|National Bank Building|
Зграда Народне банке
View from outside
|Town or city||Belgrade|
|Opened||15 March 1890|
The National Bank building in Belgrade (Serbian : Зграда Народне банке у Београду; Zgrada Narodne Banke u Beogradu) is a monument of great importance, located in Belgrade, Serbia, at 12 King Petar St.
Serbian is the standardized variety of the Serbo-Croatian language mainly used by Serbs. It is the official language of Serbia, co-official in the territory of Kosovo, and one of the three official languages of Bosnia and Herzegovina. In addition, it is a recognized minority language in Montenegro where it is spoken by the relative majority of the population, as well as in Croatia, North Macedonia, Romania, Hungary, Slovakia, and the Czech Republic.
Belgrade is the capital and largest city of Serbia. It is located at the confluence of the Sava and Danube rivers and the crossroads of the Pannonian Plain and the Balkan Peninsula. The urban area of the City of Belgrade has a population of 1.23 million, while nearly 1.7 million people live within its administrative limits.
The establishment of the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia was a long process consequent on the development of the economy, currency and other financial institutions, as well as the needs of economic and political emancipation of the Kingdom of Serbia. The Bank was formally launched after the adoption of the Law on the National Bank, 12 December 1882, which was confirmed by king Milan Obrenovic on 6 January 1883. Under this law, the Bank was established as a privileged institution (for the next 25 years in the form of a joint stock company), with an initial capital of 20 million dinara, and it was envisaged that its activities would be conducted under the control of the state. Officially, the Bank began operations on 1 June 1884. On that date, the bank leased space taken in Knez Mihajlo no. 38 (now No. 50), at the house of Hristina Kumanudi.
The Kingdom of Serbia was created when Milan I, ruler of the Principality of Serbia, was proclaimed king in 1882.
Milan Obrenović was the ruler of Serbia from 1868 to 1889, first as prince (1868-1882), subsequently as king (1882-1889).
The dinar is the official currency of Serbia. The earliest use of the dinar dates back to 1214.
As its temporary accommodation was inadequate, land was purchased for the construction of a new building in 1886 on the corner of Dubrovacka and Prince Lazar streets.
Prince Lazar Hrebeljanović was a medieval Serbian ruler who created the largest and most powerful state on the territory of the disintegrated Serbian Empire. Lazar's state, referred to by historians as Moravian Serbia, comprised the basins of the Great Morava, West Morava, and South Morava rivers. Lazar ruled Moravian Serbia from 1373 until his death in 1389. He sought to resurrect the Serbian Empire and place himself at its helm, claiming to be the direct successor of the Nemanjić dynasty, which went extinct in 1371 after ruling over Serbia for two centuries. Lazar's programme had the full support of the Serbian Orthodox Church, but the Serbian nobility did not recognize him as their supreme ruler. He is often referred to as Tsar Lazar Hrebeljanović ; however, he only held the title of prince (кнез).
In 1887, a draft plan for the new building was adopted, drawn up by two architects employed in the Ministry of Construction. However, the Board of Directors decided to assign project development to Konstantin Jovanović, then already affirmed[ clarification needed ] architect, and son of a lithographer Anastas Jovanović. The Bank project was also his first job in Belgrade. Construction of the building was entrusted to contractors Jirasek and Kraus from Szeged. The work lasted from 1889 until its official completion on 15 March 1890. The importance of the new building was reflected in the award to Konstantin A. Jovanović in 1890 of the Order of St. Sava, class III. The bank's report for 1890 said: "...the Bank has a house of which she can be proud of, as can our capital, which she serves to ornament". Great credit goes to architect Kosta Jovanović who developed the plans and under whose supervision the building was constructed.
Szeged is the third largest city of Hungary, the largest city and regional centre of the Southern Great Plain and the county seat of Csongrád county. The University of Szeged is one of the most distinguished universities in Hungary.
Saint Sava, known as the Enlightener, was a Serbian prince and Orthodox monk, the first Archbishop of the autocephalous Serbian Church, the founder of Serbian law, and a diplomat. Sava, born as Rastko, was the youngest son of Serbian Grand Prince Stefan Nemanja, and ruled the appanage of Hum briefly in 1190–92. He then left for Mount Athos, where he became a monk with the name Sava (Sabbas). At Athos he established the monastery of Hilandar, which became one of the most important cultural and religious centres of the Serbian people. In 1219 the Patriarchate exiled in Nicea recognized him as the first Serbian Archbishop, and in the same year he authored the oldest known constitution of Serbia, the Zakonopravilo nomocanon, thus securing full independence; both religious and political. Sava is regarded as the founder of Serbian medieval literature.
After World War I, the Privileged National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbia became the National Bank of the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. Between 1922–25, the bank building was extended to cater for its space requirements, to fill the entire area of the city block, in the form of an irregular pentagon. Jovanović again carried out the extension, in a style consistent with the older part of the building. It is a closed block with an internal atrium courtyard, and has been preserved to date. Jovanović modelled the building stylistically on the architecture of late-Renaissance palaces of 16th-century Italy. It also appears to be influenced by Jovanović' professor and prominent Viennese architect Gottfried Semper.
In architecture, an atrium is a large open air or skylight covered space surrounded by a building. Atria were a common feature in Ancient Roman dwellings, providing light and ventilation to the interior. Modern atria, as developed in the late 19th and 20th centuries, are often several stories high and having a glazed roof or large windows, and often located immediately beyond the main entrance doors.
Gottfried Semper was a German architect, art critic, and professor of architecture, who designed and built the Semper Opera House in Dresden between 1838 and 1841. In 1849 he took part in the May Uprising in Dresden and was put on the government's wanted list. Semper fled first to Zürich and later to London. Later he returned to Germany after the 1862 amnesty granted to the revolutionaries.
Jovanović's immediate models were Palazzo Farnese in Rome, designed by Antonio da Sangallo the Younger and Michelangelo (1513, and 1534–46), and Semper's mid-19th-century Oppenheim Palace in Dresden.
Palazzo Farnese or Farnese Palace is one of the most important High Renaissance palaces in Rome. Owned by the Italian Republic, it was given to the French government in 1936 for a period of 99 years, and currently serves as the French embassy in Italy.
Rome is the capital city and a special comune of Italy. Rome also serves as the capital of the Lazio region. With 2,872,800 residents in 1,285 km2 (496.1 sq mi), it is also the country's most populated comune. It is the fourth most populous city in the European Union by population within city limits. It is the centre of the Metropolitan City of Rome, which has a population of 4,355,725 residents, thus making it the most populous metropolitan city in Italy. Rome is located in the central-western portion of the Italian Peninsula, within Lazio (Latium), along the shores of the Tiber. The Vatican City is an independent country inside the city boundaries of Rome, the only existing example of a country within a city: for this reason Rome has been often defined as capital of two states.
Antonio da Sangallo the Younger, also known as Antonio da San Gallo, was an Italian architect active during the Renaissance, mainly in Rome and the Papal States.
The Bank building best embodies a characteristic feature of Jovanović's concept of architectural design: variation on a Renaissance façade theme combined with an eclectic approach obvious in the use of elements of Baroque architectural decoration.The remarkable articulation of this concept makes the National Bank Jovanović's most important work and one of the most important works of academism in Serbian architecture.
The elevations show a tripartite horizontal division typical of academism. The zones are clearly defined by the contrast between the rusticated lower and calmer upper zones, separated by a prominent stringcourse. The heavy and monolithic rustication of the basement and ground-floor zone, tempered by the regular rhythm of arch-headed windows, is a clear reference to the Florentine 15th-century palazzo. The monotony of the ground floor is broken by formal entrances facing Kralja Petra and Cara Lazara streets. The upper zones display less restraint. The strict hierarchy of the first-floor composition pattern is given a more dynamic edge by alternating differently topped windows and accentuating the imposing windows above the entrances. The second-floor zone, simplified by a row of less ornate window openings, is surmounted by a protruding cornice and a balustraded parapet.
The artistically rich design of interior spaces includes a large number of functional and decorative arts and crafts objects, which form an integral part of the architecture of the building. Particular emphasis was placed on the design of functional nodes: the vestibule in the earlier part of the building and the counter hall in the later one. Being accessible to the public, these spaces were elaborately decorated in the neo-Renaissance style, with a composition pattern based on contrasts between full and empty surfaces, and calm monochrome and vibrant polychrome details, on the generous use of floral ornamentation, and on the alternation of different materials.
The general impression of luxury and monumentality of the interior is reinforced by an ensemble of decorative wall painting, one of the best preserved and most prestigious created in the early 20th century. It followed European trends of the time and was conceived as fully subordinate to architecture. This type of decorative painting is understandably devoid of the painter's personal touch and probably follows a pattern of central-European origin. The painted decoration of the part of the building constructed in 1925 shows the same pattern, iconography and style as the older part. Its iconography displays a compilation of motifs based on free quotation from various mythologies and artistic traditions. The symbolism of the decoration, through the motifs of cornucopias, sphinxes, gryphons and, the central one, Mercury, clearly refers to the function of the building, conveying the idea of success, affluence and prosperity. To be singled out in terms of artistic merit is the allegorical bust of Serbia, a work of the sculptor Đorđe Jovanović originally intended for the monument to the heroes of the Battle of Kosovo in Kruševac. Set up in the vestibule of the older part of the building, the bust underscores the national character of the establishment. Until the Second World War the interior was adorned with the portraits of all previous governors of the National Bank, oils on canvass painted by Uroš Predić.
The National Bank building is representative both of contemporary European trends in the style of academism, and of the work of Konstantin Jovanović, Serbia's best connoisseur of academic architecture. The architect's distinctive interpretation and the institutional importance of the National Bank make this building a remarkable testament to the social aspirations and economic and architectural achievement of the Kingdom of Serbia and the Kingdom of Serbs, Croats and Slovenes. It was designated a heritage propertyof outstanding significance in 1979.
The Bajrakli Mosque is a mosque in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is located in Gospodar Jevremova Street in the neighbourhood of Dorćol. It was built around 1575, and is the only mosque in the city out of the 273 that had existed during the time of the Ottoman Empire's rule of Serbia.
The Mansion of Miša Anastasijević is one of the most notable buildings in Belgrade, Serbia. It is the University of Belgrade's administration and governance building.
The Ethnographic Museum is a museum located in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It is one of the oldest museums in the Balkans. The Ethnographic Museum in Belgrade fulfills its mission together with the efforts of various stakeholders in the domain of presentation, revitalization and development of crafts in Serbia.
Podmalinsko Monastery or Tušinski Monastery is a Serbian Orthodox monastery near Šavnik in modern-day Montenegro.
The Krstic Brothers' House is located in Belgrade, at the King Milutin street no.5, since 1973, with the status of cultural heritage. The house was built in the late 19th century as a representative of a residential buildings. As there was no saved data of the architect, it was assumed, based on some elements of decoration, that the author of the project could be the architect Јован Илкић. Soon after the raising of the house, Krstic family moved in. The family were known for their two children, a renowned architects Peter and Branko.
Karamata family house is the cultural monument. It represents the cultural property of a great importance to Belgrade and is situated in Zemun, at 17 Karamatina Street.
Air Force Headquarters is the monumental edifice, situated at 12 Aviatic Square in Zemun, Belgrade, the capital of Serbia.
The Officers' Club in Belgrade, is situated at 48 Kralja Milana Street and as the memorial of the development of Belgrade at the end of the 19th century it has the status of a cultural monument.
House of Milan Piroćanac is located in Belgrade, at the corner of Francuska and Simina streets, and it has the status of a cultural monument.
The Old Core of Zemun is the name of the historical part of Zemun, located in its central part. It represents a cultural and historical whole of exceptional importance, and the backbone of the cultural and social development of Zemun.
The building at 1, Turgenjev Street in Belgrade was built in 1935, and it is important for the organization and operation of the Communist Party of Yugoslavia. It now stands as a cultural monument.
House of Dimitrije Živadinović is located in Belgrade, in the territory of the city municipality of Stari Grad. It was built in 1904 and represents immovable cultural property as a сultural monument.
Cinema "Balkan" is located in Belgrade at 16 Braće Jugovića Street. As a facility where significant events in the history and culture of Belgrade and Serbia took place and as part of the complex of buildings that were created in the late 19th century, the building of the "Balkan" Cinema represents a testimony to the cultural, urban and architectural development of Belgrade during the second half of the 19th century and has the status of a cultural monument since 1984.
The Serbian Journalists Association Building is in Belgrade, in the territory of the city municipality of Vračar. It was built in 1934, and it represents an immovable cultural property as a cultural monument.
Faculty of Law Building in Belgrade is at 67 Boulevard of Kralj Aleksandar. A work of architectural – urban value, as well as an angular building, built in accordance with the modernist concept, which significantly expands articulates the wider space, as the first building built solely for the purposes of the Faculty of Law, one of the oldest institutions of higher education in Serbia, also has cultural and historical value. The building of the Faculty of Law was declared a cultural monument.
“Saint Sava” House is located in Belgrade, in 13, Cara Dušana Street, it was built in 1890. By its volume and architectural features, the building of the St. Sava is an established cultural property and has the status of a monument of culture.
Military Hospital at Vračar is located in Belgrade, in the territory of the city municipality of Savski Venac, built in the period from 1904 to 1909. It represents an immovable cultural property as a cultural monument.
Building of Merchant Stamenković is located in Belgrade, in 41, Kralja Petra Street and it has the status of a cultural monument. The building of Merchant Stamenković was built in 1907 according to the project by the architects Аndra Stevanović and Nikola Nestorović. The building is a combination of academic conception and Art Nouveau decoration, so that is belongs to a group of residential buildings built before the First World War in Belgrade.
Memorial Museum of Nadežda and Rastko Petrović is a memorial museum located in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. It was decalared a cultural monument in 1974 by the decision of the Institute for the Protection of Cultural Monuments from 1974.
Seismological Institute Building (Serbian: Зграда Сеизмолошког завода, Zgrada Seizmološkog zavoda is located in Tašmajdan, park in Belgrade, the capital of Serbia. Built and adapted from 1908 to 1939, it was the first public building in this part of Belgrade and the first work of architect Momir Korunović, who later projected some of the most beautiful Belgrade buildings during the Interbellum and was nicknamed "Serbian Gaudi". It has been declared a cultural monument in 2007.