National Museum of Colombo

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National Museum of Colombo
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Location map of greater Colombo.png
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Location in greater Colombo
EstablishedJanuary 1, 1877 (1877-01-01)
LocationSir Marcus Fernando Mawatha, Colombo, Sri Lanka
Coordinates 6°54′36″N79°51′39″E / 6.91000°N 79.86083°E / 6.91000; 79.86083 Coordinates: 6°54′36″N79°51′39″E / 6.91000°N 79.86083°E / 6.91000; 79.86083
Founder Sir William Henry Gregory (British Governor of Ceylon 1872–1877)
Website www.museum.gov.lk

National Museum of Colombo, also known as the Sri Lanka National Museum is one of two museums in Colombo. It is the largest museum in Sri Lanka. It is maintained by the Department of National Museum of the central government. The museum holds contains a collections of much importance to Sri Lanka such as the regalia of the country, including the throne and crown of the Kandyan monarchs as well as many other exhibits telling the story of ancient Sri Lanka. [1] [2]

Contents

History

Museum in 1896 PSM V71 D493 Colombo city museum 1896.jpg
Museum in 1896

The Colombo Museum, as it was called at the beginning, was established on 1 January 1877. Its founder was Sir William Henry Gregory the British Governor of Ceylon (Sri Lanka) at the time. [3] The Royal Asiatic Society (CB) was instrumental in bringing to the notice of Gregory on his appointment as governor in 1872 the need for a public Museum with much difficulty the approval of the legislative council was obtained within a year. The Architect of the Public Works Department, James George Smither (18331910) [3] was able to prepare the plans for new structure on Italian Architectural style. The construction was completed in 1876 and the museum commenced it functions in the following year.

The construction of the museum was carried out by Arasi Marikar Wapchie Marikar [3] (18291925, aka Wapchi Marikar, who was descended from the Sheiq Fareed family who arrived in Ceylon in 1060), paternal grandfather of Sir Razik Fareed. Wapchi Marikar was the builder of the General Post Office in Colombo, Colombo Customs, Old Town Hall in Pettah, Galle Face Hotel, Victoria Arcade, Finlay Moir building, the Clock Tower, Batternburg Battery and many other buildings that are still standing today (2011). The Old Town Hall in Pettah, which is now a busy market, was built on a contract for the sum of 689 Sterling Pounds.

In January 1877, the completed building of the Colombo Museum was declared open by Governor Gregory, in the presence of a large crowd, amongst which there were many Muslims present. At the end of the ceremony, the governor asked Wapchi Marikar what honour he wished to have for his dedication. He asked the same question of the carpenter S.M. Perera who was responsible for the woodwork of the museum, who requested and was awarded a local rank. Marikar requested that the museum be closed on Fridays, the Muslim sabbath; this request was granted and maintained, although the museum later much opened on all days except public holidays [4]

When the throne of the last Kandyan King was to be exhibited at the museum, the then prime minister, Mr. D.S. Senanayake, obtained the consent of Sir Razik Fareed, Wapchi Marikar’s grandson, to keep the museum open on the intervening Fridays only.

Sculpture of the Buddha located at the entrance of the museum. Sculpture of Buddha at Colombo National Museum.jpg
Sculpture of the Buddha located at the entrance of the museum.
Heiyantuduwa Raja (elephant) Skeleton at
National Museum of Colombo, Sri Lanka Heiyantuduwa Raja's Skeleton.jpg
Heiyantuduwa Raja (elephant) Skeleton at
National Museum of Colombo, Sri Lanka

During the period between 1877 and 1999, the authorities of the museum took various steps to display the cultural and natural heritage of the country for this purpose. Several other wings were added from time to time under the direction of Dr. Arthur Willey and Dr. Joseph Pearson new structures were built during the period of Dr. P.E.P. Deraniyagala, Dr. P.H.D.H. de Silva and Sirinimal Lakdusinghe. One of the natural history museum, and yet another consists of the auditorium. These buildings would facilitate the extension of the library ethnological and Anthropological studies, etc.

Developments after 1940

The museum was given the status of a national museum during the period of P. E. P. Deraniyagala. He opened branch museums in Jaffna, Kandy, and Ratnapura and a fully-fledged department of national museum was established in 1942 under the act No. 31. Nine branch museums were ultimately opened, and a school science programme and a mobile museum service are also in operation.

The museum has a copy of the Statue of Tara, a three-quarter life size statue of Tara currently held in the British Museum. [5] The crown jewels and the throne of the last King of Kandy, which were returned to Sri Lanka by the British Government, were added to the museum collection. Ground floor galleries are arranged in historical sequence, and upper galleries thematically.

A library was also established on 1 January 1877. The government Oriental library (1870) was incorporated into Colombo National Museum library, and served as the nucleus of the library collection by collecting the local publications of the past 129 years; the library has been functioning as an unofficial national library in Sri Lanka, and became the first legal deposit library in the island. From its inception, special attention was given to building up of a collection related to Sri Lanka, Orientation and Natural Science.

In 1982 Dr. Thelma Gunawardena became the first woman director of the National Museum of Colombo. [6] She served from 1982 through 1994. [7]

From 1972 to 1991, Prof. Pandula Andagama was the Head of the Anthropology Division, and the Assistant Director of the National Museum. In his tenure, he established an anthropological deposit in the National Museum. [8] He also organized many temporary exhibitions in the National Museum.

National Museum Library

The Colombo National Museum Library was also established on 1 January 1877 incorporating the Government Oriental Library that had been established in 1870. Since 1885, by law, a copy of every document printed in the country is required to be lodged with the museum library.

See also

Related Research Articles

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Kandy City in Central Province, Sri Lanka

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Colombo Dutch Museum

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Rajasinha II of Kandy King of Sri Lanka

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Ceylonese Mudaliyars

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Former General Post Office, Colombo

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T. B. Jayah

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Razik Fareed

Sir Razik Fareed, OBE, JP, UM, was a Ceylonese landed proprietor, politician, diplomat and philanthropist. He was the former Cabinet Minister of Trade, Senator, member of parliament and the state council. He had also served as Ceylon's High Commissioner to Pakistan.

National Museum of Kandy

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The Danture campaign comprised a series of encounters between the Portuguese and the Kingdom of Kandy in 1594, part of the Sinhalese–Portuguese War. It is considered a turning point in the indigenous resistance to Portuguese expansion. For the first time in Sri Lanka a Portuguese army was essentially annihilated, when they were on the verge of the total conquest of the island. A 20,000-strong Portuguese army, led by Governor Pedro Lopes de Sousa, invaded Kandy on 5 July 1594. After three months, severely depleted by guerilla warfare and mass desertions, what remained of the Portuguese army was annihilated at Danture by the Kandyans under King Vimaladharmasuriya. With this victory, the Kingdom of Kandy emerged as a major military power; it was to retain its independence, against Portuguese, Dutch, and British armies, until 1815.

Jeronis de Soysa Ceylonese entrepreneur and philanthropist

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Sinhalese–Portuguese War

The Sinhalese–Portuguese War was a series of conflicts waged from 1527 to 1658 during the Transitional and Kandyan periods in Sri Lanka between the Sinhalese kingdoms and their allies, against the Portuguese Empire. The Crisis of the Sixteenth Century (1521–1597), started with the Vijayabā Kollaya, the division of the Sinhala Kingdom, then centered at Kotte. The country was divided among three brothers resulting in a series of Wars of Succession. It was also at this time that the Portuguese, whose arrival in Sri Lanka was largely accidental, intruded into the internal affairs of Sri Lanka, establishing control over the maritime regions of the island and sought to control its lucrative external trade.

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References

  1. "ICTA & National Museum launch Sri Lanka museums mobile app". Lanka Business Online. 15 March 2017. Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  2. Silva, Dhananjani (22 March 2009). "Swords and fire power add to new-look museum". Sunday Times . Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  3. 1 2 3 Jayawardane, Ishara (12 October 2017). "Magnificent historical haven". Daily News . Retrieved 12 October 2017.
  4. Museum opening hours
  5. The female as Cult Object in Buddhism, Digital Library, retrieved 10 December 2013
  6. Perera, Janaka. "National museum: looking back 130 years". Observer Online. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  7. Salie, Ryhanna. "National Museum: Window into the past". Sunday Observer. Retrieved 27 June 2018.
  8. "Inspiration from the past". Daily News. Retrieved 27 June 2021.