|Монгол Улсын Үндэсний Номын Сан|
Present building of the National Library of Mongolia
|Items collected||Books, Academic degree dissertations,journals,newspapers, magazines, databases, ancient and modern maps, manuscripts, sutras.|
|Size||around 3 million|
Mongolian National Library (Mongolian : Монгол улсын үндэсний номын сан) located in Ulaanbaatar, is the largest and oldest surviving library in Mongolia. It houses over three million books and publications, one million of which are rare and valuable books, sutras and manuscripts, including the world's only surviving copies of many ancient Buddhist texts.
The purpose of the National Library of Mongolia, according to its Rules of Organization and Operation, is “to collect and preserve manuscripts, sutras, academic degree dissertations, as well as books and periodicals that are published in Mongolia and significant foreign books and periodicals; to create a national bibliography; to serve efficiently the library users with the above material and to provide other public libraries with professional methodology, guidance and information.” The National Library of Mongolia is not only the largest library in the country, it is also the Professional Methodological Centre that develops regulations and legal documents to be applied in libraries in the country, develops and publishes professional publications, guidelines and bibliography and provides consultancy to over 1,500 public libraries of the country.
Among the over one million rare and valuable books is a collection of historical materials in Mongolian, Manchu, Tibetan, and Chinese.There are also contemporary collections in German, Japanese, and Korean funded by non-profits from the respective countries in addition to a Soros Foundation funded English education room to help students prepare for language proficiency exams abroad. There is a United Nations depository reading room and ten computers for Internet access. The National Library also has a significant collection of photocopied pictographs and old xylographed books.
"Messenger for the People" Mobile Library has opened in 2011 in cooperation with Ministry of Education, Culture and Science, the World Bank and Rural Education and Development Project.
A former branch of the National Library is the Children's Book Palace in Ulaanbaatar. It has an impressive collection of over 100,000 books in Mongolian, English, and Russian, in addition to three reading rooms. The reading rooms have titles like “Big Knowledge Man,” for younger children, “Dream,” for teenagers, and the “Education and Development” room with Internet access. The library has received the support of international organizations such as the Soros Foundation, Asian Development Bank.
The National Library of Mongolia was officially established on November 19, 1921 under the auspices of the Scientific Committee of Mongolia. The decision was taken at the government's 24th meeting just four months after the Outer Mongolian Revolution of 1921 in July. Originally called the Institute of Sutra and Scripts, its original collection contained a mere 2,000 books all donated by the famed Mongolian scholar Tseven.
According to its charter, the library's objectives included: " Assembly and preservation of manuscripts, sutras , thesis for degrees, as well as books and periodicals that are published in Mongolia, as well as significant foreign books and periodicals, and for the creation of the National Library for effectively provide readers the above materials, and to provide other public libraries of professional methodology, guidance and information." Librarians and scholars were brought in from the Soviet Union to establish the first book exchange with the largest libraries of Moscow and Leningrad in 1924 and Soviet bibliographers initiated the first retrospective compilation "Bibliographical Index of Mongolian books".
The library's first reading room opened on November 24, 1923. Prior to the Second World War, the Mongolian library collaborated solely with Soviet libraries. Starting in the late 1940s they began to interact with the libraries of other countries, first with communist bloc nations such as Hungary (1948), from 1963 - with libraries in Bulgaria (1963). By 1965 the library was collaborating with libraries from 26 countries, using funds of 49 libraries. Today, it has a book exchange program with 100 libraries in 70 countries.
In 1963 the hall of the scientific literature was opened. In order to make the ancient texts of the Mongolian Script and Culture more accessible to foreign as well as domestic researchers, the small museum dedicated to rare and valuable books had been established in 1981. The Library became a member of the International Federation of Library Associations and Institutions (IFLA) in 1991 and currently has book exchange programs with over 100 libraries in 70 countries. In 2005 the library opened a Turkish Reading Room (1600 publications, more than 600 readers per year).
In February 1990 the MPRP Politburo ordered the removal of Josef Stalin's statue from in front of the library in one of its first concessions to pro-democracy demonstrations that would lead to the 1990 Democratic Revolution. In 2004 the writer and journalist Gotovyn Akim was appointed General Director of the library. Based on his recommendation a statue of Byambyn Rinchen, a translator, scientist, linguist and prominent figure of modern Mongolian literature, was erected on the 100th anniversary of his birth in front of the library where the statue of Stalin had stood for nearly 40 years.
The National Library of Mongolia possesses the great Buddhist canonic texts such as Kanjur consisting of 108 volumes, which contains holy didactical words told by Great Buddha himself and Tanjur, an explanatory dictionary to the Buddha teachings, which consists of 226 volumes. Kanjur means “Concise Orders” in Mongolian translation and it contains over 1260 title books belonging to the ancient Indian Tripitaka or three knowledge areas such as Sutraya, Vinaya, Abhidarma concepts which represent listening, meditating and creating abilities. In addition, the National Library of Mongolia possesses over 10 different kind of Kanjur editions such as Nartan Edition Kanjur /102 volumes/, Derge Edition Kanjur /100 volumes/, Khuree Printed Kanjur /105 volumes/, Mongolian Dust Paint Printed Kanjur /108 volumes/, Mongolian Manuscript Kanjur /76 volumes/, Golden Kanjur /101 volumes/, Silver Kanjur /102 volumes/, and Kanjur written with 9 precious stones which is the only copy in the world.
In 2011 with the financial support of the World Bank the library launched the "People's Messenger" ( Ardyn Elch ) program, which aims to bring books to the nomads living in remote areas, residents in yurt suburbs of Ulaanbaatar , the military, prisoners, the disabled, pensioners and children not enrolled in school. Currently, the National Library advises about 1,500 libraries in the country, in the year to the funds received some 7,000 new publications.
Ulaanbaatar, formerly anglicised as Ulan Bator, is the capital and largest city of Mongolia. The city is not part of any aimag (province), and its population as of 2014 was over 1.3 million, almost half of the country's population. The municipality is in north central Mongolia at an elevation of about 1,300 meters (4,300 ft) in a valley on the Tuul River. It is the country's cultural, industrial and financial heart, the centre of Mongolia's road network and connected by rail to both the Trans-Siberian Railway in Russia and the Chinese railway system.
The Beinecke Rare Book & Manuscript Library is the rare book library and literary archive of the Yale University Library in New Haven, Connecticut. Situated on Yale University's Hewitt Quadrangle, the building was designed by Gordon Bunshaft of Skidmore, Owings & Merrill and completed in 1963. Established by a gift of the Beinecke family and given its own endowment, the library is financially independent from the university and is co-governed by the University Library and Yale Corporation. It is one of the largest buildings in the world entirely dedicated to rare books and manuscripts.
The Tibetan Buddhist canon is a loosely defined list of sacred texts recognized by various sects of Tibetan Buddhism. In addition to sutrayana texts from Early Buddhist and Mahayana sources, the Tibetan canon includes tantric texts. The Tibetan Canon underwent a final compilation in the 14th century by Buton Rinchen Drub (1290–1364).
State Library Victoria is the central library of the state of Victoria, Australia, located in Melbourne. It was established in 1854 as the Melbourne Public Library, making it Australia's oldest public library and one of the first free libraries in the world. The Library's vast collection includes over two million books and 350,000 photographs, manuscripts, maps and newspapers, with a special focus on material from Victoria, including the diaries of the city's founders, John Batman and John Pascoe Fawkner, and the folios of Captain James Cook. It also houses some of the original armour of Ned Kelly. The Library is located in the northern centre of the central business district, on the block bounded by Swanston, La Trobe, Russell, and Little Lonsdale streets.
A national library is a library established by a government as a country's preeminent repository of information. Unlike public libraries, these rarely allow citizens to borrow books. Often, they include numerous rare, valuable, or significant works. A national library is that library which has the duty of collecting and preserving the literature of the nation within and outside the country. Thus, national libraries are those libraries whose community is the nation at large. Examples include the British Library, and the Bibliothèque nationale de France in Paris.
Sterling Memorial Library (SML) is the main library building of the Yale University Library system in New Haven, Connecticut, United States. Opened in 1931, the library was designed by James Gamble Rogers as the centerpiece of Yale's Gothic Revival campus. The library's tower has sixteen levels of bookstacks containing over 4 million volumes. Several special collections—including the university's Manuscripts & Archives—are also housed in the building. It connects via tunnel to the underground Bass Library, which holds an additional 150,000 volumes.
The National Library of Serbia is the national library of Serbia, located in the capital city of Belgrade. It is the biggest library, and oldest institution in Serbia.
The Bavarian State Library in Munich is the central "Landesbibliothek", i. e. the state library of the Free State of Bavaria and one of Europe's most important universal libraries. With its collections currently comprising around 10.36 million books, it ranks among the best research libraries worldwide. Moreover, its historical stock encompasses one of the most important manuscript collections of the world, the largest collection of incunabula worldwide, as well as numerous further important special collections.
The Biblioteca Nacional de España is a major public library, the largest in Spain, and one of the largest in the world. It is located in Madrid, on the Paseo de Recoletos.
The National Library of Colombia is a national library located in Bogota, Colombia. The library is a dependency of the Colombian Ministry of Culture.
The National Library of Poland is the central Polish library, subject directly to the Ministry of Culture and National Heritage of the Republic of Poland.
Martynas Mažvydas National Library of Lithuania is a national cultural institution which collects, organizes and preserves Lithuania's written cultural heritage content, develops the collection of Lithuanian and foreign documents relevant to research, educational and cultural needs of Lithuania, and provides library information services to the public.
The Biblioteca Nacional de Uruguay is the National Library of Uruguay, located in Montevideo. It was created in 1815 and is the legal deposit and copyright library for Uruguay. It has been located in its current building since 1955. In 2006, it had more than 900,000 books, and 20,000 periodicals, audiovisual materials, maps, scores, engravings, watercolors, photographs and manuscripts.
National and University Library in Zagreb (NSK) is the national library of Croatia and central library of the University of Zagreb.
The first libraries in China came into being during the time of the Shang dynasty as intellectuals known as the Shi (historians) and Wu (diviners) emerged from manual labor to special occupations for the creation and spread of culture. Among the documents that these occupations managed were "the country's statute books, genealogies of imperial kinsmen, issued notices and orders, and recorded important events and natural phenomena. For future verification and reference, they built storehouses to keep records in different media. To meet the needs of more and more complicated affairs and to ensure easy use, they began to collect and sort out those records according to chronological order and category. Thus, the earliest library in China came into being. The numerous kinds of media loaded with information and knowledge emerged in human society, resulting in the concepts of preservation and collection. Accordingly, the earliest libraries and archives were the result of conscious collection, process, coalition, and utilization."
The National Library of the Republic of Moldova located in Chişinău, Moldova is the main library of the state which is responsible for conservation, valorization and protection of written cultural heritage. The National Library operates according to the guiding principles of UNESCO referring to this type of libraries, it is part of the European Digital Library. Founded in 1940, it traces its roots to the Gubernatorial Public Library of Bessarabia established in 1832. In present, National Library is one of the objective with great value of the national patrimony and presents the treasure written and printed cultural heritage of the country. Library ensures wide public access to its collections for research, study and / or information. Now the Director General is Elena Pintilei.
The British Library is the national library of the United Kingdom and the largest library in the world by number of items catalogued. It is estimated to contain 170–200 million+ items from many countries. As a legal deposit library, the British Library receives copies of all books produced in the United Kingdom and Ireland, including a significant proportion of overseas titles distributed in the UK. The Library is a non-departmental public body sponsored by the Department for Culture, Media and Sport.
Kharkiv State Scientific Library of Vladimir Korolenko – second by book fund after the Library of Vernadsky in Kiev, Ukraine. There are 12 reading rooms for 524 places.
Mongol literature has been greatly influenced by its nomadic oral traditions. The "three peaks" of Mongol literature, The Secret History of the Mongols, Epic of King Gesar and Epic of Jangar, all reflect the age-long tradition of heroic epics on the Eurasian Steppe. Mongol literature has also been a reflection of the society of the given time, its level of political, economic and social development as well as leading intellectual trends.
The Thomas J. Watson Library is the main research library of the Metropolitan Museum of Art (MMA), and supports the research activities of the museum staff, as well as outside researchers.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to National Library of Mongolia .|