National Assembly (France)

Last updated

National Assembly

Assemblée nationale
15th legislature of the French Fifth Republic
Logo de l'Assemblee nationale francaise.svg
Type
Type
History
Founded4 October 1958
(62 years ago)
 (1958-10-04)
Preceded by National Assembly
(French Fourth Republic)
Leadership
Richard Ferrand, LREM
since 12 September 2018
Structure
Seats 577 seats
Assemblee nationale decembre 2020.svg
Political groups
Government
  •   LREM group (270) [lower-alpha 1]

Confidence-and-supply

Opposition

Others

Elections
First-past-the-post voting (577 seats, two-round system)
Last election
11 and 18 June 2017
Next election
June 2022
Meeting place
Panorama de l'hemicyle de l'assemblee nationale.jpg
Palais Bourbon, Paris
Website
www.assemblee-nationale.fr
Rules
Règlement de l’Assemblée nationale

Coordinates: 48°51′43″N2°19′07″E / 48.862036°N 2.318593°E / 48.862036; 2.318593

Contents

The National Assembly (French: Assemblée nationale; pronounced  [asɑ̃ble nɑsjɔnal] ) is the lower house of the bicameral French Parliament under the Fifth Republic, the upper house being the Senate (Sénat). The National Assembly's legislators are known as députés (French pronunciation:  [depyˈte] ; "delegate" or "envoy" in English; the word is an etymological cognate of the English word "deputy", which is the standard term for legislators in many parliamentary systems).

There are 577 députés, each elected by a single-member constituency (at least one per department) through a two-round voting system. Thus, 289 seats are required for a majority. The President of the National Assembly, currently Richard Ferrand, presides over the body. The officeholder is usually a member of the largest party represented, assisted by vice presidents from across the represented political spectrum. The National Assembly's term is five years; however, the President of the Republic may dissolve the Assembly (thereby calling for new elections) unless it has been dissolved in the preceding twelve months. This measure has become rarer since the 2000 referendum reduced the presidential term from seven to five years: since 2002, the President of the Republic has always had a majority elected in the Assembly two months after the presidential election. It would accordingly be of little benefit to dissolve it. Due to the separation of powers, the President of the Republic may not take part in parliamentary debates. They can however address the Congress of the French Parliament, which meets at the Palace of Versailles, or have the address read by the presidents of both chambers of Parliament, with no subsequent debate.

Following a tradition started by the first National Assembly during the French Revolution, the "left-wing" parties sit to the left as seen from the president's seat and the "right-wing" parties to the right; the seating arrangement thus directly indicates the political spectrum as represented in the Assembly. The official seat of the National Assembly is the Palais Bourbon on the Rive Gauche of the Seine in the 7th arrondissement of Paris. The Assembly also uses other neighbouring buildings, including the Immeuble Chaban-Delmas on the Rue de l'Université. The National Assembly, as well as most institutions of importance in Paris, is guarded by Republican Guards.

Relations with the executive

Jacques Chaban-Delmas served three times President of the Assembly between 1958 and 1988 Jacques Chaban-Delmas.jpg
Jacques Chaban-Delmas served three times President of the Assembly between 1958 and 1988

The Constitution of the French Fifth Republic greatly increased the power of the executive at the expense of Parliament, compared to previous constitutions (Third and Fourth Republics), following the May 1958 crisis. [1]

The President of the Republic can decide to dissolve the National Assembly and call for new legislative elections. This is meant as a way to resolve stalemates where the Assembly cannot decide on a clear political direction. This possibility is seldom exercised. The last dissolution was by President Jacques Chirac in 1997, following from the lack of popularity of Prime Minister Alain Juppé. However, the plan backfired, as the newly elected majority was opposed to Chirac.

The National Assembly can overthrow the executive government (that is, the Prime Minister and other ministers) by a motion of no confidence (motion de censure). For this reason, the Prime Minister and his government are necessarily from the dominant party or coalition in the assembly. In the case of a President of the Republic and National Assembly from opposing parties, this leads to the situation known as cohabitation ; this situation, which has occurred three times (twice under François Mitterrand, once under Jacques Chirac), is likely to be rarer now that terms of the President and Assembly are the same length (5 years since the 2000 referendum).

While motions de censure are periodically proposed by the opposition following government actions that it deems highly inappropriate, they are purely rhetorical; party discipline ensures that, throughout a parliamentary term, the Government is never overthrown by the Assembly. [2] Since the beginning of the Fifth Republic, there has only been one single successful motion de censure, in 1962 in hostility to the referendum on the method of election of the President of the Republic; [3] President Charles de Gaulle dissolved the Assembly within a few days. [4]

The Government (the Prime Minister and the Minister in charge of Relations with Parliament) used to set the priorities of the agenda for the Assembly's sessions, except for a single day each month. In practice, given the number of priority items, it meant that the schedule of the Assembly was almost entirely set by the executive; bills generally only have a chance to be examined if proposed or supported by the executive. This, however, was amended on 23 July 2008. Under the amended Constitution, the Government sets the priorities for two weeks in a month. Another week is designated for the Assembly's "control" prerogatives (consisting mainly of verbal questions addressed to the Government). The fourth one is also set by the Assembly. Furthermore, one day per month is set by a "minority" (group supporting the Government but which is not the largest group) or "opposition" group (having officially declared it did not support the Government).

Legislators of the Assembly can ask written or oral questions to ministers. The Wednesday afternoon 3 p.m. session of "questions to the government" is broadcast live on television. Like Prime Minister's Questions in the United Kingdom, it is largely a show for the viewers, with members of the majority asking flattering questions, while the opposition tries to embarrass the government. [5]

Elections

Since 1988, the 577 deputies are elected by direct universal suffrage with a two-round system by constituency, for a five-year mandate, subject to dissolution. The constituencies each have about 100,000 inhabitants. The electoral law of 1986 specifies their variance of population within a department should not exceed 20%, when conducting any redistribution. [6] However, none were redrawn between 1982 and 2009. As a result of population movements, births and deaths inequalities between the less populous rural districts and the urban districts arose. The deputy for the most populous (within Val-d'Oise), represented 188,000 voters, while that for the other extreme (for Lozère at-large), represented 34,000. That for Saint Pierre and Miquelon serves fewer than 6,000. Most were redrawn in 2009 (boundaries officially adopted in 2010, effective in 2012), [7] but this redistribution was controversial, [8] such as the creation of eleven constituencies for French residents overseas without increasing the number of seats. [9] [10] The electoral map is drawn by an independent commission.

To be elected in the first round of voting, a candidate must obtain at least 50% of the votes cast, with a turnout of at least 25% of the registered voters on the electoral rolls. If no candidate is elected in the first round, those who account for in excess of 12.5% (18) of the registered voters are entered in the second round of voting. If no three or more meet such conditions, the two highest-placing candidates automatically advance to the second round of voting at which, the candidate who receives the most votes is elected. Each candidate is enrolled along with a substitute, who takes the candidate's place if during tenure incapacitated or barred if the deputy becomes a government member, most notably.

The organic law of 10 July 1985 established a system of party-list proportional representation within the framework of the département. It was necessary within this framework to obtain at least 5% of the vote to elect an official. However, the legislative election of 1986, carried out under this system, gave France a new majority which returned the National Assembly to the plurality voting system aforementioned.

Of the 577 elected deputies, 539 represent metropolitan France, 27 represent the overseas departments and overseas collectivities; 11 represent French residents overseas. [11]

Procedure

The agenda of the National Assembly is mostly decided by the Government, although the Assembly can also enforce its own agenda. Indeed, article 48 of the Constitution guarantees at least a monthly session decided by the Assembly. [12]

1. A law proposal

A law proposal is a document divided into three distinct parts: a title, an exposé des motifs and a dispositif. The exposé des motifs describes the arguments in favour of a modification of a given law or new measurements that are proposed. The dispositif is the normative part, which is developed within articles. [12]

A proposal for a law can originate from the Government (projet de loi) or a Member of Parliament (proposition de loi). Certain laws must come from the Government, including financial regulations. [13]

The law proposals may pass through the National Assembly and Senate in an indifferent order, except for financial laws which must go through the Assembly first, or territorial organisational laws or laws for French citizens living in foreign countries, which must first pass through the Senate. [14]

2. The deposit of a law

For an ordinary proposition of law, texts must be first reviewed by a permanent parliamentary commission, or a special commission designated for this purpose. During the discussion in the commission, or in plenary sessions in the Assembly, the Government and Parliament can add, modify or delete articles of the proposal. The text is thus amended. Amendments proposed by a parliamentarian cannot mobilise further public funding. The Government has to right to ask the Assembly to pronounce itself in one vote only with the amendments proposed or accepted by the Government itself. [12]

Projects of propositions of laws will be examined succinctly by the two chambers of Parliament (National Assembly and Senate) until the text is identical. After two lectures by the two chambers (or just one if the Government chooses to engage an acceleration of the text adoption, which can happen only in certain conditions) and without any accord, the Prime Minister or the two presidents of the chambers, conjointly with first, can convoke a special commission composed by an equal number of members of Assembly and Senators to reach a compromise and propose a new text. The new proposition has to be approved by the Government before being re-proposed to the two chambers. No new amendments can be added except on the Government's approval. If the new proposal of law fails to be approved by the two chambers, the Government can, after a new lecture by the National Assembly and the Senate, ask the National Assembly to rule a final judgement. In that case, the National Assembly can either take back the text elaborated by the special commission or the last one that they voted for – possibly modified by several amendments by the Senate. [12]

The President of the Republic, on the Government or the two chambers' proposal, can submit every law proposal as a referendum if it concerns the organisation of public powers, reforms on the economy, social and environmental measures, or every proposition that would have an impact on the functioning of the institutions. A referendum on the previous conditions can also be initiated by a fifth of the membership of Parliament, supported by a tenth of the voters inscribed on the electoral lists. [15]

Finally, the laws are promulgated by the President of the Republic's signature. The officeholder may call for a new legislative deliberation of the law or one of its articles in front of the National Assembly, which cannot be denied. [12]

Conditions and benefits of deputies

Remuneration

Deputies wear tricolor sashes on official occasions outside the Assembly or on public marches, like other elected officials in France; Martine Billard (then Greens, later Left Party) is pictured here. Martine Billard dsc07948.jpg
Deputies wear tricolor sashes on official occasions outside the Assembly or on public marches, like other elected officials in France; Martine Billard (then Greens, later Left Party) is pictured here.
The Palais Bourbon in Paris, where the National Assembly meets Paris, France (31140722347).jpg
The Palais Bourbon in Paris, where the National Assembly meets
Ceiling paintings in the Library of the Assemblee nationale in the Palais Bourbon, on a series of cupolas and pendentives, are by Eugene Delacroix. Bibliotheque de l'Assemblee Nationale (Lunon).jpg
Ceiling paintings in the Library of the Assemblée nationale in the Palais Bourbon, on a series of cupolas and pendentives, are by Eugène Delacroix.

Assembly legislators receive a salary of €7,043.69 per month. There is also the "compensation representing official expenses" (indemnité représentative de frais de mandat, IRFM) of €5,867.39 per month to pay costs related to the office, as well as a total of €8,949 per month to pay up to five employees. They also have an office in the Assembly, various perquisites in terms of transport and communications, social security, a pension fund and unemployment insurance. Under article 26 of the Constitution, deputies, like Senators, are protected by parliamentary immunity. In the case of an accumulation of mandates, a deputy cannot receive a wage of more than €9,779.11. Deputies' expenses can be scrutinised by a commission; sanctions can be pronounced if expenses were undue.

Accumulation of mandates and minimum age

The position of deputy of the National Assembly is incompatible with that of any other elected legislative position (Senator or since 2000, Member of European Parliament) or with some administrative functions (members of the Constitutional Council and senior officials such as prefects, magistrates, or officers who are ineligible for department where they are stationed).

Deputies may not have more than one local mandate (in a municipal, intercommunal, general, or regional council) in addition to their incumbent mandate. Since the 2017 legislative election, deputies cannot hold an executive position in any local government (municipality, department, region). However, they can hold a part-time councillor mandate. In July 2017, 58% of deputies held such a seat. Since 1958, the mandate is also incompatible with a ministerial function. Upon appointment to the Government, the elected deputy has one month to choose between the mandate and the office. If they choose the second option, then they are replaced by their substitute. Since a change validated by the National Assembly in 2008, deputies can return to their seat in the Assembly one month after the end of their cabinet position. Previously, a special election had to be held.

To be eligible to be elected to the National Assembly, one must be at least 18 years old, [16] of French citizenship, as well as not subject to a sentence of deprivation of civil rights or to personal bankruptcy.

Eligibility conditions

1. Eligibility due to personal requirements

The essential conditions to run for elections are the following. First, a candidate must have French citizenship. Secondly, the minimum age required to run for a seat at the National Assembly is set at 18 years old. [17] The candidate must also have fulfilled his National Civic Day, a special day created to replace the military service. [18] Finally, a candidate under guardianship and curatorship cannot be elected to the Assembly. [19]

Furthermore, a person cannot be elected if they were declared ineligible following fraudulent funding of a previous electoral campaign. Indeed, the voter could be considered as highly influenced and their decision making could be impacted. The sincerity of the results could thus not be regarded as viable and legitimate. [20]

2. Eligibility due to positions that a person may occupy

The deputy mandate cannot be cumulated with a mandate of Senator, MEP, member of the Government or of the Constitutional Council. [17]

The deputy mandate is also incompatible with being a member of the military corps on duty, as well as with the exercise of one of the following mandates: regional council executive, Corsican Assembly executive, departmental council executive or municipal council executive in a municipality of a least or more than 3,500 inhabitants. [21] Prefects are also unable to be elected in France in every district they are exercising power or exercised power for less than three years before the date of the election. [22]

Since the 31 March 2017, being elected deputy is incompatible with most executive local mandates such as mayors, president of a regional council or member of the departmental council. [23]

Historical composition

Election Metropolitan
France
Overseas France Total seatsChanges
Overseas
departments

(DOM)
Overseas
territories

(TOM)
Territorial
collectivities
1958 46510 [24] + 71 [25] 33 [26] 579
1962 465107482
1967 470107487
  • 5 new constituencies were created in 1966.
1968 470107487
1973 473107490
  • 3 new constituencies were created in 1972.
1978 4741151491
  • An additional constituency was created in Corsica in 1975.
  • In 1976, Comoros gained their independence except Mayotte, which became a Territorial collectivity (one constituency), and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (formerly TOM) became a DOM.
  • In 1977, French Territory of the Afars and the Issas (formerly known as French Somali Coast) became independent; moreover, a new constituency was created in Polynesia (TOM) and another in New Caledonia (TOM).
1981 4741151491
1986 555
(95 departments)
15
(5 DOM)
5
(3 TOM)
2
(2 Territorial collectivities)
577
  • In 1985, Saint Pierre and Miquelon (formerly DOM) became a Territorial collectivity.
  • In 1986, party-list proportional representation system was introduced and the majoritarian two-ballot system remained only in 3 single-member constituencies: Wallis et Futuna (TOM), Mayotte and Saint Pierre and Miquelon (Territorial collectivities).
1988 5551552577
  • In 1988, the majoritarian two-ballot system was re-established. In comparison to 1981 elections, 96 new constituencies were created (91 in the Metropolitan France, 5 in the Overseas departments), while 10 parisian constituencies (n. 22 to n. 31) were suppressed.

Current legislature

Parliamentary groups

Composition of the National Assembly as of 23 July 2021 [27]
Parliamentary groupMembersRelatedTotalPresident
LREM La République En Marche 2664270 Christophe Castaner
LR The Republicans 978105 Damien Abad
MoDem Democratic Movement and affiliated democrats 50858 Patrick Mignola
SOC Socialists and associated 26329 Valérie Rabault
AE Agir ensemble 22022 Olivier Becht
UDI UDI and Independents 19019 Jean-Christophe Lagarde
LT Liberties and Territories 16117 Bertrand Pancher, Sylvia Pinel
FI La France Insoumise 17017 Jean-Luc Mélenchon
GDR Democratic and Republican Left 16016 André Chassaigne
NI Non-Attached Members 22

Bureau of the National Assembly

Composition of the Bureau [28]
PostNameConstituencyGroup
Vice President
in charge of international relations
Laetitia Saint-Paul Maine-et-Loire's 4th LREM
Vice President
in charge of representatives of interest groups and study groups
Sylvain Waserman Bas-Rhin's 2nd MODEM
Vice President
in charge of communication and the press
Hugues Renson Paris's 13th LREM
Vice President
in charge of the artistic and cultural heritage of the National Assembly
David Habib Pyrénées-Atlantiques's 3rd SOC
Vice President
in charge of the application of the deputy's statute
Annie Genevard Doubs's 5th LR
Vice President
in charge of the admissibility of proposals of law
Marc Le Fur Côtes-d'Armor's 3rd LR
Quaestor Florian Bachelier Ille-et-Vilaine's 8th LREM
Laurianne Rossi Hauts-de-Seine's 11th LREM
Éric Ciotti Alpes-Maritimes's 1st LR
Secretary Lénaïck Adam French Guiana's 2nd LREM
Ramlati Ali Mayotte's 1st LREM
Danielle Brulebois Jura's 1st LREM
Luc Carvounas Val-de-Marne's 9th SOC
Lionel Causse Landes's 2nd LREM
Alexis Corbière Seine-Saint-Denis's 7th FI
Laurence Dumont Calvados's 2nd SOC
Marie Guévenoux Essonne's 9th LREM
Annaïg Le Meur Finistère's 1st LREM
Sophie Mette Gironde's 9th MoDem
Gabriel Serville French Guiana's 1st GDR
Guillaume Vuilletet Val-d'Oise's 2nd LREM

Presidencies of committees

Presidencies of committees [28]
Standing committeesPresidentGroup
Cultural and Education Affairs Committee Bruno Studer LREM
Economic Affairs Committee Roland Lescure LREM
Foreign Affairs Committee Jean-Louis Bourlanges MoDem
Social Affairs Committee Fadila Khattabi LREM
National Defence and Armed Forces Committee Françoise Dumas LREM
Sustainable Development, Spatial and Regional Planning Committee Laurence Maillart-Méhaignerie LREM
Finance, General Economy and Budgetary Monitoring Committee Éric Woerth LR
Constitutional Acts, Legislation and General Administration Committee Yaël Braun-Pivet LREM
Other committeePresidentGroup
European Affairs Committee Sabine Thillaye MoDem

Deputies

See also

Notes

Related Research Articles

A member of parliament (MP) is the representative of the people who live in their constituency. In many countries with bicameral parliaments, this term implies members of the lower house, as upper houses often have a different title. Member of Congress or Deputy is an equivalent term in other jurisdictions. Parliamentarian is also sometimes used to describe members of parliament, but the term may also be used to refer to unelected government officials with specific roles in the parliament, such as the Senate Parliamentarian in the United States, or to imply the characteristic of performing the duties of a member of a legislature, e.g. "The two party leaders often disagreed on issues, but both were excellent parliamentarians and cooperated to get many good things done."

Elections in France Overview of the procedure of elections in France

France is a representative democracy. Public officials in the legislative and executive branches are either elected by the citizens or appointed by elected officials. Referendums may also be called to consult the French citizenry directly on a particular question, especially one which concerns amendment to the Constitution.

Parliament of Lebanon

The Lebanese Parliament is the national parliament of Lebanon. There are 128 members elected to a four-year term in multi-member constituencies, apportioned among Lebanon's diverse Christian and Muslim denominations but with half of the seats reserved for Christians per Constitutional Article 24. Lebanon has universal adult suffrage. Its major functions are to elect the President of the republic, to approve the government, and to approve laws and expenditure.

The deputy mayor is an elective or appointive office of the second-ranking official that is present in many, but not all, local governments.

Michèle Alliot-Marie French politician

Michèle Yvette Marie-Thérèse Jeanne Honorine Alliot-Marie, known in France as MAM, is a French politician and Member of the European Parliament (MEP) from France. She is a member of the Republicans, part of the European People's Party. A member of all right-wing governments formed in the 1980s, 1990s and 2000s, she was the first woman in France to hold the portfolios of Defense (2002–2007), the Interior (2007–2009) and Foreign Affairs (2010–2011); she has also been in charge of Youth and Sports (1993–1995) and Justice (2009–2010), and was granted the honorary rank of Minister of State in her last two offices.

A dual mandate is the practice in which elected officials serve in more than one elected or other public position simultaneously. This practice is sometimes known as double jobbing in Britain and cumul des mandats in France; not to be confused with double dipping in the United States, i.e. being employed by and receiving a retirement pension from the same public authority at the same time. Thus, if someone who is already mayor of a town or city councillor becomes elected as MP or senator at the national or state legislature and retains both positions, this is a dual mandate.

National Assembly (Ivory Coast)

The National Assembly is lower house of the Parliament of Ivory Coast since November 2016. From 1960 to 2016, The National Assembly was Ivory Coast's unicameral legislative body. Evolved from semi-representative bodies of the French Colonial period, the first National Assembly was constituted on 27 November 1960 with 70 elected members (députés) in accordance with the Constitution of 31 October 1960, which created the First Republic.

Council of Paris body governing the capital of France

The Council of Paris is the deliberative body responsible for the governing of Paris, the capital of France. It possesses simultaneously the powers of a municipal council and those of a departmental council for the département de Paris, as defined by the so-called PLM Law of 1982 that redefined the governance of Paris, Lyon and Marseille. Paris is the only territorial collectivity in France to be at once a commune and a département.

Yves Jégo French politician

Yves Jégo is a French politician. He was député for the third constituency of Seine-et-Marne in the National Assembly from 2002 to 2018, and Mayor of Montereau-Fault-Yonne.

Daniel Spagnou is a member of the National Assembly of France. He represents the second constituency of Alpes-de-Haute-Provence department, and is a member of the Union for a Popular Movement.

François de Rugy French politician

François Henri Goullet de Rugy is a French politician who served as President of the National Assembly from 2017 to 2018 and Minister of Ecological and Solidary Transition from 2018 to 2019.

2012 French legislative election

Legislative elections took place on 10 and 17 June 2012 to select the members of the 14th National Assembly of the French Fifth Republic – a little over a month after the French presidential election run-off held on 6 May.

Axelle Lemaire French politician

Axelle Lemaire is a French former Socialist politician who served as a Deputy for the Third constituency for French overseas residents in the National Assembly of the French Parliament, for which she was elected in 2012.

14th legislature of the French Fifth Republic

The 14th legislature of the French Fifth Republic is the parliament elected in the 2012 French legislative election.

Municipal elections in France

Municipal elections in France allow the people to elect members of the City Council in each commune. These are called conseillers municipaux. They elect the mayor, who chairs the city council, as well as Deputies to the Mayor. The term of office of councilors, the mayor and his deputies is, in principle, six years.

Municipal council (France)

In France, a municipal council is an elected body of the commune responsible for "executing, in its deliberations, the business of the town" (translated).

Mayor (France)

In France, a mayor is chairperson of the municipal council, which organises the work and deliberates on municipal matters. The mayor also has significant powers and his or her own responsibilities, such as the responsibility for the activities of municipal police and for the management of municipal staff.

French Senate elections

Senators in France are elected by indirect universal suffrage, by a panel of "electors". Half of the Senate seats are up for election every three years; the term of office is six years.

15th legislature of the French Fifth Republic

The 15th legislature of the French Fifth Republic is a parliamentary cycle that commenced on 21 June 2017 following the legislative elections on 11 and 18 June 2017. The party of the president Emmanuel Macron, La République En Marche! (LREM), obtained an absolute majority of 308 deputies, alongside its ally, the Democratic Movement (MoDem), which secured 42 seats. The new deputies elected François de Rugy the President of the National Assembly when it first convened on 27 June. The legislative elections saw a record level of renewal, with only a quarter of deputies elected in 2012 also elected in 2017, and a significant increase in the representation of women and youth. With 7 planned parliamentary groups, it would be the most fragmented assembly since 1958.

La République En Marche group (National Assembly) Parliamentary group in France

The La République En Marche group is a parliamentary group in the National Assembly of France including representatives of La République En Marche! after the 2017 legislative elections.

References

  1. William G. Andrews (August 1978). Legislative Studies Quarterly (ed.). "The Constitutional Prescription of Parliamentary Procedures in Gaullist France". Legislative Studies Quarterly. 3 (3): 465–506. doi:10.2307/439454. JSTOR   439454.
  2. "La motion de censure : véritable moyen de contrôle?" [Motion of no confidence: a real mean of control?]. vie-publique.fr (in French). 30 June 2018.
  3. "ASSEMBLÉE NATIONALE, CONSTITUTION DU 4 . OCTOBRE 1958" [NATIONAL ASSEMBLY, CONSTITUTION OF 4. OCTOBER 1958](PDF) (in French). 4 October 1962. p. 3268. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  4. "Fac-similé JO du 10/10/1962". legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). p. 9818. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  5. Anne-Laure Nicot (January 2007). E.N.S. Editions (ed.). "La démocratie en questions: L'usage stratégique de démocratie et de ses dérivés dans les questions au gouvernement de la 11e Législature" [Democracy in question. The strategic use of democracy and its derivatives in questions to the government of the 11th Legislature] (in French). pp. 9–21. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  6. Stéphane Mandard (7 June 2007). En 2005, un rapport préconisait le remodelage des circonscriptions avant les législatives de 2007[In 2005, a report recommended the redesign of the constituencies before the 2007 legislative elections]. Le Monde .
  7. "Ordonnance n° 2009-935 du 29 juillet 2009 portant répartition des sièges et délimitation des circonscriptions pour l'élection des députés" [Order n° 2009-935 of 29 July 2009 relating to the distribution of seats and the delimitation of constituencies for the election of deputies] (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  8. Pierre Salvere. "La révision des circonscriptions électorales: Un échec démocratique annoncé" [Electoral districts review: an announced democratic failure]. Fondation Terra Nova (in French). Archived from the original on 21 July 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  9. "Elections 2012 – Votez à l'étranger" [Elections 2012 - Vote abroad]. legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Archived from the original on 7 July 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  10. "Redécoupage électoral – 11 députés pour les Français de l'étranger" [Electoral cutting - 11 deputies for French citizens abroad]. Le Petit Journal. Archived from the original on 30 September 2011. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  11. "Code électoral – Article LO119" [Electoral code - Article LO119]. legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  12. 1 2 3 4 5 "Les Propositions De Loi, Du DEPOT à La Promulgation" [Bills of law, from filing to promulgation]. Assemblee-nationale.fr. (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  13. "Comment crée-t-on une loi?" [How do you make a law?]. Libération (in French). 9 June 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  14. "The Senate votes the law – Taking the initiative". Senat.fr. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  15. Durand, A (7 December 2018). "Qu'est-ce que le référendum d'initiative citoyenne (RIC) demandé par des " gilets jaunes " ?" [What is the citizens' initiative referendum (RIC) requested by "yellow vests"?]. Le Monde (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  16. "Quelles sont les conditions nécessaires pour devenir député ou sénateur ?" [What are the conditions for becoming a deputy or senator?]. vie-publique.fr (in French). 30 June 2018. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  17. 1 2 "Code électoral – Article LO137" [Electoral code - Article LO137]. legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  18. "Code électoral – Article L45" [Electoral code - Article L45]. legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  19. "Code électoral – Article LO129" [Electoral code - Article LO129]. legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  20. Nationale, A. "Fiche de synthèse n°14 : L'élection des députés" [Summary sheet n° 14: Election of deputies]. Assemblee-nationale.fr. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  21. "Code électoral – Article LO141" [Electoral code - Article LO141]. legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  22. "Code électoral – Article LO132" [Electoral code - Article LO132]. legifrance.gouv.fr (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  23. "LOI Organique N° 2014-125 Du 14 Février 2014 Interdisant Le Cumul De Fonctions Exécutives Locales Avec Le Mandat De Député Ou De Sénateur" [Organic LAW n° 2014-125 of 14 February 2014 prohibiting the combination of local executive functions with the mandate of deputy or senator]. Legifrance.gouv.fr. (in French). Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  24. 3 seats for Martinique, 3 for Guadeloupe, 3 for Réunion and 1 for French Guiana
  25. 67 seats for French Algeria and 4 seats for French departments of Sahara.
  26. They weren't elected in 1958 and remained provisionally in office to represent the territories of French Community: Mauritania (1), Senegal (2), Sudan (4), Ivory Coast (1), Upper Volta (4), Dahomey (2) and Niger (2), previously included in French West Africa; Chad (2), Ubangi-Shari (1), Ubangi-Shari-Chad (1), Gabon (1), French Congo (1), Gabon-French Congo (1), previously included in French Equatorial Africa; Madagascar (5); Comoros, French Somali Coast, French Polynesia, Saint Pierre and Miquelon and New Caledonia (with one seat each). In 1959, these last five entities decided to assume the status of Overseas territory (TOM) and new elections were held (in particular, 1959 Comoros by-election and 1959 French Somaliland by-election), while the other territories became independent and lost their representation. An additional seat was attributed to Comoros (multi-member costituency).
  27. "Effectif des groupes politiques" [Membership of political groups] (in French). Assemblée nationale. Archived from the original on 2 July 2017. Retrieved 18 June 2020.
  28. 1 2 "NOTICES ET PORTRAITS, Quinzième législature" [INSTRUCTIONS AND PORTRAITS, Fifteenth legislature](PDF). Assemblée nationale. Retrieved 18 June 2020.