National Diet

Last updated
National Diet

国会

Kokkai
208th Session of the National Diet
Go-shichi no kiri crest 2.svg
Type
Type
Houses
Leadership
Hiroyuki Hosoda, LDP
since November 10, 2021
Hidehisa Otsuji, LDP
since August 3, 2022
Structure
Seats710
Japan HoC Composition Nov 2021.svg
House of Councillors political groups
Government (146)
  •   LDP & affiliated independents (119)
  •   Kōmeitō (27)

Opposition (99)

Svgfiles House of Representatives Japan Nov 2021.svg
House of Representatives political groups
Government (293)

Opposition (162)

Elections
Parallel voting:
Single non-transferable vote (147 seats)
Party-list proportional representation (98 seats)
Staggered elections
Parallel voting:
First-past-the-post voting (289 seats)
Party-list proportional representation (176 seats)
House of Councillors last election
10 July 2022 (26th)
31 October 2021 (49th)
House of Councillors next election
Before 25 July 2025 (27th)
Before 31 October 2025 (50th)
Meeting place
Diet of Japan Kokkai 2009.jpg
National Diet Building, Nagatachō 1-7-1, Chiyoda District, Tokyo, Japan
Website

The National Diet (Japanese: 国会, Hepburn: Kokkai) is Japan's bicameral parliament. It is composed of a lower house, called the House of Representatives (衆議院, Shūgiin), and an upper house, the House of Councillors (参議院, Sangiin). Both houses are directly elected under a parallel voting system. In addition to passing laws, the Diet is formally responsible for selecting the Prime Minister. The Diet was first convened as the Imperial Diet in 1890 under the Meiji Constitution, and took its current form in 1947 upon the adoption of the post-war constitution. Both houses meet in the National Diet Building (国会議事堂, Kokkai-gijidō) in Nagatachō, Chiyoda, Tokyo.

Contents

Composition

The houses of the National Diet are both elected under parallel voting systems. This means that the seats to be filled in any given election are divided into two groups, each elected by a different method; the main difference between the houses is in the sizes of the two groups and how they are elected. Voters are also asked to cast two votes: one for an individual candidate in a constituency, and one for a party list. Any national of Japan at least 18 years of age may vote in these elections, reduced from age 20 in 2016. [1] [2] Japan's parallel voting system is not to be confused with the Additional Member System used in many other nations. The Constitution of Japan does not specify the number of members of each house of the Diet, the voting system, or the necessary qualifications of those who may vote or be returned in parliamentary elections, thus allowing all of these things to be determined by law. However it does guarantee universal adult suffrage and a secret ballot. It also insists that the electoral law must not discriminate in terms of "race, creed, sex, social status, family origin, education, property or income". [3]

Generally, the election of Diet members is controlled by statutes passed by the Diet. This is a source of contention concerning re-apportionment of prefectures' seats in response to changes of population distribution. For example, the Liberal Democratic Party had controlled Japan for most of its post-war history, and it gained much of its support from rural areas. During the post-war era, large numbers of people were relocating to the urban centers in the seeking of wealth; though some re-apportionments have been made to the number of each prefecture's assigned seats in the Diet, rural areas generally have more representation than do urban areas. [4] The Supreme Court of Japan began exercising judicial review of apportionment laws following the Kurokawa decision of 1976, invalidating an election in which one district in Hyōgo Prefecture received five times the representation of another district in Osaka Prefecture. [5] In recent elections the malapportionment ratio amounted to 4.8 in the House of Councillors (census 2005: Ōsaka/Tottori; [6] election 2007: Kanagawa/Tottori [7] ) and 2.3 in the House of Representatives (election 2009: Chiba 4/Kōchi 3). [8]

Candidates for the lower house must be 25 years old or older and 30 years or older for the upper house. All candidates must be Japanese nationals. Under Article 49 of Japan's Constitution, Diet members are paid about ¥1.3 million a month in salary. Each lawmaker is entitled to employ three secretaries with taxpayer funds, free Shinkansen tickets, and four round-trip airplane tickets a month to enable them to travel back and forth to their home districts. [9]

Powers

Article 41 of the Constitution describes the National Diet as "the highest organ of State power" and "the sole law-making organ of the State". This statement is in forceful contrast to the Meiji Constitution, which described the Emperor as the one who exercised legislative power with the consent of the Diet. The Diet's responsibilities include not only the making of laws but also the approval of the annual national budget that the government submits and the ratification of treaties. It can also initiate draft constitutional amendments, which, if approved, must be presented to the people in a referendum. The Diet may conduct "investigations in relation to government" (Article 62).

The Prime Minister must be designated by Diet resolution, establishing the principle of legislative supremacy over executive government agencies (Article 67). The government can also be dissolved by the Diet if it passes a motion of no confidence introduced by fifty members of the House of Representatives. Government officials, including the Prime Minister and Cabinet members, are required to appear before Diet investigative committees and answer inquiries. The Diet also has the power to impeach judges convicted of criminal or irregular conduct. [3]

In most circumstances, in order to become law a bill must be first passed by both houses of the Diet and then promulgated by the Emperor. This role of the Emperor is similar to the Royal Assent in some other nations; however, the Emperor cannot refuse to promulgate a law and therefore his legislative role is merely a formality. [10]

The House of Representatives is the more powerful chamber of the Diet. [11] While the House of Representatives cannot usually overrule the House of Councillors on a bill, the House of Councillors can only delay the adoption of a budget or a treaty that has been approved by the House of Representatives, and the House of Councillors has almost no power at all to prevent the lower house from selecting any Prime Minister it wishes. Furthermore, once appointed it is the confidence of the House of Representatives alone that the Prime Minister must enjoy in order to continue in office. The House of Representatives can overrule the upper house in the following circumstances: [12]

Activities

Under the Constitution, at least one session of the Diet must be convened each year. Technically, only the House of Representatives is dissolved before an election. But, while the lower house is in dissolution, the House of Councillors is usually "closed". The Emperor both convokes the Diet and dissolves the House of Representatives but in doing so must act on the advice of the Cabinet. In an emergency the Cabinet can convoke the Diet for an extraordinary session, and an extraordinary session may be requested by one-quarter of the members of either house. [14] At the beginning of each parliamentary session, the Emperor reads a special speech from his throne in the chamber of the House of Councillors. [15]

The presence of one-third of the membership of either house constitutes a quorum [14] and deliberations are in public unless at least two-thirds of those present agree otherwise. Each house elects its own presiding officer who casts the deciding vote in the event of a tie. The Diet has parliamentary immunity. Members of each house have certain protections against arrest while the Diet is in session and arrested members must be released during the term of the session if the House demands. They are immune outside the house for words spoken and votes cast in the House. [16] [17] Each house of the Diet determines its own standing orders and has responsibility for disciplining its own members. A member may be expelled, but only by a two-thirds majority vote. Every member of the Cabinet has the right to appear in either house of the Diet for the purpose of speaking on bills, and each house has the right to compel the appearance of Cabinet members. [18]

Legislative process

The vast majority of bills are submitted to the Diet by the Cabinet. [19] Bills are usually drafted by the relevant ministry, sometimes with the advice of an external committee if the issue is sufficiently important or neutrality is necessary. [20] Such advisory committees may include university professors, trade union representatives, industry representatives, and local governors and mayors, and invariably include retired officials. [19] Such draft bills would be sent to the Cabinet Legislation Bureau of the government, as well as to the ruling party. [19]

Buildings

The National Diet Library contains four buildings in one. These buildings include: the main building, the annex, the Kansai-kan of the National Diet Library and the International Library of Children's Literature.

Main Building Has a centralized stack system and "For rapid movement of materials, the stack space is equipped with pneumatic carrier pipe and vertical/horizontal conveyor systems". [21] Surrounding the stack space unit, the administrative space contains a catalog hall, reading rooms and research rooms for both general visitors and diet members.

Annex Located North of the Main Building, "special design emphasis on natural and harmonious linkage with the Main Building". [21] The annex also houses the exhibition room and an auditorium.

Kansai-kan of the National Diet Library It is a facility in Keihanna Science City that acts as a storage space and the center for library services; for the advanced information communications society for library materials, information supply service, electronic library functions and enhanced documents.

International Library of Children's Literature Contains the children's library, stacks and a researcher's reading room.

History

Japan's first modern legislature was the Imperial Diet (帝国議会, Teikoku-gikai) established by the Meiji Constitution in force from 1889 to 1947. The Meiji Constitution was adopted on February 11, 1889, and the Imperial Diet first met on November 29, 1890, when the document entered into force. [22] The first Imperial Diet of 1890 was plagued by controversy and political tensions. The Prime Minister of Japan at that time was General Count Yamagata Aritomo, who entered into a confrontation with the legislative body over military funding. During this time, there were many critics of the army who derided the Meiji slogan of "rich country, strong military" as in effect producing a poor country (albeit with a strong military). They advocated for infrastructure projects and lower taxes instead and felt their interests were not being served by high levels of military spending. As a result of these early conflicts, public opinion of politicians was not favorable. [23]

The Imperial Diet consisted of a House of Representatives and a House of Peers (貴族院, Kizoku-in). The House of Representatives was directly elected, if on a limited franchise; universal adult male suffrage was introduced in 1925. The House of Peers, much like the British House of Lords, consisted of high-ranking nobles chosen by the Emperor. [24]

The word diet derives from Latin and was a common name for an assembly in medieval European polities like the Holy Roman Empire. The Meiji Constitution was largely based on the form of constitutional monarchy found in nineteenth century Prussia and the new Diet was modeled partly on the German Reichstag and partly on the British Westminster system. Unlike the post-war constitution, the Meiji constitution granted a real political role to the Emperor, although in practice the Emperor's powers were largely directed by a group of oligarchs called the genrō or elder statesmen. [25]

To become law or bill, a constitutional amendment had to have the assent of both the Diet and the Emperor. This meant that while the Emperor could no longer legislate by decree he still had a veto over the Diet. The Emperor also had complete freedom in choosing the Prime Minister and the Cabinet, and so, under the Meiji Constitution, Prime Ministers often were not chosen from and did not enjoy the confidence of the Diet. [24] The Imperial Diet was also limited in its control over the budget. However, the Diet could veto the annual budget, if no budget was approved the budget of the previous year continued in force. This changed with the new constitution after World War II. [26]

The proportional representation system for the House of Councillors, introduced in 1982, was the first major electoral reform under the post-war constitution. Instead of choosing national constituency candidates as individuals, as had previously been the case, voters cast ballots for parties. Individual councillors, listed officially by the parties before the election, are selected on the basis of the parties' proportions of the total national constituency vote. [27] The system was introduced to reduce the excessive money spent by candidates for the national constituencies. Critics charged, however, that this new system benefited the two largest parties, the LDP and the Japan Socialist Party (now Social Democratic Party), which in fact had sponsored the reform. [28]

List of sessions

There are three types of sessions of the National Diet: [29]

Any session of the National Diet may be cut short by a dissolution of the House of Representatives (衆議院解散, shūgiin kaisan). In the table, this is listed simply as "(dissolution)"; the House of Councillors or the National Diet as such cannot be dissolved.

List of National Diet sessions [31]
DietTypeOpenedClosedLength in days
(originally scheduled+extension[s])
1stSMay 20, 1947December 9, 1947204 (50+154)
2ndRDecember 10, 1947July 5, 1948209 (150+59)
3rdEOctober 11, 1948November 30, 194851 (30+21)
4thRDecember 1, 1948December 23, 1948
(dissolution)
23 (150)
5thSFebruary 11, 1949May 31, 1949110 (70+40)
6thEOctober 25, 1949December 3, 194940 (30+10)
7thRDecember 4, 1949May 2, 1950150
8thEJuly 21, 1950July 31, 195020
9thENovember 21, 1950December 9, 195019 (18+1)
10thRDecember 10, 1950June 5, 1951178 (150+28)
11thEAugust 16, 1951August 18, 19513
12thEOctober 10, 1951November 30, 195152 (40+12)
13thRDecember 10, 1951July 31, 1952225 (150+85)
14th (ja)RAugust 26, 1952August 28, 1952
(dissolution)
3 (150)
[HCES]August 31, 1952August 31, 1952[1]
15th (ja)SOctober 24, 1952March 14, 1953
(dissolution)
142 (60+99)
[HCES]March 18, 1953March 20, 1953[3]
16thSMay 18, 1953August 10, 195385 (75+10)
17thEOctober 29, 1953November 7, 195310 (7+3)
18thENovember 30, 1953December 8, 19539
19thRDecember 10, 1953June 15, 1957188 (150+38)
20thENovember 30, 1954December 9, 195410 (9+1)
21stRDecember 10, 1954January 24, 1955
(dissolution)
46 (150)
22ndSMarch 18, 1955July 30, 1955135 (105+30)
23rdENovember 22, 1955December 16, 195525
24thRDecember 20, 1955June 3, 1956167 (150+17)
25thENovember 12, 1956December 13, 195632 (25+7)
26thRDecember 20, 1956May 19, 1957151 (150+1)
27thENovember 1, 1957November 14, 195714 (12+2)
28thRDecember 20, 1957April 25, 1958
(dissolution)
127 (150)
29thSJune 10, 1958July 8, 195829 (25+4)
30thESeptember 29, 1958December 7, 195870 (40+30)
31stRDecember 10, 1958May 2, 1959144
32ndEJune 22, 1959July 3, 195912
33rdEOctober 26, 1959December 27, 195963 (60+13)
34thRDecember 29, 1959July 15, 1960200 (150+50)
35thEJuly 18, 1960July 22, 19605
36thEOctober 17, 1960October 24, 1960
(dissolution)
8 (10)
37thSDecember 5, 1960December 22, 196018
38thRDecember 26, 1960June 8, 1961165 (150+15)
39thESeptember 25, 1961October 31, 196137
40thRDecember 9, 1961May 7, 1962150
41stEAugust 4, 1962September 2, 196230
42ndEDecember 8, 1962December 23, 196216 (12+4)
43rdRDecember 24, 1962July 6, 1963195 (150+45)
44thEOctober 15, 1963October 23, 1963
(dissolution)
9 (30)
45thSDecember 4, 1963December 18, 196315
46thRDecember 20, 1963June 26, 1964190 (150+40)
47thENovember 9, 1964December 18, 196440
48thRDecember 21, 1964June 1, 1965163 (150+13)
49thEJuly 22, 1965August 11, 196521
50thEOctober 5, 1965December 13, 196570
51stRDecember 20, 1965June 27, 1966190 (150+40)
52ndEJuly 11, 1966July 30, 196620
53rdENovember 30, 1966December 20, 196621
54th (ja)RDecember 27, 1966December 27, 1966
(dissolution)
1 (150)
55thSFebruary 15, 1967July 21, 1967157 (136+21)
56thEJuly 27, 1967August 18, 196723 (15+8)
57thEDecember 4, 1967December 23, 196720
58thRDecember 27, 1967June 3, 1968160 (150+10)
59thEAugust 1, 1968August 10, 196810
60thEDecember 10, 1968December 21, 196812
61stRDecember 27, 1968August 5, 1969222 (150+72)
62ndENovember 29, 1969December 2, 1969
(dissolution)
4 (14)
63rdSJanuary 14, 1970May 13, 1970120
64th (ja)ENovember 24, 1970December 18, 197025
65thRDecember 26, 1970May 24, 1971150
66thEJuly 14, 1971July 24, 197111
67thEOctober 16, 1971December 27, 197173 (70+3)
68thRDecember 29, 1971June 16, 1972171 (150+21)
69thEJuly 6, 1972July 12, 19727
70thEOctober 27, 1972November 13, 1972
(dissolution)
18 (21)
71st (ja)SDecember 22, 1972September 27, 1973280 (150+130)
72ndRDecember 1, 1973June 3, 1974185 (150+35)
73rdEJuly 24, 1974July 31, 19748
74thEDecember 9, 1974December 25, 197417
75thRDecember 27, 1974July 4, 1975190 (150+40)
76thESeptember 11, 1975December 25, 1975106 (75+31)
77thRDecember 27, 1975May 24, 1976150
78thESeptember 16, 1976November 4, 197650
79thEDecember 24, 1976December 28, 19765
80thRDecember 30, 1976June 9, 1977162 (150+12)
81stEJuly 27, 1977August 3, 19778
82ndESeptember 29, 1977November 25, 197758 (40+18)
83rdEDecember 7, 1977December 10, 19774
84thRDecember 19, 1977June 16, 1978180 (150+30)
85thESeptember 18, 1978October 21, 197834
86thEDecember 6, 1978December 12, 19787
87thRDecember 22, 1978June 14, 1979175 (150+25)
88thEAugust 30, 1979September 7, 1979
(dissolution)
9 (30)
89thSOctober 30, 1979November 16, 197918
90thENovember 26, 1979December 11, 197916
91stRDecember 21, 1979May 19, 1980
(dissolution)
151 (150+9)
92ndSJuly 17, 1980July 26, 198010
93rdESeptember 29, 1980November 29, 198062 (50+12)
94thRDecember 22, 1980June 6, 1981167 (150+17)
95thESeptember 27, 1981November 28, 198166 (55+11)
96th (ja)RDecember 21, 1981August 21, 1982244 (150+94)
97thENovember 26, 1982December 25, 198230 (25+5)
98thRDecember 28, 1982May 26, 1983150
99thEJuly 18, 1983July 23, 19836
100thESeptember 8, 1983November 28, 1983
(dissolution)
82 (70+12)
101stSDecember 26, 1983August 8, 1984227 (150+77)
102ndRDecember 1, 1984June 25, 1985207 (150+57)
103rdEOctober 14, 1985December 21, 198569 (62+7)
104thRDecember 24, 1985May 22, 1986150
105th (ja)EJune 2, 1986June 2, 1986
(dissolution)
1
106thSJuly 22, 1986July 25, 19864
107thESeptember 11, 1986July 25, 19864
108thRDecember 29, 1986May 27, 1987150
109thEJuly 6, 1987September 19, 198776 (65+11)
110thENovember 6, 1987November 11, 19876
111thENovember 27, 1987December 12, 198716
112thRDecember 28, 1987May 25, 1988150
113thEJuly 19, 1988December 28, 1988163 (70+93)
114thRDecember 30, 1988June 22, 1989175 (150+25)
115thEAugust 7, 1989August 12, 19896
116thESeptember 28, 1989December 16, 198980
117thRDecember 25, 1989January 24, 1990
(dissolution)
31 (150)
118thSFebruary 27, 1990June 26, 1990120
119thEOctober 12, 1990November 10, 199030
120thRDecember 10, 1990May 8, 1991150
121stEAugust 5, 1991October 4, 199161
122ndENovember 5, 1991December 21, 199147 (36+11)
123rdRJanuary 24, 1992June 21, 1992150
124thEAugust 7, 1992August 11, 19925
125thEOctober 30, 1992December 10, 199242 (40+2)
126thRJanuary 22, 1993June 18, 1993
(dissolution)
148 (150)
127thSAugust 5, 1993August 28, 199324 (10+14)
128thESeptember 17, 1993January 29, 1994135 (90+45)
129thRJanuary 31, 1994June 29, 1994150
130thEJuly 18, 1994July 22, 19945
131stESeptember 30, 1994December 9, 199471 (65+6)
132ndRJanuary 20, 1995June 18, 1995150
133rdEAugust 4, 1995August 8, 19955
134thESeptember 29, 1995December 15, 199578 (46+32)
135thEJanuary 11, 1996January 13, 19963
136th (ja)RJanuary 22, 1996June 19, 1996150
137thESeptember 27, 1996September 27, 1996
(dissolution)
1
138thSNovember 7, 1996November 12, 19966
139thENovember 29, 1996December 18, 199620
140thRJanuary 20, 1997June 18, 1997150
141stESeptember 29, 1997December 12, 199775
142ndRJanuary 12, 1998June 18, 1998158 (150+8)
143rd (ja)EJuly 30, 1998October 16, 199879 (70+9)
144thENovember 27, 1998December 14, 199818
145thRJanuary 19, 1999August 13, 1999207 (150+57)
146thEOctober 29, 1999December 15, 199948
147thRJanuary 20, 2000June 2, 2000
(dissolution)
135 (150)
148th (ja)SJuly 4, 2000July 6, 20003
149thEJuly 28, 2000August 9, 200013
150thESeptember 21, 2000December 1, 200072
151stRJanuary 31, 2001June 29, 2001150
152ndEAugust 7, 2001August 10, 20014
153rdESeptember 27, 2001December 7, 200172
154thRJanuary 21, 2002July 31, 2002192 (150+42)
155thEOctober 18, 2002December 13, 200257
156thRJanuary 20, 2003July 28, 2003190 (150+40)
157thESeptember 29, 2003October 10, 2003
(dissolution)
15 (36)
158thSNovember 19, 2003November 27, 20039
159thRJanuary 19, 2004June 16, 2004150
160thEJuly 30, 2004August 6, 20048
161stEOctober 12, 2004December 3, 200453
162ndRJanuary 21, 2005August 8, 2005
(dissolution)
200 (150+55)
163rd (ja)SSeptember 21, 2005November 1, 200542
164th (ja)RJanuary 20, 2006June 18, 2006150
165th (ja)SSeptember 26, 2006December 19, 200685 (81+4)
166th (ja)RJanuary 25, 2007July 5, 2007162 (150+12)
167th (ja)EAugust 7, 2007August 10, 20074
168th (ja)ESeptember 10, 2007January 15, 2008128 (62+66)
169th (ja)RJanuary 18, 2008June 21, 2008156 (150+6)
170th (ja)ESeptember 24, 2008December 25, 200893 (68+25)
171st (ja)RJanuary 5, 2009July 21, 2009
(dissolution)
198 (150+55)
172nd (ja)SSeptember 16, 2009September 19, 20094
173rd (ja)EOctober 26, 2009December 4, 200940 (36+4)
174th (ja)RJanuary 18, 2010June 16, 2010150
175th (ja)EJuly 30, 2010August 6, 20108
176th (ja)EOctober 1, 2010December 3, 201064
177th (ja)RJanuary 24, 2011August 31, 2011220 (150+70)
178th (ja)ESeptember 13, 2011September 30, 201118 (4+14)
179th (ja)EOctober 20, 2011December 9, 201151
180th (ja)RJanuary 24, 2012September 8, 2012229 (150+79)
181st (ja)EOctober 29, 2012November 16, 2012
(dissolution)
19 (33)
182nd (ja)SDecember 26, 2012December 28, 20123
183rd (ja)RJanuary 28, 2013June 26, 2013150
184th (ja)EAugust 2, 2013August 7, 20136
185th (ja)EOctober 15, 2013December 8, 201355 (53+2)
186th (ja)RJanuary 24, 2014June 22, 2014150
187th (ja)ESeptember 29, 2014November 21, 2014
(dissolution)
54 (63)
188th (ja)SDecember 24, 2014December 26, 20143
189th (ja)RJanuary 26, 2015September 27, 2015245 (150+95)
190th (ja)RJanuary 4, 2016June 1, 2016150
191st (ja)EAugust 1, 2016August 3, 20163
192nd (ja)ESeptember 26, 2016December 17, 201683 (66+17)
193rd (ja)RJanuary 20, 2017June 18, 2017150
194th (ja)ESeptember 28, 2017September 28, 2017
(dissolution)
1
195th (ja)SNovember 1, 2017December 9, 201739
196th (ja)RJanuary 22, 2018July 22, 2018182 (150+32)
197th (ja)EOctober 24, 2018December 10, 201848
198th (ja)RJanuary 28, 2019June 26, 2019150
199th (ja)EAugust 1, 2019August 5, 20195
200th (ja)EOctober 4, 2019December 9, 201967
201st (ja)RJanuary 20, 2020June 17, 2020150
202nd (ja)ESeptember 16, 2020September 18, 20203
203rd (ja)EOctober 26, 2020December 5, 202041
204th (ja)RJanuary 18, 2021June 16, 2021150
205th (ja)EOctober 4, 2021October 14, 2021
(dissolution)
11
206th (ja)SNovember 10, 2021November 12, 20213
207th (ja)EDecember 6, 2021December 21, 202116
208th (ja)RJanuary 17, 2022June 15, 2022150

List of House of Representatives general elections

19th century

ElectionDateElected prime minister
(during term)
TurnoutSeatsDate of
dissolution (D) /
expiration of term (E)
Registered
voters
Majority partySeats ShareMonarch
(Reign)
Imperial Diet (1890-1947); upper house: House of Peers Emperor
Meiji

Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg
(1867–1912)
1890 1 July 1890 Yamagata Aritomo 93.91%300450,872 Constitutional Liberal 13043.33%
(Matsukata Masayoshi)
1892 15 February 1892 Matsukata Masayoshi 91.59%(D) 25 December 1891434,5949431.33%
(Itō Hirobumi)
Mar. 1894 1 March 1894 Itō Hirobumi 88.76%(D) 30 December 1893440,11312040.00%
Sep. 1894 1 September 1894 Itō Hirobumi 84.84%(D) 2 June 1894460,48310735.66%
(Matsukata Masayoshi)
(Itō Hirobumi)
Mar. 1898 15 March 1898 Itō Hirobumi 87.50%(D) 25 December 1897452,63710535.00%
(Ōkuma Shigenobu)
Aug. 1898 10 August 1898 Ōkuma Shigenobu 79.91%(D) 10 June 1898502,292 Kensei Hontō 12441.33%
(Yamagata Aritomo)
(Itō Hirobumi)
(Katsura Tarō)
ElectionDateElected prime minister
(during term)
TurnoutSeatsDate of dissolution (D) /
expiration of term (E)
Registered
voters
Majority partySeats ShareMonarch
(Reign)

20th century

ElectionDateElected prime minister
(during term)
TurnoutSeatsDate of
dissolution (D) /
expiration of term (E)
Registered
voters
Majority partySeats ShareMonarch
(Reign)
1902 10 August 1902 Katsura Tarō 88.39%376(E) 9 August 1902982,868 Rikken Seiyūkai 19150.79% Emperor
Meiji

Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg
(1867–1912)
1903 1 March 190386.17%(D) 28 December 1902958,32217546.54%
1904 1 March 1904 Katsura Tarō 86.06%379(D) 11 December 1903762,44513335.09%
(Saionji Kinmochi)
1908 15 May 1908 Saionji Kinmochi 85.29%(E) 27 March 19081,590,04518749.34%
(Katsura Tarō)
(Saionji Kinmochi)
1912 15 May 1912 Saionji Kinmochi 89.58%381(E) 14 May 19121,506,14320954.85%
(Katsura Tarō)
(Yamamoto Gonnohyōe)
(Ōkuma Shigenobu)
1915 25 March 1915 Ōkuma Shigenobu 92.13%(D) 25 December 19141,546,411 Rikken Dōshikai 15340.15% Emperor
Taishō

Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg
(1912–1926)
(Terauchi Masatake)
1917 20 April 1917 Terauchi Masatake 91.92%(D) 25 January 19171,422,126 Rikken Seiyūkai 16543.30%
(Hara Takashi)
1920 10 May 1920 Hara Takashi 86.73%464(D) 26 February 19203,069,14827859.91%
(Takahashi Korekiyo)
(Katō Tomosaburō)
(Yamamoto Gonnohyōe)
(Kiyoura Keigo)
1924 10 May 1924 Katō Takaaki 91.18%(D) 31 January 19243,288,405 Kenseikai 15132.54%
(Wakatsuki Reijirō)
(Tanaka Giichi)
1928 20 February 1928 Tanaka Giichi 80.36%466(D) 21 January 192812,408,678 Rikken Seiyūkai 21846.78% Emperor
Shōwa

Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg
(1926–1989)
(Hamaguchi Osachi)
1930 20 February 1930 Hamaguchi Osachi 83.34%(D) 21 January 193012,812,895 Rikken Minseitō 27358.58%
(Wakatsuki Reijirō)
(Inukai Tsuyoshi)
1932 20 February 1932 Inukai Tsuyoshi 81.68%(D) 21 January 193213,237,841 Rikken Seiyukai 30164.59%
(Saitō Makoto)
(Keisuke Okada)
1936 20 February 1936 Kōki Hirota 78.65%(D) 21 January 193614,479,553 Rikken Minseitō 20543.99%
(Senjūrō Hayashi)
1937 30 April 1937 Senjūrō Hayashi 73.31%(D) 31 March 193714,618,29817938.41%
(Fumimaro Konoe)
(Hiranuma Kiichirō)
(Nobuyuki Abe)
(Mitsumasa Yonai)
(Fumimaro Konoe)
(Fumimaro Konoe)
(Hideki Tojo)
1942 30 April 1942 Hideki Tojo 83.16%(E) 29 April 194214,594,287 Imperial Rule Assistance Association 38181.75%
(Kuniaki Koiso)
(Kantarō Suzuki)
(Kantarō Suzuki)
(Prince Naruhiko Higashikuni)
(Kijūrō Shidehara)
1946 10 April 1946 Shigeru Yoshida 72.08%(D) 18 December 194536,878,420 Liberal 14130.25%
1947 25 April 1947 Tetsu Katayama 67.95%(D) 31 March 194740,907,493 Socialist 14330.68%
(Hitoshi Ashida)
(Shigeru Yoshida)
National Diet (1947-present); upper house: House of Councillors
1949 23 January 1949 Shigeru Yoshida 74.04%466(D) 23 December 194842,105,300 Democratic Liberal 26456.65%
(Shigeru Yoshida)
1952 1 October 1952 Shigeru Yoshida 76.43%(D) 28 August 195246,772,584 Liberal 24051.50%
1953 19 April 1953 Shigeru Yoshida 74.22%(D) 14 March 195347,090,167 Liberal
Yoshida faction
19942.70%
(Ichirō Hatoyama)
1955 27 February 1955 Ichirō Hatoyama 75.84%467(D) 24 January 195549,235,375 Democratic 18539.61%
(Ichirō Hatoyama)
(Tanzan Ishibashi)
(Nobusuke Kishi)
1958 22 May 1958 Nobusuke Kishi 76.99%(D) 25 April 195852,013,529 Liberal Democratic 28761.45%
(Hayato Ikeda)
1960 20 November 1960 Hayato Ikeda 73.51%(D) 24 October 196054,312,99329663.38%
1963 21 November 1963 Hayato Ikeda 71.14%(D) 23 October 196358,281,67828360.59%
(Eisaku Satō)
1967 29 January 1967 Eisaku Satō 73.99%486(D) 27 December 196662,992,79627756.99%
1969 27 December 1969 Eisaku Satō 68.51%(D) 2 December 196969,260,42428859.25%
(Kakuei Tanaka)
1972 10 December 1972 Kakuei Tanaka 71.76%491(D) 13 November 197273,769,63627155.19%
(Takeo Miki)
1976 5 December 1976 Takeo Fukuda 73.45%511(E) 9 December 197677,926,58824948.72%
(Masayoshi Ōhira)
1979 7 October 1979 Masayoshi Ōhira 68.01%(D) 7 September 197980,169,92424848.53%
1980 22 June 1980 Zenkō Suzuki 74.57%(D) 19 May 198080,925,03428455.57%
(Yasuhiro Nakasone)
1983 18 December 1983 Yasuhiro Nakasone 67.94%(D) 28 November 198384,252,608 Liberal Democratic
(LDP-NLC coalition)
25048.92%
1986 2 June 1986 Yasuhiro Nakasone 71.40%512(D) 2 June 198686,426,845 Liberal Democratic 30058.59%
(Noboru Takeshita)
(Sōsuke Uno)
(Toshiki Kaifu)
1990 18 February 1990 Toshiki Kaifu 73.31%(D) 24 January 199090,322,90827553.71% Emperor
Akihito

(Heisei)

Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg
(1989–2019)
(Kiichi Miyazawa)
1993 18 July 1993 Morihiro Hosokawa 67.26%511(D) 18 June 199394,477,816 Liberal Democratic
(JNP-JRPJSP-KomeitoDSP-NPS-SDF coalition:
1993-1994,
JRPKomeitoJNP-DSP-Liberal Reform League coalition:
1994,
LDP-JSP-NPS coalition
since 1994)
22343.63%
(Tsutomu Hata)
(Tomiichi Murayama)
(Ryūtarō Hashimoto)
1996 20 October 1996 Ryūtarō Hashimoto 59.65%500(D) 27 September 199697,680,719 Liberal Democratic
(LDP-JSP/SDP-NPS coalition:
1996,
LDP-Liberal coalition:
1999,
LDP-Komeito-Liberal/NCP coalition:
1999-2000,
LDP-Komeito-NCP coalition:
2000)
23947.80%
(Keizō Obuchi)
(Yoshirō Mori)
2000 25 June 2000 Yoshirō Mori 62.49%480(D) 2 June 2000100,492,328 Liberal Democratic
(LDP-Komeito-NCP coalition)
23348.54%
(Junichiro Koizumi)
ElectionDateElected prime minister
(during term)
TurnoutSeatsDate of
dissolution (D) /
expiration of term (E)
Registered
voters
Majority partySeats ShareMonarch
(Reign)

21st century

ElectionDateElected prime minister
(during term)
TurnoutSeatsDate of
dissolution (D) /
expiration of term (E)
Registered
voters
Majority partySeats ShareMonarch
(Reign)
2003 9 November 2003 Junichiro Koizumi 59.86%480(D) 10 October 2003102,306,684 Liberal Democratic
(LDP-Komeito coalition)
23749.37% Emperor
Akihito

(Heisei)

Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg
(1989–2019)
2005 11 September 2005 Junichiro Koizumi 67.51%(D) 8 August 2005103,067,96629661.66%
(Shinzo Abe)
(Yasuo Fukuda)
(Tarō Asō)
2009 30 August 2009 Yukio Hatoyama 69.28%(D) 21 July 2009104,057,361 Democratic
(DPJ-PNP-SDP coalition:
2009-2010,
DPJ-PNP coalition:
2010-2012)
30864.16%
(Naoto Kan)
(Yoshihiko Noda)
2012 16 December 2012 Shinzo Abe 59.32%(D) 16 November 2012103,959,866 Liberal Democratic
(LDP-Komeito coalition)
29461.25%
2014 14 December 201452.66%475(D) 21 November 2014104,067,10429161.26%
2017 22 October 2017 Shinzo Abe 53.68%465(D) 28 September 2017106,091,22928461.08%
(Yoshihide Suga)
(Fumio Kishida)
2021 31 October 2021 Fumio Kishida 55.93%(D) 14 October 2021105,622,75826156.12% Emperor
Naruhito

(Reiwa)

Flag of the Japanese Emperor.svg
(2019–present)
ElectionDateElected prime minister
(during term)
TurnoutSeatsDate of
dissolution (D) /
expiration of term (E)
Registered
voters
Majority partySeats ShareMonarch
(Reign)

List of House of Councillors regular elections

20th century

21st century

See also

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Coordinates: 35°40′33″N139°44′42″E / 35.67583°N 139.74500°E / 35.67583; 139.74500