Nanterre

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Nanterre
La Defense vue de Nanterre (de la Residence "Liberte").jpg
Blason ville fr Nanterre (Hauts-de-Seine).svg
Coat of arms
Nanterre map.svg
Paris and inner ring departements
Location of Nanterre
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
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Nanterre
Paris and inner ring departements
Ile-de-France region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Nanterre
Nanterre (Île-de-France (region))
Coordinates: 48°53′56″N2°11′49″E / 48.8988°N 2.1969°E / 48.8988; 2.1969 Coordinates: 48°53′56″N2°11′49″E / 48.8988°N 2.1969°E / 48.8988; 2.1969
Country France
Region Île-de-France
Department Hauts-de-Seine
Arrondissement Nanterre
Canton Nanterre-1 and 2
Intercommunality Grand Paris
Government
  Mayor (2004–2008) Patrick Jarry
Area
1
12.19 km2 (4.71 sq mi)
Population
 (2016-01-01) [1]
96,321
  Density7,900/km2 (20,000/sq mi)
Demonym(s) Nanterriens
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
92050 /92000
Elevation22–127 m (72–417 ft)
(avg. 30 m or 98 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Nanterre (French pronunciation:  [nɑ̃tɛʁ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen )) is a commune in the Hauts-de-Seine department, the western suburbs of Paris. It is located some 11 km (6.8 mi) north-west of the centre of Paris.

The commune is a level of administrative division in the French Republic. French communes are analogous to civil townships and incorporated municipalities in the United States and Canada, Gemeinden in Germany, comuni in Italy or ayuntamiento in Spain. The United Kingdom has no exact equivalent, as communes resemble districts in urban areas, but are closer to parishes in rural areas where districts are much larger. Communes are based on historical geographic communities or villages and are vested with significant powers to manage the populations and land of the geographic area covered. The communes are the fourth-level administrative divisions of France.

Hauts-de-Seine Department of France in Île-de-France

Hauts-de-Seine is a department of France located in the region of Île-de-France. A part of the Grand Paris, it covers the western inner suburbs of Paris. With a population of 1,603,268 as of 2016 and a total area of 176 square kilometres, it is the second-most highly densely populated department of France. Hauts-de-Seine is best known for containing the modern office, theatre and shopping complex La Défense. Its inhabitants are called Altoséquanais.

Paris Capital city of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, as well as the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zurich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018. The city is a major railway, highway, and air-transport hub served by two international airports: Paris-Charles de Gaulle and Paris-Orly. Opened in 1900, the city's subway system, the Paris Métro, serves 5.23 million passengers daily, and is the second busiest metro system in Europe after Moscow Metro. Gare du Nord is the 24th busiest railway station in the world, but the first located outside Japan, with 262 million passengers in 2015.

Contents

Nanterre serves as both the capital of the Hauts-de-Seine department and seat of the eponymous arrondissement.

In the administrative divisions of France, the department is one of the three levels of government below the national level, between the administrative regions and the commune. Ninety-six departments are in metropolitan France, and five are overseas departments, which are also classified as regions. Departments are further subdivided into 334 arrondissements, themselves divided into cantons; the last two have no autonomy, and are used for the organisation of police, fire departments, and sometimes, elections.

Arrondissement of Nanterre Arrondissement in Île-de-France, France

The arrondissement of Nanterre is an arrondissement of France in the Hauts-de-Seine department in the Île-de-France region. Since the January 2017 reorganization of the arrondissements of Hauts-de-Seine, it has 17 communes.

The eastern part of Nanterre, bordering the communes of Courbevoie and Puteaux, contains a small part of the La Défense business district of Paris and some of the tallest buildings in the Paris region. Because the headquarters of many major corporations are located in La Défense, the court of Nanterre is well known in the media for the number of high-profile lawsuits and trials that take place in it. The city of Nanterre also includes the Paris West University Nanterre La Défense, one of the largest universities in the Paris region.

Courbevoie Commune in Île-de-France, France

Courbevoie is a commune located 8.2 km (5.1 mi) from the center of Paris, France. The centre of Courbevoie is situated 2 kilometres from the outer limits of central Paris. It is one of the most densely populated municipalities in Europe, and ranks as the third-best place to live in the Île-de-France region, after the neighbouring communes of Levallois-Perret and Neuilly-sur-Seine.

Puteaux Commune in Île-de-France, France

Puteaux is a commune in the western suburbs of Paris, France. It is located in the heart of the Hauts-de-Seine department 8.7 kilometres (5.4 mi) from the center of Paris.

La Défense Place in Île-de-France, France

La Défense is a major business district located three kilometres west of the city limits of Paris. It is part of the Paris metropolitan area in the Île-de-France region, located in the department of Hauts-de-Seine in the communes of Courbevoie, La Garenne-Colombes, Nanterre and Puteaux.

Name

The name of Nanterre originated before the Roman conquest of Gaul. The Romans recorded the name as Nemetodorum. It is composed of the Celtic word nemeto meaning "shrine" or "sacred place" and the Celtic word duron (neuter) "hard, tough, enduring". The sacred place referred to is believed to have been a famous shrine that existed in ancient times.

Gaul region of ancient Europe

Gaul was a historical region of Western Europe during the Iron Age that was inhabited by Celtic tribes, encompassing present day France, Luxembourg, Belgium, most of Switzerland, parts of Northern Italy, as well as the parts of the Netherlands and Germany on the west bank of the Rhine. It covered an area of 494,000 km2 (191,000 sq mi). According to the testimony of Julius Caesar, Gaul was divided into three parts: Gallia Celtica, Belgica, and Aquitania. Archaeologically, the Gauls were bearers of the La Tène culture, which extended across all of Gaul, as well as east to Raetia, Noricum, Pannonia, and southwestern Germania during the 5th to 1st centuries BC. During the 2nd and 1st centuries BC, Gaul fell under Roman rule: Gallia Cisalpina was conquered in 203 BC and Gallia Narbonensis in 123 BC. Gaul was invaded after 120 BC by the Cimbri and the Teutons, who were in turn defeated by the Romans by 103 BC. Julius Caesar finally subdued the remaining parts of Gaul in his campaigns of 58 to 51 BC.

Celtic languages Language family

The Celtic languages are a group of related languages descended from Proto-Celtic. They form a branch of the Indo-European language family. The term "Celtic" was first used to describe this language group by Edward Lhuyd in 1707, following Paul-Yves Pezron, who made the explicit link between the Celts described by classical writers and the Welsh and Breton languages.

Inhabitants of Nanterre are called Nanterriennes (feminine) and Nanterriens (masculine). They are also called "Nanterroises" (feminine) and "Nanterrois" (masculine).

History

The sacred shrine of antiquity that is referred to etymologically had been placed by tradition in Mont-Valérien. However, archeological discoveries made between 1994 and 2005 found a Gallic necropolis which has been dated to the third century BC, and also call into debate both the exact location of the pre-Roman capital of the Parisii and the initial site of Lutetia, the Roman era Paris. [2] The large necropolis, as well as working people's homes from some time later in the ancient era, is near the bank of the Seine, in the northwest of Nanterre, and might be the sacred place that is being referred to etymologically. Lutetia is mentioned by Julius Caesar in 50 BCE, reporting an assembly in Lutetia in 53 BC between himself, commander of the Roman Legions, and local Gallic leaders. [3] Although this had been thought to possibly be Île de la Cité, largely since Caesar mentions an island, the river at Nanterre follows two channels around an island. In 52 BC, the Parisii took up arms with the Gallic war leader Vercingetorix, and were defeated by Titus Labienus, one of Caesar's legates. Caesar mentions in his Commentarii that the Parisii destroyed the bridges and set fire to Lutetia before the arrival of the Roman forces. The archeological work in Nanterre has suggested over 15 hectares of pre-Roman or Roman era construction. These archeologic findings may be an indication that Nanterre was the closest pre-Roman settlement to the City's modern centre. [4] [3]

Parisii (Gaul)

The Parisii were Celtic Iron Age people who lived on the banks of the river Seine in Gaul from the middle of the 3rd century BCE until the Roman era.

Lutetia Gallo-Roman city, predecessor of Paris

The Roman city of Lutetia was the predecessor of present-day Paris.

Julius Caesar 1st-century BC Roman politician and general

Gaius Julius Caesar, known by his nomen and cognomen Julius Caesar, was a Roman politician, military general, and historian who played a critical role in the events that led to the demise of the Roman Republic and the rise of the Roman Empire. He also wrote Latin prose.

Sainte Genevieve, patron saint of Paris, was born in Nanterre ca. 419–422. [5]

On 27 March 2002, Richard Durn, a disgruntled local activist, shot and killed eight town councilors and 14 others were wounded in what the French press dubbed the Nanterre massacre. On 28 March, the murderer killed himself by jumping from the 4th floor of the Quai des orfèvres, in Paris, while he was questioned by two policemen about the reason for his killing in the Nanterre City Hall.

Administration

Nanterre is divided into two cantons:

Transport

Nanterre is served by three stations on RER line A: Nanterre – Préfecture, Nanterre – Université, and Nanterre – Ville.

Nanterre – Université station is also an interchange station on the Transilien Paris – Saint-Lazare suburban rail line.

Economy

Société Générale has its headquarters in the Tours Société Générale in La Défense and Nanterre. The company moved into the building in 1995. [6]

Faurecia, the sixth-largest automotive parts supplier, has its headquarters in Nanterre.

Groupe du Louvre and subsidiary Louvre Hôtels have their head office in Village 5 in La Défense and Nanterre. [7] [8] [9]

Education

Senior high schools include:

Sports

The basketball club Nanterre 92 plays at Palais des Sports Maurice Thorez.

The rugby union club Racing 92 opened the new Paris La Défense Arena in October 2017 and played their first game in the new facility in December 2017. [13] It has a capacity of 32,000 for rugby and 40,000 for concerts. The venue opened as U Arena, but received its current name in June 2018 [14] through a sponsorship deal with Paris La Défense, the company that manages the La Défense business district. [15]

Demographics

Immigration

Place of birth of residents of Nanterre in 1999
Born in Metropolitan France Born outside Metropolitan France
75.7%24.3%
Born in
Overseas France
Born in foreign countries with French citizenship at birth1 EU-15 immigrants2Non-EU-15 immigrants
2.7%2.8%3.9%14.9%
1This group is made up largely of former French settlers, such as pieds-noirs in Northwest Africa, followed by former colonial citizens who had French citizenship at birth (such as was often the case for the native elite in French colonies), and to a lesser extent foreign-born children of French expatriates. Note that a foreign country is understood as a country not part of France in 1999, so a person born for example in 1950 in Algeria, when Algeria was an integral part of France, is nonetheless listed as a person born in a foreign country in French statistics.
2An immigrant is a person born in a foreign country not having French citizenship at birth. Note that an immigrant may have acquired French citizenship since moving to France, but is still considered an immigrant in French statistics. On the other hand, persons born in France with foreign citizenship (the children of immigrants) are not listed as immigrants.

International relations

Nanterre's twin towns sign. Nanterre twin cities.jpg
Nanterre's twin towns sign.

Twin towns – sister cities

Nanterre is twinned with:

See also

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References

  1. "Populations légales 2016". INSEE . Retrieved 25 April 2019.
  2. Nanterre et les Parisii [ dead link ]
  3. 1 2 Ancient and Medieval Paris: A Background to the Gothic era. Athena Review Vol.4 No.2 pages 22-26
  4. Histoire et Histoires: Du 5ème Volume 1 Editions Depeyrot Paris 2014
  5. Catholic Encyclopedia St. Genevieve
  6. "Société Générale: deux tours à la Défense". Lejournaldunet.com. Archived from the original on 21 June 2015. Retrieved 7 July 2010.CS1 maint: BOT: original-url status unknown (link) ()
  7. "Contact Archived 11 September 2010 at the Wayback Machine ." Groupe du Louvre. Retrieved on 27 June 2010.
  8. "Plan interactif." Nanterre. Retrieved on 27 June 2010.
  9. "Legal notice Archived 13 August 2010 at the Wayback Machine ." Louvre Hôtels. Retrieved on 27 June 2010.
  10. "Accueil" (Archive). Lycée Joliot-Curie de Nanterre. Retrieved on June 21, 2015.
  11. "Accueil Archived 1 August 2015 at the Wayback Machine ." Lycée professionnel Paul-Langevin. Retrieved on June 22, 2015.
  12. "Accueil." Lycée professionnel Claude-Chappe. Retrieved on June 21, 2015.
  13. Escot, Richard (16 October 2017). "Le nouvel écrin du Racing 92, la U Arena, ouvre ses portes". L'Équipe (in French). Retrieved 17 October 2017.
  14. "La U Arena devient Paris La Défense Arena" [The U Arena becomes Paris La Défense Arena] (Press release) (in French). Paris La Défense Arena. 12 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2018.
  15. Opoczynski, David; Moulin, Louis (7 May 2018). "«Paris La Défense Arena» : la U Arena de Nanterre se fait un nouveau nom" ["Paris La Défense Arena": U Arena in Nanterre receiving a new name]. Le Parisien (in French). Retrieved 19 June 2018.
  16. "British towns twinned with French towns". Archant Community Media Ltd. Retrieved 11 July 2013.
  17. "Žilina - oficiálne stránky mesta: Partnerské mestá Žiliny [Žilina: Official Partner Cities]". © 2008 MaM Multimedia, s.r.o.. Retrieved 11 December 2008.