|Εθνική Βιβλιοθήκη της Ελλάδος|
Ethnikí Vivliothíki tis Elládos
The façade of the main building of the library
|Branches||2 (Αγία Παρασκευή/Agía Paraskeví |
& Νέα Χαλκηδόνα/Néa Chalkidóna)
|Items collected||books, journals, newspapers, magazines, multimedia and manuscripts|
|Criteria for collection||Material that is produced in Greece as well as Material that is produced abroad, but is connected with Greece in any language and form.|
(Φίλιππος Τσιμπόγλου), general director.
The National Library of Greece (Greek : Εθνική Βιβλιοθήκη) is situated near the center of city of Athens. It was designed by the Danish architect Theophil Freiherr von Hansen, as part of his famous Trilogy of neo-classical buildings including the Academy of Athens and the original building of the Athens University. It was founded by Ioannis Kapodistrias.
The original idea for establishing a National Library was from the philhellene Johann Jakob Mayer, in an August 1824 article of his newspaper Ellinika Chronika , published at Missolonghi, where Mayer and Lord Byron had been promoting Greece's independence. Mayer's idea was implemented in 1829 by the new Greek government of Ioannis Kapodistrias,who grouped together the National Library with other intellectual institutions such as schools, national museums, and printing houses. These were all placed in a building (then being used as an orphanage) on the island Aegina and supervised by Andreas Moustoxydis, who thus became president of the committee of the Orphanage, director of the National Archaeological Museum of Athens, and director of the National School.
At the end of 1830, the library, which Moustoxydis named the National Library, had 1,018 volumes of printed books, which had been collected from Greeks and philhellenes. In 1834, the Library was relocated to Athens, the new capital, and was at first housed temporarily in the public bath in the Roman Agora of Athens and then later in the Panagia Gorgoepikoos church.
The collection increased rapidly. In addition to the purchase of books from private libraries, supervised by Dimitris Postolakas (1,995 volumes), the Library accepted many large donations of books, like one from Christoforos and Konstantinos Sakellarios (5,400 volumes) and one from Markos Renieris (3,401 volumes).
In 1842, the Public Library merged with Athens University's library (15,000 volumes), and was housed together with the currency collection at the new building of Otto's University. The first director (then-called "president") was Georgios Kozakis-Typaldosof the newly enlarged institution, retaining the job until 1863. At this time, the Library was enriched with significant donations and with rare foreign language books from all over Europe. With the royal charter of 1866, the two libraries merged, and were administered as the "National Library of Greece". From 1877-1910, its director was Michael Deffner.
On 16 March 1888 the foundation stone for a new neoclassical marble building was laid. The building was financed by three Kefallonian-born brothers of the Diaspora, Panagis, Marinos and Andreas Vallianos. It was designed by Baron Theophil von Hansen and its construction supervised by Ernst Ziller. The Library remained in the older University building until 1903, when it was relocated to the new Vallianos building, which still partly houses the Library in addition to two other buildings, at Agia Paraskevi and Nea Halkidona.
The library has 4,500 Greek manuscripts which is one of the greatest collection of Greek scripts. There are also many chrysobulls and archives of the Greek Revolution.
Among the library's holdings are a codex of the four Gospels attributed to the scribe Matthew; uncial codex with a fragment Gospel of Matthew from 6th century (Uncial 094), Flora Graeca Sibthorpiana by English botanist John Sibthorp; Rigas' Chart by Rigas Velestinlis; The Large Etymological Dictionary , a historic Byzantine dictionary; and the first publication of Homer's epics and hymns.
Some other manuscripts: Uncial 075, Uncial 0161, Minuscule 798.
The present building has long been inconvenient due to limited space and technology demands. Although the Vallianos building will continue to house some of its current functions, the bulk of the library in 2018 was relocated to a new 22,000-square meter building at the Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center on the Phaleron Bay "Delta". The 20-hectare Delta is a seafront area that used to host the Athens horse race track, which was replaced by the Markopoulo Olympic Equestrian Centre for the Athens 2004 Olympics. Italian architect Renzo Piano proposed a radical new plan for the National Library and the National Opera of Greece, and the project was funded by the Stavros Niarchos Foundation and donated to the Greek state. The twin buildings are integrated within a landscaped park with indigenous Mediterranean flora, and feature extensive renewable energy facilities and a central plaza around a 30-m wide seawater channel. Work on the project started in 2012 with completion due for 2016.
Petros Mavromichalis, also known as Petrobey (Πετρόμπεης), was the leader of the Maniot people during the first half of the 19th century. His family had a long history of revolts against the Ottoman Empire, which ruled most of what is now Greece. His grandfather Georgios and his father Pierros were among the leaders of the Orlov Revolt.
Andreas Metaxas was a Greek politician, fighter of the Greek War of Independence and diplomat from Cephalonia. He was prime minister of Greece from September 3, 1843 to February 16, 1844. The military leaders of the revolution gave him the ironic nickname of Conte Lalas due to his injury during the Battle of Lalas.
The coat of arms of Greece comprises a white Greek cross on a blue escutcheon, surrounded by two laurel branches. It has been in use in its current form since 1975. Prior to the adoption of the current coat of arms, Greece used a number of different designs, some of which were not heraldic; the first heraldic design was introduced in 1832 and its main element, the blue shield with the white cross, has been the base for all other national coats of arms since then. The origin of the design is unclear, but it is most likely a heraldic representation of the Greek national flag adopted in 1822, which featured a white cross on a blue field.
The Greek National Opera is the country's state lyric opera company, located in the Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center at the south suburb of Athens, Kallithea. It is a public corporation under the supervision of the Greek Ministry of Culture and administered by the Board of Trustees and its Artistic Director, currently George Koumedakis.
Michael Soutzos, was a member of the Soutzos family of Phanariotes, he was the grandson of Michael Drakos Soutzos; he was in turn a Prince of Moldavia, between 12 June 1819 and 29 March 1821. He was initiated into Filiki Eteria, he supported the Greek revolution in Moldavia and Wallachia and after the creation of the Greek state, he served as ambassador of the country abroad.
After the Fall of Constantinople to the Ottomans and the following trends of Greek migration to the Diaspora, Greek architecture was concentrated mainly on the Greek Orthodox churches of the Diaspora. These churches, such as other intellectual centres built by Greeks, were used also as a meeting-place. The architectural style of these buildings was heavily influenced by the western European architecture.
Uncial 094, ε 016 (Soden); is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated paleographically to the 6th-century.
Uncial 0161, ε 019, is a Greek uncial manuscript of the New Testament, dated paleographically to the 8th century.
Georgios Gennadios was a Greek man of letters who was instrumental in the founding of some of the first educational establishments of modern Greece, considered among the most important personalities of the Greek Enlightenment (Diafotismos), often referred to as the "Teacher of the Nation".
Georgios Stavros was a Greek banker, benefactor and revolutionary. He was one of the founders and the first governor of the National Bank of Greece.
The Stavros Niarchos Foundation Cultural Center is a complex in the bay of Faliro in Athens which includes new facilities for the National Library of Greece (NLG) and the Greek National Opera (GNO), as well as the 210,000 m² Stavros Niarchos Park. The Center was designed by architect Renzo Piano and its construction was funded by the Stavros Niarchos Foundation. The €566 million project was completed in 2016, and was donated to the Greek state in 2017.
The Pamphlet of Rigas Feraios is a large chalcography printed in Vienna in 1797 by Rigas Feraios. It depicts a portrait of Alexander the Great framed by war scenes and portraits of his generals. The etching was incised by François Müller, who cooperated with Rigas for his cartographic work which he published the same year: Rigas' Map of Greece (1797), the New Map of Wallachia (1797) and the General Map of Moldavia (1797). It was released in 1200 copies from the printing press of Nitsch. One of the two copies that have been discovered in Greece is displayed in the National Historical Museum of Greece.
Konstantinos Rados was a Greek merchant and member of the Filiki Eteria, a secret organization whose purpose was to overthrow the Ottoman rule of Greece. He took part in the Greek War of Independence against the Ottomans and during the governance of Ioannis Kapodistrias he held important administrative positions.
The New Map of Wallachia is one of the maps of the Danubian Principalities which were printed by Rigas Feraios in 1797 in Vienna, engraved by Franz Müller who was also Rigas' partner in other cartographic works. The Map is in black and white, it is 0,85 x 0,63 m. and has the title New Map of Wallachia and part of Transylvania by Rigas Velestinlis from Thessaly, published for the sake of the Greeks and philhellenes – 1797-engraved by Franz Müller in Vienna.
The Panellinion was the name given to the advisory body created on 23 April 1828 by Ioannis Kapodistrias, replacing the Legislative Body, as one of the terms he set to assume the governorship of the new country. The Panellinion was later replaced by the Senate during the Fourth National Assembly at Argos in July 1829. The body was named after the Panhellenion, a league of Greek city-states established by Emperor Hadrian.
A new legislative body called the Senate(Greek: Γερουσία) was created in 1829 by the Fourth National Assembly at Argos, replacing the prior advisory body called the Panellinion which had been founded by Governor Ioannis Kapodistrias the previous year.
A number of different and competing administrations used the name Administrative Committee(Greek: Διοικητική Επιτροπή) throughout 1832, each claiming responsibility for a different part of Greece, all after the dissolution of the Administrative Committee of 1831 of Augustinos Kapodistrias, Theodoros Kolokotronis, and Ioannis Kolettis
Ioannis Sotiris Alexakis (1885–1980) was a Cretan lieutenant general. He fought in both Balkan Wars, in World War I, the Asia Minor Campaign and World War II. He fought in numerous battles and was decorated with 20 medals for bravery.
Semni Papaspyridi-Karouzou (1897–1994) was a Classical archaeologist who specialized in the study of pottery from ancient Greece. She was the first woman to join the Greek Archaeological Service, and worked as Curator of the ceramic collections in the National Archaeological Museum in Athens for over thirty years; she has been described as 'perhaps the most important woman in Greek archaeology.'
Roxandra or Roxana or Roksandra Skarlatovna Edling-Sturdza was a philanthropist and a writer. Her chief achievement was the foundation of schools and orphanages for the young and needy refugees in Odessa during the years of wars and revolutions in the Balkans. She was a grandchild of the Grand Dragoman or Prince of Moldavia Constantine Mourousis; that and her own actions, vision, will and determination made her a prolific advocate of young refugee needs all over Europe.
The National Library of Greece was founded in 1832 by Ioannis Kapodistrias, the first governor of the Greek state.
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