National Memorial Day of the Exiles and Foibe, or Giorno del ricordo in Italian language, is an Italian celebration for the memory of the victims of the Foibe and the Istrian-Dalmatian exodus. With Italian Law 92 of 30 March 2004has been instituted this Day of Remembrance in day 10 February, to keep memory of victims of Foibe and of the exodus to which almost the whole population of Italian origins living in Dalmatia and Julian March has been constricted by Yugoslavia. The same law has instituted a specific medal to be conferred to relatives of victims:
Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to Vulgar Latin of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. In spite of not existing any Italian community in their respective national territories and of not being spoken at any level, Italian is included de jure, but not de facto, between the recognized minority languages of Bosnia-Herzegovina and Romania. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both standardized Italian and other regional languages.
The "foibe massacres," or simply "the foibe," literally refers to mass killings by which the corpses were thrown into foibas, perpetrated mainly by Yugoslav Partisans, mainly in Venezia Giulia, Istria and Dalmatia, against the local Italian population, during and after World War II.
Dalmatia is one of the four historical regions of Croatia, alongside Croatia proper, Slavonia, and Istria.
This National Memorial Day is held annually on 10 February and is observed by all Italian political parties including the President and comune mayors. The remembrance is in memory of the killing and enforced exile of Italians and democrat or anticommunist Slavs ordered by communist dictator Josip Broz Tito in 1943–60.
The comune is a basic administrative division in Italy, roughly equivalent to a township or municipality.
Josip Broz, commonly known as Tito, was a Yugoslav communist revolutionary and statesman, serving in various roles from 1943 until his death in 1980. During World War II, he was the leader of the Partisans, often regarded as the most effective resistance movement in occupied Europe. While his presidency has been criticized as authoritarian and concerns about the repression of political opponents have been raised, most Yugoslavs considered him popular and a benevolent dictator. He was a popular public figure both in Yugoslavia and abroad. Viewed as a unifying symbol, his internal policies maintained the peaceful coexistence of the nations of the Yugoslav federation. He gained further international attention as the chief leader of the Non-Aligned Movement, alongside Jawaharlal Nehru of India, Gamal Abdel Nasser of Egypt, Nicolae Ceaușescu of Romania, Sukarno of Indonesia, and Kwame Nkrumah of Ghana.
The incidents are known as the foibe massacres and the Istrian exodus. According to recent studies and an estimation of the historian Guido Rumici the total number of Italian victims (including people murdered during their imprisonment or deportation) as ranging from 6,000 to 11,000, and up to nearly 400,000 expelled or emigrated from Dalmatia, Istria and the area bordering Slovenia.
Exiles requested recognition of the Foibe many years ago but diplomatic reasons delayed any progress, given Italy's peaceful relations with president Tito, who was a useful ally against the Soviet empire during the cold war; but after the fall of all the communist dictatorships in Europe and the subsequent dissolution of the Italian Communist Party in January 1991, a Bill was introduced into parliament.Italian deputies and senators almost unanimously voted in favour and the law was passed as number 92 on March 30, 2004.
The Italian Communist Party was a communist political party in Italy.
The National Memorial Day of the Exiles and Foibe is a civilian memorial day but no reduction of working time is observed.The law grants an award, but no money, for all relatives of assassinated victims, upon request. Those who died in Nazi concentration camps are also considered victims. The award consists of a certificate and a metal insignia with sentence The Italian Republic remembers. The law also institutes two museums; the Museum of Istrian-Dalmatian civilization in Trieste and the historical archive museum of Fiume, transported to Rome.
Nazi Germany maintained concentration camps throughout the territories it controlled before and during the Second World War. The first Nazi camps were erected in Germany in March 1933 immediately after Hitler became Chancellor and his Nazi Party was given control of the police by Reich Interior Minister Wilhelm Frick and Prussian Acting Interior Minister Hermann Göring. Used to hold and torture political opponents and union organizers, the camps initially held around 45,000 prisoners. In 1933–1939, before the onset of war, most prisoners consisted of German Communists, Socialists, Social Democrats, Roma, Jehovah's Witnesses, homosexuals, and persons accused of 'asocial' or socially 'deviant' behavior by the Germans.
Trieste is a city and a seaport in northeastern Italy. It is situated towards the end of a narrow strip of Italian territory lying between the Adriatic Sea and Slovenia, which lies almost immediately south and east of the city. It is also located near Croatia some further 30 kilometres (19 mi) south.
Italian president Giorgio Napolitano gave an official speech during the 2007 celebration of the "Memorial Day of Foibe Massacres and Istrian-Dalmatian exodus" in which he stated:
Giorgio Napolitano, is an Italian politician who served as the 11th President of the Republic from 2006 to 2015, and the only Italian President to be reelected to the Presidency. Due to his monarchical style and his dominant position in Italian politics, critics often refer to him as Re Giorgio. He is the longest serving President in the history of the modern Italian Republic, which has been in existence since 1946.
...Already in the unleashing of the first wave of blind and extreme violence in those lands, in the autumn of 1943, summary justice and tumult, nationalist paroxysm, and social retaliation were intertwined with a plan to eradicate the Italian presence from what had been, but ceased to be, the Julian Marches (Venezia Giulia). There was therefore a movement of hate and bloodthirsty fury, and a Slavic annexationist plan, which prevailed above all in the peace treaty of 1947, and which assumed the sinister shape of an "ethnic cleansing". What we can say for sure is that what occurred - in the most evident way through the inhuman ferocity of the foibe - was one of the barbarities of the past century.— Italian president Giorgio Napolitano, Rome, 10 February 2007
Although widely welcomed in Italy, this commemoration has received some criticism from the Italian radical left and in Croatia claiming it was an "attempt at neofascist revisionism".In February 2012 a photo of Italian troops who were killing Slovene civilians (as a retaliation because Tito's partizans murdered Italian soldiers) was shown on public Italian TV as if being the other way round. When historian Alessandra Kersevan, who was a guest, pointed it out to the television host Bruno Vespa that it is Slovenes on the photo who were killed and not vice versa, the host did not apologize. A diplomatic protest followed.
The Free Territory of Trieste was an independent territory situated in Central Europe between northern Italy and Yugoslavia, facing the north part of the Adriatic Sea, under direct responsibility of the United Nations Security Council in the aftermath of World War II.
The Accademia di Belle Arti di Firenze is an instructional art academy in Florence, in Tuscany, in central Italy.
The President of the Italian Republic is the head of state of Italy and in that role represents national unity and guarantees that Italian politics comply with the Constitution. The President's term of office lasts for seven years. The 11th President of the Republic, Giorgio Napolitano, was elected on 10 May 2006 and elected to a second term for the first time in Italian Republic history on 20 April 2013. Following Napolitano's resignation, the incumbent President, former Constitutional judge Sergio Mattarella, was elected at the fourth ballot with 665 votes out of 1,009 on 31 January 2015.
The term Istrian-Dalmatian exodus refers to the post-World War II expulsion and departure of ethnic Italians from the Yugoslav territory of Istria, as well as the cities of Zadar and Rijeka. Istria, Rijeka, and Zadar were ethnically mixed, with Croatian, Italian, and Slovene communities. Istria, Rijeka, and parts of Dalmatia including Zadar, had been annexed to Italy after World War I. At the end of World War II the former Italian territories in Istria and Dalmatia became part of Yugoslavia by the Treaty of peace with Italy, the only exception being the Province of Trieste. The former territories which became part of Yugoslavia are part of the present-day Republic of Croatia and Republic of Slovenia.
Nazario Sauro was an Austrian-born Italian irredentist and sailor.
Dalmatian Italians are the historical Italian national minority living in the region of Dalmatia, now part of Croatia and Montenegro. Since the middle of the 19th century, the community, counting according to some sources nearly 20% of all Dalmatian population in 1840, suffered from a constant trend of decreasing presence and now numbers only around 1,000–4,000 people. Throughout history, though small in numbers in the last two centuries, it exerted a vast and significant influence on the region.
Francesco Giovanni Bonifacio was an Italian Catholic priest, killed by the Yugoslav communists in Grisignana ; he was beatified in Trieste on October 4, 2008.
The Autonomist Party was an Italian-Dalmatianist political party in the Dalmatian political scene, that existed for around 70 years of the 19th century and until World War I. Its goal was to maintain the autonomy of the Kingdom of Dalmatia within the Austro-Hungarian Empire, as opposed to the unification with the Kingdom of Croatia-Slavonia. The Autonomist Party has been accused of secretly having been a pro-Italian movement due to their defense of the rights of ethnic Italians in Dalmatia. The Autonomist Party did not claim to be an Italian movement, and indicated that it sympathized with a sense of heterogeneity amongst Dalmatians in opposition to ethnic nationalism. In the 1861 elections, the Autonomists won twenty-seven seats in Dalmatia, while Dalmatia's Croatian nationalist movement, the National Party, won only fourteen seats. This number rapidly decreased: already in 1870 autonomists lost their majority in the Diet, while in 1908 they won just 6 out of 43 seats.
Tommaso Francesco Besozzi, also known as Tom, was an Italian journalist and writer. He is considered to be one of the most important post-war journalists of Italy and his writing style earned him the epithet "Hemingway of Europeo".
Istrian Italians are an ethnic group in the northern Adriatic region of Istria who descend from the original Latinized population of Roman Istria, from the Venetian-speaking settlers who came to Istria during the time of the Republic of Venice, and from the South Slavic population in Istria that culturally assimilated to the Latins. Today, as a result of the Istrian exodus, the majority of Istrian Italians live outside of the Istrian peninsula; however, a significant Italian minority still lives in the Croatian County of Istria (6.92%) and in Slovenian Istria, where they are granted minority rights. According to the official Slovenian and Croatia censuses conducted in 2001 and 2002 their number is around 22,000. The Istrian diaspora, on the other hand, numbers more than 200,000 people.
Arrigo Petacco was an Italian writer, historian and journalist.
Alessandra Kersevan is an historian, author and editor living and working in Udine. She researches Italian modern history, including the Italian resistance movement and Italian war crimes. She is the editor of a group called Resistenza storica at Kappa Vu edizioni, an Italian publisher. Her research have caused a huge hate campaign against her from the political right environment, both institutional and extra-parliamentary.
Giovanni Oliva is an Italian historian and politician.
The Italian irredentism in Istria was the political movement supporting the unification to Italy, during the 19th and 20th centuries, of the peninsula of Istria. It is considered closely related to the Italian irredentism in Trieste and Fiume, two cities bordering the peninsula.
Labinština is a peninsula which is 25 km long and 13 km wide. It is located on the eastern coast of Istria County in Croatia, and was named after the city of Albona/Labin which had control of the territory. Istria County was occupied by many invaders throughout its history. The County was made up of 16 Comuni; one of these was Albona/Labin. Labin was the head township of the Labinština peninsula under the Roman Empire in 177 BC, during the Venice Republic between 1365-1799, the Austria-Hungary Empire between 1814-1918 and many other occupations by foreign armies. During the Venetian and Austrian periods, Istria was divided into farming fractions or townships (comuni) each having a chief town called capo-comune.
Alberto Negrin is an Italian film director and screenwriter, known for his historical, nostalgic and political films.
Roberto Menia is an Italian politician.
The Conferenza dei Rettori delle Università Italiane is an association of public and private universities in Italy. It began in 1963 as a private organization, later becoming an official advisor to the government. The supporting Fondazione CRUI (foundation) formed in 2001. CRUI operates from headquarters at the Piazza Rondanini in the Sant'Eustachio rione of Rome.