The National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale) was a French legislative body elected on 8 February 1871 in the wake of the Armistice of Versailles signed on 26 January 1871 at the end of the Franco-Prussian War. It sat in Bordeaux until 20 March 1871, when it moved to the Palace of Versailles. The cabinets which issued from it governed France from 19 February 1871 to 31 December 1875.
Versailles is a city in the Yvelines département in the Île-de-France region, renowned worldwide for the Château de Versailles and the gardens of Versailles, designated UNESCO World Heritage Sites. Located in the western suburbs of the French capital, 17.1 km (10.6 mi) from the centre of Paris, Versailles is in the 21st century a wealthy suburb of Paris with a service-based economy and a major tourist destination as well. According to the 2008 census, the population of the city is 88,641 inhabitants, down from a peak of 94,145 in 1975.
The Palace of Versailles was the principal royal residence of France from 1682, under Louis XIV, until the start of the French Revolution in 1789, under Louis XVI. It is located in the department of Yvelines, in the region of Île-de-France, about 20 kilometres southwest of the centre of Paris.
The Paris Commune was a radical socialist and revolutionary government that ruled Paris from 18 March to 28 May 1871. The Franco-Prussian War had led to the capture of Emperor Napoleon III in September 1870, the collapse of the Second French Empire, and the beginning of the Third Republic. Because Paris was under siege for four months, the Third Republic moved its capital to Tours. A hotbed of working-class radicalism, Paris was primarily defended during this time by the often politicised and radical troops of the National Guard rather than regular Army troops. Paris surrendered to the Prussians on 28 January 1871, and in February Adolphe Thiers, the new chief executive of the French national government, signed an armistice with Prussia that disarmed the Army but not the National Guard.
Yvelines is a department in the region of Île-de-France, France. Located west of Hauts-de-Seine, it had a population of 1,431,808 as of 2016. Its main communes are Versailles, Saint-Germain-en-Laye, Mantes-la-Jolie and Rambouillet.
Haut-Rhin is a department in the Grand Est region of France, named after the river Rhine. Its name means Upper Rhine. Haut-Rhin is the smaller and less populated of the two departments of the former administrative Alsace region, the other being the Bas Rhin. Especially after the 1871 cession of the southern territory known since 1922 as Territoire de Belfort, although it is still densely populated compared to the rest of metropolitan France.
Patrice de MacMahon, 6th Marquess of MacMahon, 1st Duke of Magenta, was a French general and politician, with the distinction of Marshal of France. He served as Chief of State of France from 1873 to 1875 and as President of France, from 1875 to 1879.
Georges Darboy was a French Catholic priest, later bishop of Nancy then archbishop of Paris. He was among a group of prominent hostages executed as the Paris Commune of 1871 was about to be overthrown.
The Gobelins Manufactory is a historic tapestry factory in Paris, France. It is located at 42 avenue des Gobelins, near Les Gobelins métro station in the 13th arrondissement of Paris.
Lunéville is a commune in the Meurthe-et-Moselle department in France.
Meurthe is a former department of France created in 1790. Its prefecture (capital) was Nancy. It ceased to exist following the annexation of Alsace-Lorraine by Germany in 1871.
Jules Vallès was a French journalist and author.
Théophile Charles Gilles Ferré was one of the members of the Paris Commune, who authorized the execution of Georges Darboy, the archbishop of Paris, and five other hostages, on 24 May 1871. He was captured by the army, tried by a military court, and was shot at Satory, an army camp southwest of Versailles. He was the first of twenty-five Commune members to be executed for their role in the Paris Commune.
Events from the year 1871 in France.
Auguste Bruno Braquehais was a French photographer active primarily in Paris in the mid-19th century. His photographic work documenting the 1871 Paris Commune is considered an important early example of photojournalism. While largely forgotten after his death, his work was rediscovered during preparations for the Commune's centennial in 1971, and his photographs have since been the exhibited at numerous museums, including the Musée d'Art et d'Histoire, the Musée d'Orsay, and the Carnavalet Museum.
Hippolyte-Prosper-Olivier "Lissa" Lissagaray was a literary animator and speaker, a Republican journalist and a French revolutionary socialist.
Jacques Léon Clément-Thomas, was born in 1809 in Libourne (Gironde) and shot in Paris on 18 March 1871, one of the first deaths of the Paris Commune. A Republican of the old guard, Clément-Thomas was an army general, Commander in Chief of France's National Guard on two occasions, and a parliamentary deputy.
Viscount Charles-André de La Jaille was a French general who campaigned in the Crimea, Italy and Mexico, fought in the Franco-Prussian War of 1870 and helped put down the Paris Commune the next year. He was monarchist Senator of Guadeloupe from 1876 to 1885.
Raoul Adolphe Georges Rigault, born on 16 January 1846 in Paris, where he also died on 24 May 1871, was a journalist and French politician, best known for his role during the Paris Commune of 1871.
Jules Philippe Louis Albert Grévy was a French lawyer and politician. He represented Doubs in the National Assembly and then the Chamber of Deputies from 1871 to 1880. He was Governor-General of Algeria from 1879 to 1881, and a Senator for Life from 1880 until his death in 1899.
The Mokrani Revolt, known locally as the Unfaq urrumi,, which broke out on 16 March 1871, was the most important local uprising against French colonial power in Algeria since the conquest in 1830 : more than 250 tribes rose up, around a third of the population of the country. It was led by the Kabyles of the Biban mountains commanded by Cheikh Mokrani and his brother Boumezrag, as well as Cheikh El Haddad, head of the Rahmaniyya religious fraternity.