opening of high-speed service]. 31 December 2013. Archived from the original on 29 November 2014. Retrieved 2 January 2014.
  10. 南宁市 (in Chinese). Archived from the original on 10 June 2008. Retrieved 11 June 2008.
  11. 1 2 "Extreme Temperatures Around the World". Archived from the original on 3 June 2013. Retrieved 21 February 2013.
  12. 中国气象局 国家气象信息中心 (in Chinese). China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 16 July 2009. Retrieved 4 May 2010.
  13. "Index" 中国气象数据网 - WeatherBk Data. China Meteorological Administration. Archived from the original on 23 September 2017. Retrieved 9 November 2018.
  14. "南宁市国际友城名单及分布图". (in Chinese). Nanning. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  15. "Перелік партнерських міст Івано-Франківська" (PDF). (in Ukrainian). Ivano-Frankivsk. 1 September 2019. Retrieved 11 July 2020.
  16. 南宁市2010年第六次全国人口普查主要数据公报 (in Chinese). Nanning Bureau of Statistics [南宁市统计局]. 6 July 2011.Missing or empty |url= (help)
  17. China's Southwest. Lonely Planet. 2007. p. 192. ISBN   978-1-74104-185-9. Archived from the original on 7 July 2014. Retrieved 31 October 2016.
  18. "Ancient Town of Yangmei". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 23 July 2015.