Nation Party of Iran

Last updated
Party of the Iranian Nation
Secretary-GeneralKhosrow Seif [1]
Founder Dariush Forouhar
Founded24 October 1951;67 years ago (1951-10-24)
Headquarters Tehran, Iran
Ideology
Political position Centre-right [2]
National affiliation National Front (1951–1979)
Website
Official Site

Party of the Iranian Nation or Nation Party of Iran or Iran Nation Party (Persian: حزب ملت ایران) is an opposition party in Iran seeking to establish a secular democracy. Like the rest of the opposition parties, this party is presently banned from public activity in Iran, under the Islamic Regime.

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.

Iran Islamic Republic in Western Asia

Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.

Democracy system of government in which citizens vote directly in or elect representatives to form a governing body, sometimes called "rule of the majority"

Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves. These representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority, usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association.

The Party of the Iranian Nation was founded by Dariush Forouhar in 1951 and, at its height, had had more ten thousand active members. The Party of the Iranian Nation, was also one of the primary factions formed under The National Front of Iran, [2] led by Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, since its inception in 1949.

Dariush Forouhar Iranian politician

Dariush Forouhar was an Iranian pan-Iranist politician and leader of Nation Party of Iran.

After the fall of Mossadegh in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, the activities of the National Front, and its affiliates, were banned in the Imperial State of Iran.

1953 Iranian coup détat overthrow of the democratically elected government of Iran

The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United States and the United Kingdom, and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.

In the years between 1960 to 1963, Iran's political atmosphere opened, to some extent. The party re-started its public activities, and its student branch became the strongest student organization in the country. After 1963, the party's activities were banned once more until the beginning of the 1979 revolution. After the revolution, the party participated in the interim government, but with the closure of the political space, the opposition once again became banned from its activities. In 1981, several members of the party were imprisoned and executed.

Originally named “The Party of the Iranian Nation, Built on the Pan-Iranian Foundation”. The party decided to remove the suffix from their name to reflect their changing political views. In 1962, the party moved from Pan-Iranism, to become “The Party of the Iranian Nation”, a patriotic, Liberal organization.

In 1977, The Party of the Iranian Nation was the first organization within the country to call for the abolition of the death penalty. In 1995, the party called for a referendum to determine a new political system in Iran, based on the separation of religion and state, and equality for all citizens.

In 1998, Dariush Forouhar, the party's historical leader, along with Parvaneh Forouhar, his wife and member of the party's leadership council, were killed by the Islamic Republic's intelligence forces. Tens of thousands of Iranian people attend the funeral as a demonstration against the Islamic Republic. The killing of the leaders of the Party of the Iranian Nation, created a major political crisis in the Islamic Republic, which lead to the resignation of the Islamic Republic's intelligence minister, and the arrest and trial, of several of the highest intelligence officials in the Islamic Republic. Following this murder, more than seventy political opponents of the Islamic Republic, who were murdered by the intelligence agencies of the Islamic Republic, were exposed.

Six months after the murder of the leaders of the Party of the Iranian Nation, the Iranian Student Protests of July 1999 took place. The Youth Organization of the Party of the Iranian Nation played a leading role in the leadership of the student protests that lasted for 5 days. After suppressing the student protests, the Party of the Iranian Nation was under increasing pressure, and has not been active since.

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References

  1. Kazemzadeh, Masoud (2008). "Opposition groups". In Kamrava, Mehran; Dorraj, Manochehr (eds.). Iran Today: An Encyclopedia of Life in the Islamic Republic. 2. Greenwood Press. p. 364. ISBN   978-0-313-34161-8.
  2. 1 2 3 Mina, Parviz (July 20, 2004). "OIL AGREEMENTS IN IRAN". In Yarshater, Ehsan (ed.). Encyclopædia Iranica . Bibliotheca Persica Press. Retrieved September 12, 2016.