National Gendarmerie

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National Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie nationale
Gendarmerie nationale logo.svg
Logo of the National Gendarmerie
Founded1791
CountryFlag of France.svg  France
Type Gendarmerie
Provost
Role Law enforcement
Sizec. 100,000 members (2014) [1]
25,000 reserve
Part of French Armed Forces
Garrison/HQ Paris
Motto(s)Pour la Patrie, l'Honneur et le Droit
(For the country, honor and law)
Website www.defense.gouv.fr/gendarmerie OOjs UI icon edit-ltr-progressive.svg
Commanders
Directeur-Général Général d'Armée Christian Rodriguez
Gendarmes on patrol Gengarmerie img 1069.jpg
Gendarmes on patrol
Cavalry of the Garde republicaine Garde republicaine cavalry squadron - Paris.jpg
Cavalry of the Garde républicaine

The National Gendarmerie (French : Gendarmerie nationale [ʒɑ̃daʁməʁi nɑsjɔnal] ), along with the National Police, is one of two national police forces of France. It is a branch of the French Armed Forces placed under the jurisdiction of the Ministry of the Interior, with additional duties from the Ministry of Defense. Its responsibilities include policing smaller towns, rural and suburban areas, with subdivisions like the GSPR, while the Police Nationale , a civilian force, is in charge of policing cities. Because of its military status, the Gendarmerie also fulfills a range of military and defence missions including having a cybercrime division. The force has a strength of more than 100,000 personnel, as of 2014. [1]

Contents

The Gendarmerie is the heir to the Maréchaussée, the oldest police force in France, dating back to the Middle Ages. The Gendarmerie has influenced the culture and traditions of gendarmerie forces all around the world, especially in independent countries from the former French colonial empire.

History

Early history of the institution

The Gendarmerie is the direct descendant of the Marshalcy of the ancien regime, more commonly known by its French title, the Maréchaussée, an institution that lasted from the medieval times until the French Revolution.

During the Middle Ages, there were two Grand Officers of the Kingdom of France with police responsibilities: The Marshal of France and the Constable of France. The military policing responsibilities of the Marshal of France were delegated to the Marshal's provost, whose force was known as the Marshalcy because its authority ultimately derived from the Marshal. The Marshalcy dates back to the Hundred Years War, with some historians tracing it back to the early twelfth century.

The second organisation, the Constabulary (French: Connétablie), was under the command of the Constable of France. The constabulary was regularised as a military body in 1337.

In 1415 the Maréchaussée fought in the Battle of Agincourt and their commander, the Prévôt des Maréchaux (Provost of the Marshals), Gallois de Fougières, was killed in battle. This history was rediscovered in 1934, and Gallois de Fougières was then officially recorded as the first known gendarme to have died in the line of duty. His remains are now buried under the monument to the gendarmerie in Versailles.

Under King Francis I (r. 1515–1547), the Maréchaussée was merged with the Constabulary. The resulting force was also known as the Maréchaussée, or, formally, the Constabulary and Marshalcy of France (French: connétablie et maréchaussée de France). Unlike the former constabulary, the new Maréchaussée was not a fully militarized force.

In 1720, the Maréchaussée was officially attached to the Household of the King (Maison du Roi), together with the gendarmerie of the time, which was not a police force at all, but a royal guard. During the eighteenth century, the marshalcy developed in two distinct areas: increasing numbers of Marshalcy Companies (compagnies de marechaussée), dispersed into small detachments, were stationed around the French countryside to maintain law and order, while specialist units provided security for royal and strategic sites such as palaces and the mint (e.g., the garde de la prévôté de l'hôtel du roi and the prévôté des monnaies de Paris.)

While its existence ensured the relative safety of French rural districts and roads, visitors from England, which had nothing but the not very effective parish constables, saw the Maréchaussée, with its armed and uniformed patrols, as royal soldiers with an oppressive role and so a symbol of foreign tyranny. [2] On the eve of the 1789 French Revolution, the Maréchaussée numbered 3,660 men divided into small brigades (a "brigade" in this context being a squad of ten to twenty men). Their limited numbers and scattered deployment rendered the Maréchaussée ineffective in controlling the "Great Fear" of July through August, 1789. [3] [4]

The Revolutionary Period

During the revolutionary period, the Maréchaussée commanders generally placed themselves under the local constitutional authorities. Despite their connection with the king, they were therefore perceived as a force favoring the reforms of the French National Assembly.

As a result, the Maréchaussée Royale was not disbanded but simply renamed as the gendarmerie nationale (Law of 16 February 1791). Its personnel remained unchanged, and the functions of the force remained much as before. However, from this point, the gendarmerie, unlike the Maréchaussée, became a fully militarized force. During the revolutionary period, the main force responsible for policing was the National Guard. Although the Maréchaussée had been the main police force of the ancien regime, the gendarmerie was initially a full-time auxiliary to the National Guard militia.

In 1791 the newly named gendarmerie nationale was grouped into 28 divisions, each commanded by a colonel responsible for three départements. In turn, two companies of gendarmes under the command of captains were based in each department. This territorial basis of organisation continued throughout the 19th and 20th centuries.

Nineteenth century

A Gendarme d'elite de la Garde Imperiale Napoleon Elite Gendarme by Bellange.jpg
A Gendarme d'élite de la Garde Impériale

Under Napoléon, the numbers and responsibilities of the gendarmerie—renamed gendarmerie impériale—were expanded significantly. In contrast to the mounted Maréchaussée, the gendarmerie were both horse and foot personnel; in 1800, these numbered approximately 10,500 of the former and 4,500 of the later, respectively.

In 1804 the first Inspector General of Gendarmerie was appointed and a general staff established—based out of the rue du Faubourg-Saint-Honoré in Paris. Subsequently, special gendarmerie units were created within the Imperial Guard for combat duties in French occupied Spain.

Following the Second Restoration of 1815, the gendarmerie was reduced in numbers to about 18,000 and reorganised into departmental legions. Under King Louis Phillippe a "gendarmerie of Africa" was created for service in Algeria and during the Second Empire the Imperial Guard Gendarmerie Regiment was re-established. The majority of gendarmes continued in what was now the established role of the corps—serving in small, sedentary detachments as armed rural police. Under the Third Republic the ratio of foot to mounted gendarmes increased and the numbers directly incorporated in the French Army with a military police role reduced. [5]

In 1901, the École des officiers de la gendarmerie nationale was established to train its officers.

Battle honours

Five battles are remembered on the flag of the Gendarmerie:

The gendarmerie is still sometimes referred to as the maréchaussée (being the old name for the service). The gendarmes are also occasionally called pandores, which is a slang term derived from an 18th-century Hungarian word for "frontier guards." The symbol of the gendarmerie is a stylized grenade, which is also worn by the Italian Carabinieri and the Grenadier Guards in Britain. The budget in 2008 was approximately 7.7 billion euros. [6]

The equivalent Dutch force, Royal Marechaussee , uses officially the old French term--which King William I, when assuming power after the fall of Napoleon, considered preferable to "gendarmerie".

Missions

The French Republican Guard is part of the National Gendarmerie and provides security as guards of honour during official ceremonies. French Republican Guard Bastille Day 2007 n2.jpg
The French Republican Guard is part of the National Gendarmerie and provides security as guards of honour during official ceremonies.

In French, the term "police" not only refers to the forces, but also to the general concept of "maintenance of law and order" (policing). The Gendarmerie's missions belong to three categories:

These missions include:

Organization

Basic principles

The Gendarmerie, while remaining part of the French armed forces, has been attached to the Ministry of the Interior since 2009. Criminal investigations are run under the supervision of prosecutors or investigating magistrates. Gendarmerie members generally operate in uniform, and, only occasionally, in plainclothes.

Director-General

The Director-general of the Gendarmerie (DGGN) is appointed by the Council of Ministers, with the rank of Général d'Armée. The current Director-General is Général Christian Rodriguez who took office on November 1, 2019.

The Director-General organizes the operation of the Gendarmerie at two levels:

Directorate-General

The Gendarmerie headquarters, called the Directorate-General of the National Gendarmerie (Fr: Direction générale de la Gendarmerie nationale (DGGN) [7] ), long located in downtown Paris, had been relocated since 2012 to Issy-les-Moulineaux, a southern Parisian suburb.

The Directorate-General of the national gendarmerie includes:

Organization

The main components of the organization are the following:

The above-mentioned organizations report directly to the Director General (DGGN) with the exception of the Republican Guard, which reports to the Île-de-France region.

The reserve force numbers 30,000 (not included in the 100,000 total). It is managed by the Departmental Gendarmerie at the regional level.

Departmental Gendarmerie

Four Departmental Gendarmes Gendarmes 501585 fh000019.jpg
Four Departmental Gendarmes

The Departmental Gendarmerie, or Gendarmerie Départementale, also named «La Blanche» [note 1] (The White), is the most numerous part of the Gendarmerie, is in charge of policing small towns and rural areas. Its territorial divisions are based on the administrative divisions of France, particularly the departments from which the Departmental Gendarmerie derives its name. The Departmental Gendarmerie carries out the general public order duties in municipalities with a population of up to 20000 citizens. [8] When that limit is exceeded, the jurisdiction over the municipality is turned over to the National Police.

It is divided into 13 metropolitan regions [note 2] (including Corsica), themselves divided into groupements (one for each of the 100 département, thus the name), themselves divided into compagnies (one for each of the 342 arrondissements).

It maintains gendarmerie brigades throughout the rural parts of the territory. There are two kind of brigades:

  • Large autonomous territorial brigades (BTAs)
  • Brigade groups composed of smaller brigades supervised by a larger one (COBs).

In addition, it has specialised units:

  • Research units, who conduct criminal investigations when their difficulty exceeds the abilities of the territorial units
  • Surveillance and intervention platoons (PSIGs), who conduct roving patrols and reinforce local units as needed.
  • Specialized brigades for prevention of juvenile delinquency
  • Highway patrol units.
  • Mountain units, specialised in surveillance and search and rescue operations, as well as inquiries in mountainous areas

In addition, the Gendarmerie runs a national criminal police institute (Institut de recherche criminelle de la gendarmerie nationale) specializing in supporting local units for difficult investigations.

The research units may be called into action by the judiciary even within cities (i.e. in the National Police's area of responsibility). As an example, the Paris research section of the Gendarmerie was in charge of the investigations into the vote-rigging allegations in the 5th district of Paris (see corruption scandals in the Paris region).

Gendarmes normally operate in uniform. They may operate in plainclothes only for specific missions and with their supervisors' authorisation.

Mobile Gendarmerie

Mobile gendarmes during a demonstration Strasbourg 6 fevrier 2013 manifestation siderurgistes ArcelorMittal 16.JPG
Mobile gendarmes during a demonstration

The Mobile Gendarmerie, or Gendarmerie Mobile, also named « La Jaune » (The Yellow), is currently divided into 7 Defense zones (Zones de Défense). It comprises 18 Groupings (Groupements de Gendarmerie mobile) featuring 109 squadrons [note 3] for a total of approx. 12,000 men and women. [1]

Its main responsibilities are:

  • crowd and riot control
  • general security in support of the Departmental Gendarmerie
  • military and defense missions
  • missions that require large amounts of personnel (Vigipirate counter-terrorism patrols, searches in the countryside...)

Nearly 20% of the Mobile Gendarmerie squadrons are permanently deployed on a rotational basis in the French overseas territories. Other units deploy occasionally abroad alongside French troops engaged in military operations (called external operations or OPEX).

GBGM riot control training GBGM5F Domenjod 160316.jpg
GBGM riot control training

The civilian tasks of the gendarmes mobiles are similar to those of the police units known as Compagnies Républicaines de Sécurité (CRS), for which they are often mistaken. Easy ways to distinguish them include:

  • the uniform of the CRS is dark blue, the gendarmes mobiles are clad in black jackets and dark blue trousers;
  • the CRS wear a big red CRS patch; the gendarmes have stylised grenades.
  • the helmet of the gendarmes mobiles is blue. The CRS helmet is black with two yellow stripes

The Mobile Gendarmerie includes GBGM (Groupement Blindé de la Gendarmerie Nationale), an Armoured grouping composed of seven squadrons equipped with VXB armoured personnel carriers, better known in the Gendarmerie as VBRG (Véhicule Blindé à Roues de la Gendarmerie, "Gendarmerie armoured wheeled vehicle"). It is based at Versailles-Satory. The unit also specializes in CBRN defense.

National Gendarmerie Intervention Group

GIGN operators GIGN4 Domenjod 160316.jpg
GIGN operators

GIGN (Groupe d'intervention de la Gendarmerie nationale) is an elite law enforcement and special operations unit numbering about 400 personnel. Its missions include counter-terrorism, hostage rescue, surveillance of national threats, protection of government officials and targeting of organized crime. [9]

GIGN was established in 1974 following the Munich massacre. Created initially as a relatively small police tactical unit specialized in sensitive hostage situations, it has since grown into a larger and more diversified force of nearly 400 members. [note 4]

Many of its missions are classified, and members are not allowed to be publicly photographed. Since its formation, GIGN has been involved in over 1,800 missions and rescued more than 600 hostages, making it one of the most experienced counter-terrorism units in the world. [10] The unit came into prominence following its successful assault on a hijacked Air France flight at Marseille Marignane airport in December 1994.

Republican Guard

Republican Guard--Elysee Palace, Paris Republican Guard Elysee Palace 2.JPG
Republican Guard—Élysée Palace, Paris

The Republican Guard is a ceremonial unit based in Paris. Their missions include: [11]

Overseas Gendarmerie

The non-metropolitan branches include units serving in the French overseas départements and territories (such as the Gendarmerie of Saint-Pierre and Miquelon), staff at the disposal of independent States for technical co-operation, Germany, security guards in French embassies and consulates abroad.

Maritime Gendarmerie

Placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the Navy, its missions include: [11]

  • police and security in the naval bases;
  • maritime surveillance;
  • police at sea;
  • assistance and rescue at sea.

Air Transport Gendarmerie

The Air Transport Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie des Transports Aériens) is placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the direction of civilian aviation of the transportation ministry, its missions include: [11]

  • police and security in civilian airfields and airports;
  • filtering access to aircraft, counter-terrorism and counter-narcotic activities, freight surveillance;
  • surveillance of technical installations of the airports (control tower...);
  • traffic control on the roads within the airports;
  • protection of important visitors;
  • judiciary inquiries pertaining to accidents of civilian aircraft.

Air Gendarmerie

The Air Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie de l'Air) is placed under the dual supervision of the Gendarmerie and the Air Force, it fulfills police and security missions in the air bases, and goes on the site of an accident involving military aircraft. [11]

Ordnance Gendarmerie

The Ordnance Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie de l'Armement) fulfills police and security missions in the establishments of the Délégation Générale pour l'Armement (France's defence procurement agency). [11]

Nuclear ordnance security Gendarmerie

As the name implies, this branch is in charge of all security missions pertaining to France's nuclear forces.

Provost Gendarmerie

The Provost Gendarmerie (Gendarmerie prévôtale), created in 2013, is the military police of the French Army deployed outside metropolitan France.

Foreign service

Gendarmerie units have served in:

Uniforms

The uniform of the Gendarmerie has undergone many changes since the establishment of the corps. Throughout most of the 19th century a wide bicorne was worn with a dark blue coat or tunic. Trousers were light blue. White aiguillettes were a distinguishing feature. In 1905 the bicorne was replaced by a dark blue kepi with white braiding, which had increasingly been worn as a service headdress. A silver crested helmet with plume, modelled on that of the French cuirassiers, was adopted as a parade headdress until 1914. Following World War I a relatively simple uniform was adopted for the Gendarmerie, although traditional features such as the multiple-cord aiguillette and the dark blue/light blue colour combination were retained.

Since 2006 a more casual "relaxed uniform" has been authorised for ordinary duties (see photograph below). The kepi however continues in use for dress occasions. Special items of clothing and equipment are issued for the various functions required of the Gendarmerie. The cavalry and infantry of the Republican Guard retain historic ceremonial uniforms dating from the 19th century.

Ranks

NATO codeOF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
Rank title Général d'armée Général de corps d'armée Général de division Général de brigade Colonel Lieutenant-Colonel Chef d'Escadron Capitaine Lieutenant Sous-Lieutenant Aspirant Élève-officier
Embleme de Gendarmerie generique.svg Departmental Gendarmerie No equivalent France (Gendarmerie) OF-9.svg France (Gendarmerie) OF-8.svg France (Gendarmerie) OF-7.svg No equivalent Col gd.svg Lcl gd.svg Cen gd.svg Cne gd.svg Ltn gd.svg Slt gd.svg Aspirant gend.svg Eleve officier eogn.svg
Embleme de la Gendarmerie des Transports Aeriens (GTA).svg Air Transport Gendarmerie
Embleme de la Gendarmerie de l'Armement.svg Armament Gendarmerie
Flag of France.svg Mobile Gendarmerie General brigade gend.svg Col gm.svg Lcl gm.svg Cen gm.svg Cne gm.svg Ltn gm.svg Slt gm.svg
Embleme de la Garde republicaine.svg Republican Guard Col gr.svg Lcl gr.svg Cen gr.svg Cne gr.svg Ltn gr.svg Slt gr.svg
Embleme de la Gendarmerie de l'Air.svg Air Gendarmerie OF6-GBR Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OF5-COL Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OF4-LCL Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OF3-CEN Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OF2-CNE Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OF1-LTN Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg No equivalentNo equivalent
Embleme de la Gendarmerie Maritime.svg Maritime Gendarmerie OF6-GBR Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OF5-COL Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OF4-LCL Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OF3-CEN Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OF2-CNE Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OF1-LTN Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg
CTA-GSEM-Collet.jpg Technical and Administrative ServiceNo equivalent Col cta.svg Lcl cta.svg Cdt cta.svg Cne cta.svg Ltn cta.svg Slt cta.svg Eleve OCTA eogn.svg
NATO codeOF-10OF-9OF-8OF-7OF-6OF-5OF-4OF-3OF-2OF-1 OF(D) Student officer
NATO codeOR-9OR-8OR-7OR-6OR-5OR-4OR-3OR-2OR-1
Rank titleMajorAdjudant-chefAdjudantMaréchal des Logis-ChefGendarmeGendarme sous contratÉlève Sous-officerGendarme Adjoint Maréchal-des-logisGendarme Adjoint Brigadier ChefGendarme Adjoint BrigadierGendarme Adjoint première classeGendarme Adjoint
Embleme de Gendarmerie generique.svg Departmental Gendarmerie Major gd.svg Adc gd.svg Adj gd.svg No equivalent Mdc gd.svg Gend gd.svg Gend sc gd.svg Eleve esog.svg Gav mdl.svg Gav bch.svg Gav bri.svg Gav 1cl.svg Gav gav.svg
Embleme de la Gendarmerie des Transports Aeriens (GTA).svg Air Transport Gendarmerie
Embleme de la Gendarmerie de l'Armement.svg Armament Gendarmerie
Flag of France.svg Mobile Gendarmerie Major gm.svg Adc gm.svg Adj gm.svg Mdc gm.svg Gend gm.svg Gend sc gm.svg
Embleme de la Garde republicaine.svg Republican Guard Major gr.svg Adc gr.svg Adj gr.svg Mdc gr.svg Gend gr.svg Gend sc gr.svg
Embleme de la Gendarmerie de l'Air.svg Air Gendarmerie OR9-MAJ Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OR9-ADC Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OR8-ADJ Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OR6-MDC Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OR5-GND SOC Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg No equivalent OR5-MDL Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OR4-BRC Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OR3-BRI Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OR2-GA1 Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg OR1-GAV Rank French Air Gendarmerie.svg
Embleme de la Gendarmerie Maritime.svg Maritime Gendarmerie OR9-MAJ Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR9-ADC Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR8-ADJ Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR6-MDC Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR5-GND SOC Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR5-MDL Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR4-BRC Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR3-BRI Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR2-GA1 Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg OR1-GAV Rank French Maritime Gendarmerie.svg
CTA-GSEM-Collet.jpg Technical and Administrative Service Major cstag.svg Adc cstag.svg Adj cstag.svg Mdc cstag.svg Mdl carriere cstag.svg Mdl sc cstag.svg Eleve esog cstagn.svg No equivalent
NATO codeOR-9OR-8OR-7OR-6OR-5OR-4OR-3OR-2OR-1

Personnel

The National Gendarmerie consisted of approx. 103,481 personnel units in 2006. Career gendarmes are either commissioned or non-commissioned officers. The lower ranks consist of auxiliary gendarmes on limited-time/term contracts. The 103,481 military personnel of the National Gendarmerie is divided into: [12]

This personnel mans the following units:

Départemental Gendarmerie
Gendarmerie Mobile
Special formations
Other units

Prospective Centre

The Gendarmerie nationale's Prospective Centre (CPGN), which was created in 1998 by an ordinance of the Minister for Defence, is one of the gendarmerie's answers to officials' willingness to modernise the State. Under the direct authority of the general director of the gendarmerie, it is located in Penthièvre barracks on avenue Delcassé in Paris and managed by Mr Frédéric LENICA, (assisted by a general secretary, Colonel LAPPRAND) "maître des requêtes" in the Conseil d'Etat. [14]

Equipment

Cars

The gendarmerie uses many different French cars, like Renault Megane and Peugeot Partner.

Helicopters

The Gendarmerie has used helicopters since 1954. They are part of the Gendarmerie air forces (French: Forces aériennes de la Gendarmerie or FAG—not to be confused with the Air Gendarmerie or the Air Transport Gendarmerie). FAG units are attached to each of the seven domestic "zonal" regions and six overseas COMGEND (Gendarmerie commands). They also operate for the benefit of the National Police which owns no helicopters (the Police also has access to Civil Security helicopters).

Forces aériennes de la Gendarmerie (FAG) operate a fleet of 55 machines belonging to three types and specialized in two basic missions: surveillance/intervention and rescue/intervention.

SIG Sauer Pro SP 2022, French service weapon (police, gendarmerie, prison administration and customs) with PROPRIETE DE L'ETAT ("property of the State") engraved on the slide. SIG SAUER SP 2022 with magazine.jpg
SIG Sauer Pro SP 2022, French service weapon (police, gendarmerie, prison administration and customs) with PROPRIETE DE L'ETAT ("property of the State") engraved on the slide.

Weapons

The Gendarmerie use as service pistol the Sig-Sauer SP 2022 like almost all French law enforcement agencies.

The Gendarmerie also use a lots of weapons. The followings are the mosts used in common duty (Not inclued weapons used by tactical groups) :


This list is completed by less-lethals weapons like the LBD-40 : a 40mm plastic balls luncher, the Taser x26, Pepper Spray...


See also

General

Notes

  1. After the colour of the silver stripes that the gendarmes wear on their kepis, as opposed to the golden stripes of the Mobile Gendarmerie.
  2. Since 2016, metropolitan France has been divided into 12 administrative regions.
  3. Squadron in the British sense of the term. The equivalent US unit would be a troop or a company.
  4. circa 570 with the regional branches.

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National Police Intervention Groups (GIPN) were tactical units of the French National Police based in large cities in metropolitan France and in French overseas territories.

National Police Corps (Netherlands) Overview of law enforcement in the Netherlands

National Police Corps, colloquially in English as Dutch National Police or National Police Force, is divided in ten regional units and a central unit, and the Royal Marechaussee, a gendarmerie. Law enforcement in the Netherlands operates primarily through governmental police agencies. The law-enforcement purposes of these agencies are the investigation of suspected criminal activity, referral of the results of investigations to the courts, and the temporary detention of suspected criminals pending judicial action. Law enforcement agencies, to varying degrees at different levels of government and in different agencies, are also commonly charged with the responsibilities of deterring criminal activity and preventing the successful commission of crimes in progress. The police commissioner in the Netherlands is Henk van Essen since May 1, 2020.

Gendarmerie Nationale (Algeria)

The Gendarmerie Nationale, is the national rural police force of Algeria. As part of the Algerian Armed Forces is commanded by a major general who reports directly to the Minister of National Defense. In 2007 the gendarmerie consists of 60,000. Although generally regarded as a versatile and competent paramilitary force, the gendarmerie has been severely tested in dealing with civil disorder since 1988. It frequently has lacked sufficient manpower at the scene of disorder and its units have been inadequately trained and equipped for riot control. The gendarmerie, however, has demonstrated the ability to root out terrorist groups operating from mountain hideouts.

National Gendarmerie of Gabon

The National Gendarmerie of Gabon is the national police force of Gabon responsible for law enforcement in Gabon. It is under the direct command of the President of Gabon. The Gendarmerie is also in charge of the Gabonese Republican Guard.

References

Citations

  1. 1 2 3 MEMOGENDV6 information brochure edited by SIRPA-G, the Gendarmerie information bureau. The 100,000 figure includes approx 3,600 civilians.
  2. Alexis de Tocqueville, page 108 "The Old Regime and the Revolution"
  3. Brown, Howard G. (29 November 2007). Ending the French Revolution. pp. 189–190. ISBN   978-0-8139-2729-9.
  4. Schama, Simon. Citizens. A Chronicle of the French Revolution. p. 430. ISBN   0-670-81012-6.
  5. Edouard Detaille, pages 281-293, "L'Armee Francaise", ISBN   0-9632558-0-0
  6. "2008 Budget Bill, French Senate". Senat.fr. 2010-12-21. Archived from the original on 2017-06-06. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
  7. fr:Direction générale de la Gendarmerie nationale
  8. "Comment sont définies les zones police et gendarmerie - Le Parisien". Leparisien.fr. Archived from the original on 2017-09-08. Retrieved 2017-09-07.
  9. Peachy, Paul. "Who are GIGN? Elite police force formed after 1972 Olympics attack on Israelis". The Independent. The Independent. Archived from the original on 31 May 2016. Retrieved 27 April 2016.
  10. Gend'Info (the Gendarmerie's information magazine), December 2014 issue.
  11. 1 2 3 4 5 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-10-08. Retrieved 2009-05-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  12. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2009-04-30. Retrieved 2009-05-23.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  13. 1 2 "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2010-06-26. Retrieved 2008-12-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2008-12-12. Retrieved 2008-12-25.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)

Sources