Nasher (Kharoti clan)

Last updated
House of Nasher
Parent house Kharoti
Country Afghanistan
Founded977 / 1709

The Nasher (or Nashir) (Dari: الناشر, Persian: الناشر, Arabic: الناشر) are a noble Afghan family and Khans of the Pashtun Kharoti (Ghilji) tribe. [1] The family is originally from Qarabagh, Ghazni but founded modern day Kunduz in the early 20th century and lived there until the end of the Barakzai dynasty in the late 20th century. Members of the family now live in the United States, in the United Kingdom, Canada, and in Germany.


Origins and history

Fighting between Mahmud of Ghazni and Abu 'Ali Simjuri Fighting between Mahmud of Ghazni and Abu 'Ali Simjuri.jpg
Fighting between Mahmud of Ghazni and Abu 'Ali Simjuri
early 19th century Khan in war regalia. Afghan royal soldiers of the Durrani Empire.jpg
early 19th century Khan in war regalia.

The Nasher are often linked to the ancient Ghaznavid dynasty. [2] [3] [4] [5] The Ghaznavids (Persian : غزنویان) were a Turko-Persian dynasty of Mamluk origin who carved out an empire, at their greatest extent ruling large parts of Persia, much of Transoxania, and the northern parts of the Indian subcontinent from 977 to 1186 A.D. [6] [7] When the Ghaznavid dynasty was defeated in 1148 by the Ghurids, the Ghaznavid Sultans continued to live in Ghazni. [2] [3] It has been suggested that they became known as the Nasher though no evidence of continuous lineage has been found.[ citation needed ]

The earliest certain mention of the Nasher was in 1120 A.H (1709 A.D.), [5] [8] [9] [10] [11] when Ghilji Pashtun tribesmen under Khan Nasher successfully overthrew Safavid rule to establish the Ghilji Hotaki dynasty, which controlled Afghanistan from 1719-1729 A.D. and much of Persia from 1722-1729 until Nadir Shah of Persia seized power in the Battle of Damghan.

The Nasher (often referred to as Ghaznavid [4] [5] [8] [9] [12] ) then lived as Khans of the Kharoti (Pashto: خروټی), a Pashtun tribe of Ghilji origin with an estimated population of about 5.5 million, making it one of the largest, if not the largest tribe in Afghanistan, with significant territory throughout eastern and south-eastern Afghanistan: Ghazni, Zabul, Paktia, Khost, Logar, Wardak, Kabul and Nangarhar. [13] [14]

In the 19th century

Sher Khan Nasher, Loe Khan, ca. 1910 Sher Khan Nasher.jpg
Sher Khan Nasher, Loe Khan, ca. 1910

After the great Ghilji rebellion in 1885-1886, led by Alam Khan Nasher, the Nasher family was exiled by the ruling Barakzai King Amir Abdur Rahman Khan in order to weaken his nemesis. [15] Sher Khan Nasher, Khan of the Kharoti soon became governor of the Kunduz district launched an industrialisation campaign, founding the Spinzar Company, with major urban development and construction programmes. [16] [17] Economic development transformed Kunduz into a thriving city with new residential housing, schools, and hospitals for the factory workers. [18] Sher Khan Nasher also implemented Qizel Qala harbour that was later named Sher Khan Bandar in his honour. [19] As his power grew and he eventually controlled the whole north of Afghanistan, the throne was within his reach, which is why there are theories that he was poisoned by the Barakzai king. [20] Several schools were named after him, [21] [22] with many high-profile graduates, such as Hekmatyar, [23] [24] Farhad Darya Nasher, [25] Dr. Saddrudin Sahar [26] and Suleman Kakar [27] Muhammad Nasher Khan was the governor of Badakshan in the 1930s.

In modern history

Sher Khan's nephew and stepson Ghulam Sarwar Nasher developed Spinzar further, employing over 20,000 people and maintaining construction companies, a porcelain factory and hotels in Kunduz and throughout Afghanistan. [28] Long before he became a radical, Nashir sent fellow Kharoti Hekmatyar to Kabul's Mahtab Qala military academy in 1968, as he considered him to be a promising young man. [21] [29] After he was expelled from the Mahtab Qala, Nasher imprisoned him briefly for toying with Communist ideology.

Discovery of Alexandria on the Oxus

On a hunting trip, Nashir discovered ancient artefacts of Ai Khanom and invited Princeton-archaeologist Daniel Schlumberger with his team to examine Ai-Khanoum. [30] It was soon found to be the historical Alexandria on the Oxus, also possibly later named اروکرتیه or Eucratidia), one of the primary cities of the Greco-Bactrian kingdom. Some of those artefects were displayed in Europe and USA museums in 2004.

Nashir was awarded "The Order of the Sacred Treasure" by the Emperor of Japan, in 1971, among other awards. The current governor of the Kunduz district is Nizamuddin Nasher Khan, considered to be the "last scion of a legendary Afghan dynasty" still living in Kunduz, [28] [31] as members of the family are now mostly living in England, Germany, and the United States.

Notable Nasher

The most populer Afghan singer, Farhad Darya Nasher, is a grandson of Sher Khan. [25] [32]

Cities and places named after the Nasher

Related Research Articles

Durrani Empire Afghan empire founded by Ahmad Shah Durrani

The Durrani Empire, also called the Sadozai Kingdom and the Afghan Empire, was an Afghan empire founded and built by Ahmad Shah Abdali in parts of Central Asia, Middle East and South Asia. At its maximum extent, the empire ruled over the modern-day countries of Afghanistan and Pakistan, as well as parts of northeastern and southeastern Iran, eastern Turkmenistan, and northwestern India.

Kunduz City in Kunduz Province, Afghanistan

Kunduz is a city in northern Afghanistan, which serves as the capital of Kunduz Province. The city has a population of about 268,893, making it about the 6th-largest city of Afghanistan, and the largest city in the northeastern section of the country. Kunduz is located in the historical Tokharistan region of Bactria, near the confluence of the Kunduz River with the Khanabad River. Kunduz is linked by highways with Kabul to the south, Mazar-i-Sharif to the west, and Badakhshan to the east. Kunduz is also linked with Dushanbe in Tajikistan to the north, via the Afghan dry port of Sherkhan Bandar.

This index list around 14% of all Afghanistan-related articles on Wikipedia.

Kunduz Province Province of Afghanistan

Kunduz or Qunduz is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the northern part of the country next to Tajikistan. The population of the province is around 953,800, which is mostly a tribal society; it is one of Afghanistan's most ethnically diverse provinces with many different ethnicities in large numbers living there. The city of Kunduz serves as the capital of the province. It borders the provinces of Takhar, Baghlan, Samangan and Balkh. The Kunduz Airport is located next to the provincial capital.

Ghazni Province Province of Afghanistan

Ghazni is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in southeastern Afghanistan. The province contains 19 districts, encompassing over a thousand villages and roughly 1.3 million people, making it the 5th most populous province. The city of Ghazni serves as the capital. It lies on the important Kabul–Kandahar Highway, and has historically functioned as an important trade center. The Ghazni Airport is located next to the city of Ghazni and provides limited domestic flights to Afghanistan's capital, Kabul.

Kandahar Province Province of Afghanistan

Kandahār is one of the thirty-four provinces of Afghanistan, located in the southern part of the country, sharing a border with Balochistan, Pakistan to the south. It is surrounded by Helmand in the west, Uruzgan in the north and Zabul Province in the east. Its capital is the city of Kandahar, Afghanistan's second largest city, which is located on the Arghandab River. The greater region surrounding the province is called Loy Kandahar.

Paktika Province Province of Afghanistan

Paktika is one of the 34 provinces of Afghanistan, located in the eastern part of the country. Forming part of the larger Loya Paktia region, Paktika has a population of about 413,800, mostly ethnic Pashtuns. The town of Sharana serves as the provincial capital, while the most populous city is Urgun.

Ghulam Nabi Nasher was the son of Loe Khan Nasher and grandson of Sher Khan Nasher. He was an ethnic Pushtun, the hereditary Khan of the Kharoti (Ghilzai) tribe, born in Qarabagh, Ghazni. Ghulam Nabi Nasher was the Mayor of Kunduz and later he was elected for two terms as a Senator from Kunduz. During the time of King Zaher Shah, he served as the president for the upper house of the Afghan Parliament. He was an avid philanthropist and bequeathed his home in Falls Church VA to the local Islamic center.

Gholam Serwar Nasher

Gholam Serwar Nasher (1922–1984) was the last ruling Khan of the Nasher and President of Spinzar Cotton Company in Kunduz, the most profitable company and one of the largest companies in pre-war Afghanistan.

The Kharoti are a Pashtun tribe of Ghilji origin, originating in the central part of Paktika Province, Afghanistan, but can be also found in other parts of the country. The Kharoti settled in Kharotabad in Quetta, British India around 1945.

Ghilji Pashtun tribe

The Ghiljī also spelled Khilji, Khalji, or Ghilzai or Ghilzay (غلزی), are one of the largest tribes of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is Ghazni and Qalati Ghilji in Afghanistan but have also settled in other regions, primarily, Pashtunistan which encompasses the Afghan-Pakistan frontier. The modern nomadic Kochi people are predominantly made up of Ghilji tribes. The Ghilji make up around 20-25% of Afghanistan's total population

Nasher may refer to:

Durrani Pashtun tribe

The Durrānī formerly known as Abdālī (ابدالي), are one of the largest tribes of Pashtuns. Their traditional homeland is in southern Afghanistan, straddling into Toba Achakzai in Balochistan, Pakistan, but they are also settled in other parts of Afghanistan and parts of Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, Pakistan.


Mohammadzai, also spelled Moḥammadzay, is a sub-tribe or clan of the Barakzai which is part of the Durrani confederacy of tribes. They are primarily centered on Kandahar, Kabul and Ghazni in Afghanistan. The Mohammadzai ruled Afghanistan from 1823 to 1978, for a total 152 years. The monarchy ended under Mohammad Zahir Shah when his brother in law Sardar Daoud Khan took power via a coup.

Pashtun tribes Large family units of the Eastern Iranian ethnic groups

The Pashtun tribes, historically also known as Afghan tribes, are the tribes of the Pashtun people, a large Eastern Iranian ethnic group who use the Pashto language and follow Pashtunwali code of conduct. They are found primarily in Afghanistan and Pakistan and form the world's largest tribal society, comprising over 49 million people and between 350 and 400 tribes and clans. They are traditionally divided into four tribal confederacies: the Sarbani (سړبني), the Bettani (بېټني), the Gharghashti (غرغښتي) and the Karlani (کرلاڼي).

Sher Khan Bandar Place in Kunduz Province, Afghanistan

Shērkhān Bandar is an Afghan border town and dry port situated at the border between Afghanistan and Tajikistan. It is located in the Kunduz Province of Afghanistan, next to the Panj River, near the border with Tajikistan. The dry port links Kunduz and Kabul in Afghanistan with Dushanbe in Tajikistan. Its old name was Qezel Qal'eh. It was renamed after Sher Khan Nashir, Khan of the Kharoti Nasher clan.

Khalaj people Turkic ethnic group

The Khalaj are classified as a Turkic tribe. Medieval Muslim scholars considered the tribe to be one of the earliest to cross the Amu Darya from Central Asia into present-day Afghanistan. The Khalaj were described as sheep-grazing nomads in Ghazni, Qalati Ghilji, and the surrounding districts, who had a habit of wandering through seasonal pastures.

Sher Khan Nashir was the hereditary Grand Khan of the Nashir clan of the Kharoti (Ghilji) tribe and governor (Wali) of Northern Afghanistan in the 1930s, known as the "father of Kunduz. He was apparently poisoned by the King of Afghanistan. Many places, schools and Afghanistan's largest port Sher Khan Bandar are named after him.

The Sulaimankhel, or Suleiman Khel, are a Pashtun sub-tribe of the Ghilji tribe of Bettani confederation of Pashtuns. In the early 20th century, the tribe was recognised as generally pastoral.

Bārakzai is the name of a Pashtun tribe from present-day, Kandahar, Afghanistan. '"Barakzai" is a common name among the Pashtuns and it means "son of Barak" in Pashto. There are seven distinct Pashtun tribes named Barakzai, with the Zirak branch of the Durrani tribe being the most important and largest tribe with over 4 million people.


  1. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-08-21. Retrieved 2014-09-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  2. 1 2 Meher, Jagmohan: Afghanistan: Dynamics of Survival , p. 29, at Google Books
  3. 1 2
  4. 1 2
  5. 1 2 3
  6. C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids" in Encyclopaedia Iranica , Online Edition 2006
  7. C.E. Bosworth, "Ghaznavids", in Encyclopaedia of Islam , Online Edition; Brill, Leiden; 2006/2007
  8. 1 2
  9. 1 2 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-01-31. Retrieved 2014-09-16.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  11. Runion, Meredith L.: The History of Afghanistan , p. 63, at Google Books
  13. Personalities: An Examination of the Tribes and the Significant People of a Traditional Pashtun Province - Timothy S. Timmons and Rashid Hassanpoor (2007)
  15. The Wars of Afghanistan: Messianic Terrorism, Tribal Conflicts, and the Failures of Great Powers , p. 42, at Google Books Peter Tomsen, PublicAffairs, 2011
  16. Wörmer, Nils (2012). "The Networks of Kunduz: A History of Conflict and Their Actors, from 1992 to 2001" (PDF). Stiftung Wissenschaft und Politik. Afghanistan Analysts Network. p. 8
  17. Grötzbach, Erwin: Afghanistan, eine geographische Landeskunde, Darmstadt 1990, p. 263
  18. Emadi, Hafizullah: Dynamics of Political Development in Afghanistan. The British, Russian, and American Invasions , p. 60, at Google Books
  19. Tanwir, Halim: AFGHANISTAN: History, Diplomacy and Journalism Volume 1 , p. 253, at Google Books
  20. del Castill, Graciana: Guilty Party: The International Community in Afghanistan , p. 58, at Google Books
  21. 1 2 Roy, O.; Sfeir, A.; King, J (eds.): The Columbia World Dictionary of Islamism , p. 130, at Google Books
  24. Kakar, H.M.: The Soviet Invasion and the Afghan Response, 1979-1982, p. 307
  25. 1 2
  26. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2015-04-05. Retrieved 2015-03-22.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  28. 1 2 Reuter, Christoph: Power Plays in Afghanistan: Laying the Groundwork for Civil War, 49/2011 (Dec. 5, 2011) of DER SPIEGEL
  29. Killing the Cranes: A Reporter's Journey through Three Decades of War in ...von Edward Girardet , p. 183, at Google Books
  30. Bernard, Paul: Aï Khanoum en Afghanistan hier (1964-1978) et aujourd'hui (2001), p. 971
  32. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2014-12-13. Retrieved 2014-12-13.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Further reading