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National Library of Thailand, Bangkok
|Size||3.2M items (2013)|
|Budget||86,840,300 baht (2013)|
|Director||Kanok-on Sakdadate (2013)|
The National Library of Thailand (Thai : หอสมุดแห่งชาติ) is the legal depositary and copyright library for Thailand. It was created in 1905, after the merger of the three existing royal libraries, and is one of the oldest national libraries in Asia. It operates under the jurisdiction of the Fine Arts Department of the Ministry of Culture in Bangkok, Thailand.
Thai, Central Thai, is the sole official and national language of Thailand and the first language of the Central Thai people and vast majority of Thai Chinese. It is a member of the Tai group of the Kra–Dai language family. Over half of Thai vocabulary is derived from or borrowed from Pali, Sanskrit, Mon and Old Khmer. It is a tonal and analytic language, similar to Chinese and Vietnamese.
Legal deposit is a legal requirement that a person or group submit copies of their publications to a repository, usually a library. The requirement is mostly limited to books and periodicals. The number of copies varies and can range from one to 19. Typically, the national library is one of the repositories of these copies. In some countries there is also a legal deposit requirement placed on the government, and it is required to send copies of documents to publicly accessible libraries.
Thailand, officially the Kingdom of Thailand and formerly known as Siam, is a country at the centre of the Southeast Asian Indochinese peninsula composed of 76 provinces. At 513,120 km2 (198,120 sq mi) and over 68 million people, Thailand is the world's 50th largest country by total area and the 21st-most-populous country. The capital and largest city is Bangkok, a special administrative area. Thailand is bordered to the north by Myanmar and Laos, to the east by Laos and Cambodia, to the south by the Gulf of Thailand and Malaysia, and to the west by the Andaman Sea and the southern extremity of Myanmar. Its maritime boundaries include Vietnam in the Gulf of Thailand to the southeast, and Indonesia and India on the Andaman Sea to the southwest. Although nominally a constitutional monarchy and parliamentary democracy, the most recent coup in 2014 established a de facto military dictatorship.
As of 2013 [update] the library in Bangkok housed over three million items and had 11 provincial branches. Its budget was 87 million baht and it employed about 200 staff.
The baht is the official currency of Thailand. It is subdivided into 100 satang. The issuance of currency is the responsibility of the Bank of Thailand.
The National of Library of Thailand's main tasks are collecting, storing, preserving, and organizing all national intellectual property regardless of medium. Collections include Thai manuscripts,stone inscriptions, palm leaves, Thai traditional books, and printed publications as well as audio-visual materials and digital resources. The library is a national information resource serving citizens nationwide.
The National Library has a long history. Its precursor was the Phra Vajirayana Royal Library (Thai : หอสมุดพระวชิรญาณ) which was established in 1883, by sons and daughters of King Mongkut (Rama IV) to honor their royal father. Later in 1897, King Chulalongkorn returned from his European visit and expressed his desire to dedicate the Vajirayana Library to the Capital. In 1905, three libraries, the Mandira Dharma Library, the Vajirayanana Library, and the Buddhasasana Sangaha Library, were amalgamated at the command of King Chulalongkorn and renamed the "Vajirayanana Library for the Capital City". The library has remained under royal patronage since that date. In 1933, after democratic reforms, the Fine Arts Department was established and assumed administration of the Vajirayanana Library by royal degree. It was subsequently renamed the "National Library". In 1966, the National Library was relocated to Samsen Road in Bangkok and is now administered by the Ministry of Culture.
Chulalongkorn, also known as King Rama V, reigning title Phra Chula Chom Klao Chao Yu Hua, was the fifth monarch of Siam under the House of Chakri. He was known to the Siamese of his time as Phra Phuttha Chao Luang. His reign was characterized by the modernization of Siam, governmental and social reforms, and territorial concessions to the British and French. As Siam was threatened by Western expansionism, Chulalongkorn, through his policies and acts, managed to save Siam from colonization. All his reforms were dedicated to ensuring Siam's survival in the face of Western colonialism, so that Chulalongkorn earned the epithet Phra Piya Maharat.
Samsen or spelled Sam Sen is a road and neighbourhood in Bangkok considered to be one of Bangkok's oldest. Samsen road starts from Bang Lamphu intersection in the area of Bang Lamphu within Phra Nakhon district and wends northeast to Dusit district until it ends at Kiakkai intersection, covering 4.6 km. It runs parallel to east Chao Phraya river.
|1905||Three royal libraries was combined by King Rama V.|
|1916||The Vajirayanana Library for the Capital City was moved to Thavaravathu Building, east of Wat Mahathat.|
|1925||Printed material collections were housed in the Thavaravathu Building, later renamed "Vajiravudh Library" by King Rama VII. All original ancient manuscripts and Thai gilded bookcases were transferred to Sivamokkabiman Hall and renamed the "Vajirayanana Library".|
|1933||The library was placed under the care of the Fine Arts Department as the "Library Division"|
|1947||Damrong Rajanubhab Memorial Library was founded and later transferred to a new building in the Varadis Palace compound on Lan Luang Road.|
|1966||The National Library was moved to Samsen Road.|
|1972-2009||Establishment of 16 provincial National Library branches|
|1979||Establishment of the Naradhip Centre for Research in Social Sciences in the Thavaravathu Building|
|1981||King Vajiravudh Memorial Hall was constructed to house royal private collections and exhibit royal waxworks as well as Dusit Thani Experimental Democratic Cities of King Rama VI.|
|1990||Opening of King Bhumibol Adulyadej Library Building.|
|1994||Opening of the Princess Sirindhorn Music Library.|
|1997||Opening of King Rama IX Music Library.|
|1999||Opening of Lat Krabang National Library Branch.|
|2000||King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hall set up as the centre of royal activities information to honor and commemorate royal activities via a permanent exhibition within Thavaravathu Building.|
Chulalongkorn University (CU), nicknamed Chula, is a public and autonomous research university in Bangkok, Thailand. The university was originally founded during King Chulalongkorn's reign as a school for training royal pages and civil servants in 1899 at the Grand Palace of Thailand. It was later established as a national university in 1917, making it the oldest institute of higher education in Thailand.
Prince Tisavarakumarn, the Prince Damrong Rajanubhab was the founder of the modern Thai educational system as well as the modern provincial administration. He was an autodidact, a (self-taught) historian, and one of the most influential Thai intellectuals of his time.
Mahidol University (MU), an autonomous research institution in Thailand, had its origin in the establishment of Siriraj Hospital in 1888. Mahidol is among Thailand's most prestigious universities with highly competitive entrance examinations. An acceptance rate for Medicine is 0.4% as of 2016 academic year. Becoming the University of Medical Science in 1943, it has been recognized as the country's fourth public university. The university was later renamed in 1969 by King Bhumibol Adulyadej after his father, Prince Mahidol of Songkhla, who is widely regarded as "Father of Modern Medicine and Public Health of Thailand." The university originally focused on health sciences but also expanded to other fields in recent decades. It hosted Thailand's first medical school, the Siriraj Medical School. Today, MU offers a range of graduate and undergraduate programs from natural sciences to liberal arts with remote campuses in Kanchanaburi, Nakhon Sawan, and Amnat Charoen provinces. There are a total of 629 programs offered by MU altogether in 17 faculties, 6 colleges, 9 research institutions and 6 campuses. In terms of fiscal budget and portion of budget spent on research programs, MU receives the highest budget of any public university in Thailand: about $147 million each year, most of which is granted for graduate research programs. Mahidol University was ranked Thailand's #1 university in 2011 by QS Asian University Rankings. In 2015, Mahidol University was ranked as one of the world's top 100 universities at which to study medicine, according to the QS World University Rankings.
Dusit is one of the 50 districts (khet) of Bangkok, Thailand.
Rangsit Prayurasakdi, Prince of Chai Nat was the Thai Founder of the Public Health Ministry and as Regent of Thailand.
Thai Studies, a branch of Asian studies, is the multidisciplinary study of Thailand and the Thai peoples. It calls upon the academic disciplines of history, anthropology, religious studies, political science, Thai language, Thai literature, musicology and the physical sciences such as geology.
The Ministry of Defence, is a cabinet-level government department of the Kingdom of Thailand. The ministry controls and manages the Royal Thai Armed Forces to maintain national security, territorial integrity, and national defence. The armed forces of Thailand are composed of three branches: the Royal Thai Army, Royal Thai Navy, and Royal Thai Air Force.
Mom Luang Pin Malakul was a Thai professor, educator and writer. His contributions to education in Thailand include the establishment of various institutions of higher education, the introduction of fixed class schedules, and the implementation of teacher-training programmes. In his career he served as Director-General of the Department of General Education, later becoming Permanent Secretary, and Minister, of Education. He was also a member of the Executive Board of UNESCO. His writings earned him the title of National Artist in 1987, and the 100th anniversary of his birth was celebrated by the UNESCO in 2003 as recognition of his contribution to the advancement of education in Thailand and Southeast Asia.
The Ministry of Finance is a cabinet ministry in the Government of Thailand.
Benbadhanabongse, Prince of Phichai was a Prince of Siam, a member of the Siamese Royal Family. He originated the House of Benbadhana (ราชสกุลเพ็ญพัฒน์). He was a son of Chulalongkorn, King Rama V of Siam.
Karl Siegfried Döhring was a German architect, art historian and archaeologist. He lived mostly in Siam, now called Thailand.
Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Chulalongkorn University is the first Pharmacy school in Thailand, located in Bangkok. The faculty was founded by Prince Rangsit Prayurasakdi on December 8, 1913 as a department of Doctor for Compounding in the Royal Medical College, commonly called "Rong Rean Prung Ya" which means "School of Compounding Medicine". After the establishment of Chulalongkorn University in 1916, the Royal Medical College became the Faculty of Medicine under the university. The department of Compounding Medicine also had been renamed to "Panak Phat Pasom Ya" or "Doctor for Compounding Medicine Department" since April 6, 1917. It is the first time that Pharmacy Education in Thailand has been elevated in higher educational system.
The Ministry of Culture (MOC), is a Thai government body responsible for the oversight of culture, religion, and art in Thailand. Its FY2019 budget is 8,209.4 million baht.
The National Archives of Thailand (NAT) is a Thai government agency under the Fine Arts Department of the Ministry of Culture. It was established in 1916 (B.E.2459) as a section of the National Library of Thailand. It officially became the National Archives of Thailand on 18 August 1952.
The Customs Department, also called the Thai Customs, is the customs department of Thailand under the Ministry of Finance.
The year 1875 was the 94th year of the Rattanakosin Kingdom of Siam. It was the eighth year in the reign of King Chulalongkorn.
Chaophraya Abhaibhubejhr Hospital is the main hospital of Prachinburi Province, Thailand and is classified by the Ministry of Public Health as a regional hospital. It has a CPIRD Medical Education Center which trains doctors of the Faculty of Medicine, Burapha University. The hospital is also known for its first building which was constructed in 1909 in Baroque architecture with stucco and currently houses the "Thai Traditional Medicine Museum".
The Fine Arts Department is a government department of Thailand, under the Ministry of Culture. It is mainly tasked with overseeing the country's cultural heritage conservation.
Lilit Phra Lo is a narrative poem of around 3,870 lines in Thai. Lilit is a poetic form; Phra is a prefix used for royalty and monks; Lo is the personal name of the hero, sometimes transcribed as Lor or Law. Date and authorship are unknown but the work was probably composed in the late fifteenth or early sixteenth century CE and counts among the five earliest works of Thai literature. The plot is a courtly romance that ends with a tragic massacre and political reconciliation. The work has been criticized for portraying feudal indulgence. The story has been repeatedly reworked by prominent novelists and film-makers, often adapting the plot to conform to modern values.