Party of the Iranian Nation
|Founded||24 October 1951|
|National affiliation||National Front (1951–1979)|
Party of the Iranian Nation or Nation Party of Iran or Iran Nation Party (Persian: حزب ملت ایران) is an opposition party in Iran seeking to establish a secular democracy. Like the rest of the opposition parties, this party is presently banned from public activity in Iran, under the Islamic Regime.
Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language within the Indo-Iranian branch of the Indo-European language family. It is a pluricentric language primarily spoken in Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and some other regions which historically were Persianate societies and considered part of Greater Iran. It is written right to left in the Persian alphabet, a modified variant of the Arabic script.
Iran, also called Persia, and officially the Islamic Republic of Iran, is a country in Western Asia. With over 81 million inhabitants, Iran is the world's 18th most populous country. Its territory spans 1,648,195 km2 (636,372 sq mi), making it the second largest country in the Middle East and the 17th largest in the world. Iran is bordered to the northwest by Armenia and the Republic of Azerbaijan, to the north by the Caspian Sea, to the northeast by Turkmenistan, to the east by Afghanistan and Pakistan, to the south by the Persian Gulf and the Gulf of Oman, and to the west by Turkey and Iraq. Its central location in Eurasia and Western Asia, and its proximity to the Strait of Hormuz, give it geostrategic importance. Tehran is the capital, largest city, and leading economic and cultural center.
Democracy is a system of government where the citizens exercise power by voting. In a direct democracy, the citizens as a whole form a governing body and vote directly on each issue. In a representative democracy the citizens elect representatives from among themselves. These representatives meet to form a governing body, such as a legislature. In a constitutional democracy the powers of the majority are exercised within the framework of a representative democracy, but the constitution limits the majority and protects the minority, usually through the enjoyment by all of certain individual rights, e.g. freedom of speech, or freedom of association.
The Party of the Iranian Nation was founded by Dariush Forouhar in 1951 and, at its height, had had more ten thousand active members. The Party of the Iranian Nation, was also one of the primary factions formed under The National Front of Iran,led by Prime Minister Mohammad Mossadegh, since its inception in 1949.
Dariush Forouhar was an Iranian pan-Iranist politician and leader of Nation Party of Iran.
After the fall of Mossadegh in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état, the activities of the National Front, and its affiliates, were banned in the Imperial State of Iran.
The 1953 Iranian coup d'état, known in Iran as the 28 Mordad coup d'état, was the overthrow of the democratically elected Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh in favour of strengthening the monarchical rule of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi on 19 August 1953, orchestrated by the United States and the United Kingdom, and the first United States covert action to overthrow a foreign government during peacetime.
In the years between 1960 to 1963, Iran's political atmosphere opened, to some extent. The party re-started its public activities, and its student branch became the strongest student organization in the country. After 1963, the party's activities were banned once more until the beginning of the 1979 revolution. After the revolution, the party participated in the interim government, but with the closure of the political space, the opposition once again became banned from its activities. In 1981, several members of the party were imprisoned and executed.
Originally named “The Party of the Iranian Nation, Built on the Pan-Iranian Foundation”. The party decided to remove the suffix from their name to reflect their changing political views. In 1962, the party moved from Pan-Iranism, to become “The Party of the Iranian Nation”, a patriotic, Liberal organization.
In 1977, The Party of the Iranian Nation was the first organization within the country to call for the abolition of the death penalty. In 1995, the party called for a referendum to determine a new political system in Iran, based on the separation of religion and state, and equality for all citizens.
In 1998, Dariush Forouhar, the party's historical leader, along with Parvaneh Forouhar, his wife and member of the party's leadership council, were killed by the Islamic Republic's intelligence forces. Tens of thousands of Iranian people attend the funeral as a demonstration against the Islamic Republic. The killing of the leaders of the Party of the Iranian Nation, created a major political crisis in the Islamic Republic, which lead to the resignation of the Islamic Republic's intelligence minister, and the arrest and trial, of several of the highest intelligence officials in the Islamic Republic. Following this murder, more than seventy political opponents of the Islamic Republic, who were murdered by the intelligence agencies of the Islamic Republic, were exposed.
Six months after the murder of the leaders of the Party of the Iranian Nation, the Iranian Student Protests of July 1999 took place. The Youth Organization of the Party of the Iranian Nation played a leading role in the leadership of the student protests that lasted for 5 days. After suppressing the student protests, the Party of the Iranian Nation was under increasing pressure, and has not been active since.
The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.
The Tudeh Party of Iran is an Iranian communist party. Formed in 1941, with Soleiman Mohsen Eskandari as its head, it had considerable influence in its early years and played an important role during Mohammad Mosaddegh's campaign to nationalize the Anglo-Persian Oil Company and his term as prime minister. The crackdown that followed the 1953 coup against Mosaddegh is said to have "destroyed" the party, although a remnant persisted. The party still exists, but has remained much weaker as a result of its banning in Iran and mass arrests by the Islamic Republic in 1982, as well as the executions of political prisoners in 1988.
Liberalism in Iran or Iranian liberalism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 20th century.
Pan-Iranism is an ideology that advocates solidarity and reunification of Iranian peoples living in the Iranian plateau and other regions that have significant Iranian cultural influence, including the Persians, Azerbaijanis, Lurs, Gilaks, Mazanderanis, Ossetians, Kurds, Zazas, Talysh, Tajiks of Tajikistan, Uzbekistan and Afghanistan, the Pashtuns, the Baloch of Pakistan, etc.. The first theoretician was Dr Mahmoud Afshar Yazdi.
The National Front of Iran is an opposition political organization in Iran, founded by Mohammad Mosaddegh in 1949. It is the oldest and arguably the largest pro-democracy group operating inside Iran despite having never been able to recover the prominence it had in the early 1950s.
The Pan-Iranist Party is a small opposition political party in Iran that advocates pan-Iranism. The party is not registered and is technically banned, however it continues to operate inside Iran.
The First Iranian presidential election was held on January 25, 1980, one year after the Iranian Revolution when the Council of Islamic Revolution was in power.
Parvaneh Forouhar née Eskandari was an Iranian dissident and activist who was murdered during the Chain Murders of Iran in November 1998.
Roozbeh Farahanipour is a leader in the movement for an Iranian cultural renaissance and the chairman of the Marz-e Por Gohar resistance movement, which advocates the overthrow of Iran's Islamic government and its replacement with a secular Iranian Republic. After being imprisoned and tortured for his key role in the uprising of July 1999, Farahanipour went into exile in the United States where he received political asylum.
The Democratic Party of Iranian Kurdistan, also known as the Kurdish Democratic Party of Iran (KDPI), is an armed leftist ethnic party of Kurds in Iran, exiled in northern Iraq. It is banned in Iran and thus not able to operate openly.
The National Socialist Workers Party of Iran, better known by its abbreviation SUMKA, was a neo-Nazi party in Iran.
Fadā'iyān-e Islam is a Shiʿite fundamentalist group in Iran with a strong activist political orientation. The group was founded in 1946, and registered as a political party in 1989.
The Chain murders of Iran, or Serial murders of Iran, were a series of 1988–98 murders and disappearances of certain Iranian dissident intellectuals who had been critical of the Islamic Republic system. The murders and disappearances were carried out by Iranian government internal operatives.
Mohammad Mokhtari was an Iranian writer, poet and activist. He was an active member of the Iranian Writers Association, a group that had been long banned in Iran due to their objection to censorship and encouraged freedom of expression. Due to his activism, he was most likely murdered during the Chain murders of Iran in December 1998.
Secularism in Iran was established as state policy shortly after Rezā Shāh was crowned Shah in 1924. He made any public display or expression of religious faith, including the wearing of the headscarf (hijab) and chador by women and wearing of facial hair by men illegal. Public religious festivals and celebrations were banned, Islamic clergy were forbidden to preach in public, and mosque activities were heavily restricted and regulated.
The Freedom Movement of Iran (FMI) or Liberation Movement of Iran is an Iranian pro-democracy political organization founded in 1961, by members describing themselves as "Muslims, Iranians, Constitutionalists and Mossadeghists". It is the oldest party still active in Iran and has been described as a "semi-opposition" or "loyal opposition" party. It has also been described as a "religious nationalist party".
The Supreme Council of the Cultural Revolution is a conservative-dominated body based in Qom, set up at the time of Ayatollah Khomeini. Its decisions can only be overruled by Iran's Supreme Leader. Most of its members were appointed by Ali Khamenei, Khomeini's successor.
The President of Iran is ex officio the chairman of the Council.
Socialism in Iran or Iranian socialism is a political ideology that traces its beginnings to the 20th century and encompasses various political parties in the country. Iran experienced a short Third World Socialism period at the zenith of the Tudeh Party after the abdication of Reza Shah and his replacement by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi. After failing to reach power, this form of third world socialism was replaced by Mosaddegh's populist, non-aligned Iranian nationalism of the National Front party as the main anti-monarchy force in Iran, reaching power (1949–1953), and it remained with that strength even in opposition until the rise of Islamism and the Iranian Revolution. The Tudehs have moved towards basic socialist communism since then.
Saeed Bashirtash is an Iranian politician and dentist and implant surgeon who lives in Brussels, Belgium. He is an activist in opposition of the current government of the Islamic Republic of Iran.
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