Народни музеј Србије
Narodni muzej Srbije
|Established||10 May 1844|
|Type|| Art museum |
National History Museum
|Collection size||More than 400,000 objects|
|Director||Bojana Borić Brešković|
The National Museum of Serbia (Serbian : Народни музеј Србије, romanized: Narodni muzej Srbije) is the largest and oldest museum in Belgrade, Serbia. It is located in the central zone of Belgrade on a square plot between the Republic Square, formerly Theatre Square, and three streets: Čika Ljubina, Vasina and Laze Pačua. Its main facade is on the Republic Square and the official address ia 1a Republic Square.
The museum was established on 10 May 1844. It moved into the present building in 1950, with the grand opening of the venue on 23 May 1952. Since its founding, the museum's collection has grown to over 400,000 objects, including many foreign masterpieces.
The National Museum of Serbia building was declared a Monument of Culture of Great Importance in 1979.
Before the erection of the building of the National Museum on this place was a famous tavern called "Dardanelles", meeting point of the cultural and artistic elite of the time. Demolition of the old tavern signified the beginning of the transformation of The Republic Square. The building which housed the most important museum of the Republic of Serbia today originally was built from 1902 to 1903, for the purpose of Fund Mortgage Bank, one of the oldest banking institutions of Belgrade. The building was constructed according to the design of architects Andra Stevanović and Nikola Nestorović after a competition on which they received the first prize. It was one of the first buildings in which was used some form of reinforced concrete for the foundation. Actually, during the digging foundation trenches, the various pits, wells and basements were encountered because of the proximity of the former Stambol Gate. The newly built two-storeyed building was a real palace of its time. Its volume conception designed in the form of a long solid block with domes over the central and lateral Rizal sites and academic façade shape was based on the principles of neo-Renaissance style with neo-baroque elements on the domes. The greatest attention was given to the monumental staircase and the hall with bank windows which as the basic premises of a bank was given secondary importance. Almost three decades later, the increased development of Mortgage Bank, influenced a need for a reconstruction of the building. The extension was made without competition by architect Vojin Petrović, who designed the added wing and atrium facing the street Laze Paču. The new part of the building contained the same elements of interior as the old part, and in the final image, the building got two monumental staircases and two halls with bank windows while only the upper floors form the continuous line of offices. During World War II Mortgage Bank building was bombed and the central part with the dome was destroyed. After the war, the building got a completely new purpose when one of the most important national cultural institutions moved in.
Since its establishment during the Constitutionalist, until the end of the Second World War, the National Museum changed location several times. At a beginning, it was placed in Captain Miša's building (1863) and soon after it was moved into two adjacent buildings which were destroyed during World War I. At the same time, the museum art collections were seized and looted by the invaders. During the interwar period, the Museum didn't get its own building. The museum was located in a rented private house at 58 Kneza Miloša street. In 1935 the New Royal Palacе became the residence of the museum and named the Royal Museum. Subsequently, it was renamed into the Museum of Prince Paul which consisted of Historical Museum and the Museum of Contemporary Art (founded in 1929), which merged in 1935.In 1948 the New Palace was restored and became the administrative seat of the Republic. For that purpose, the Museum was transferred into a building of the former Stock Exchange on Student Square, and partly to the Palace of Princess Ljubica.
The first architectural competition for the proper National Museum building planned to be on Tašmajdan was announced the following year.
The author of the design was an architect Miladin Prljevic but the Cominiform disapproved of this idea. Then the museum was transferred into the building of Mortgage Bank. After World War II, the first renovation of the bank building was done by architect Dobroslav Pavlovic in 1950 but the overall reconstruction of the building was made 1965-1966 by architects Alexander Deroko, Petar Anagnosti and Zoran Petrović. The central dome was restored and the central tract with offices and workspaces was lifted. After an adaptation, the original hall with bank windows was converted into a library. The originally main and monumental three-way staircase entrance from the Republic Square received an internal character while the other entrance from Vasina street became the main entrance to the Museum, which is connected directly to the other hall with bank windows was. In a functional arrangement, the building underwent upgrading doubling space and communications, while in terms of design, maintained the characteristic elements of 1902 and in terms of art as an integral unity. Interior renovation from the sixties of the 20th century was done in such a manner that it is not visible from the outside and it doesn't disturb the communications inside the museum.
In 2003, the permanent exhibition was dismantled and the building was closed for the impending reconstruction, but the process dragged on for years, including the gaps when nothing was done at all, and by January 2018 the museum was still not open.
On 25 January 2012, after ten years of the National Museum in Belgrade being closed to the public, Vladimir Bogdanović of the leading Serbian newspaper/website Press wrote an article called A decade of cultural genocide against the Serbs, commenting on the need and importance of a working national museum. He also criticized the preservation of the art in the museum.The façade was finished in 2015 and had to be reconstructed to its original look as the building is under the state protection. In mid-2016 the works on the interiors began. The entrance into the museum from the Vasina Street will remain the main entry point, while the exit doors that lead to the Square of the Republic, with its architectural staircase, will be adapted to be the exit point.
The new permanent exhibit will represent the cultural development in this part of Europe from prehistory to the 20th century, with an emphasis on the Serbian cultural heritage. The 18th and 19th centuries art will be exhibited on the first floor, so as the 20th-century Yugoslav art. In the atrium of the building, there are vaults, left from the period when the venue served as a bank, which will be adapted into the exhibition depots. The look of the vault will be preserved and will serve for the presentation of the museum numismatic collection, from the beginning of the coin minting to the 20th century. In addition, a collection of the medallion art will be exhibited here, too.
The construction works should be finished by March 2018, when the preparation and setting of the collections should start.
On 18 June 2018, 10 days before the scheduled opening, reporters from the daily Politika visited the museum. They reported that the venue doesn't look like something to be open in several days, and the employees confirmed that it would take at least six more months to complete everything, but that the museum will be open as scheduled. The reporters were not allowed to photograph everything. Even though the reconstruction projects, by architects Milan Rakočević and Vladimir Lojanica, envisioned several major changes (including the reconstruction of the glass roof and a dome destroyed during the heavy 1944 Allied Easter bombing of Belgrade), nothing was actually changed so after 15 years the building wasn't thoroughly reconstructed as announced, but only refurbished. This way the capacity of the exhibition space wasn't enlarged, so the permanent exhibition will have 3,000 pieces, out of 400,000.
The large mural by Mladen Josić, painted in the 1930s and located on the wall of the mezzanine, was preserved. Josić painted another mural, close to the former dome, but was destroyed in the 1944 bombing. One of the remnants of the 1966 reconstruction, when the museum was managed by Lazar Trifunović, is a window decorated with the wrought iron. The window was originally facing outside until 1933 when the annex was added to the building.
The National Museum in Belgrade was officially re-opened on 28 June 2018.The grand re-opening ceremony included projections on the building's facade, as well as a promotional video featuring famous Ukrainian ballet dancer Sergei Polunin.
National Museum in Belgrade was renamed to National Museum of Serbia, on 8 April 2021.
The National Museum of Serbia is a representative public building, monumental in size and volume, as well as its external shape and style. That is especially visible in the entrance area with twin columns and magnificent dome. All the facades characterized by polychrome ornaments neo-Renaissance origin. Monumentality is also reflected in the interior with rich decoration done by famous artists of the time: Andrea Domenico(also known as a painter of decorative wall painting that is in the interior of the building of the Old Palace), Franz Valdman and Bora Kovacevic.
Because of its architectural and cultural, urban and historical value building of the National Museum in Belgrade is established for the cultural heritage monument of great importance for the Republic of Serbia.
The Museum has 34 archeological, numismatic, artistic and historical collections today.
The main collection consists of sculptures from Vinca (6th–5th millennium BC) such as Lady of Vinča and Lepenski Vir (7th millennium BC). There are also numerous sculptures, weapons, helmets and other items from ancient Rome, 1005 items from ancient Greece and various items of Celtic origin. The most valuable pieces from that period are Dupljaja Chariot (16th-13th century BC), golden masks from Trebenište (6th century BC), household sets from Jabučje (1st century AD), the Belgrade Cameo (4th century) and a Silver belt with swastika (5th century BC). There is also a collection from ancient Egypt. The most famous piece is a rare gold sarcophagus and mummy of the Egyptian priest Nesmin.
The Numismatic Collection has more than 300,000 items (coins, medals, rings, seals). The collection is divided into ten smaller assemblies from 6th–5th century BC, and includes a collection of coins issued by Philip II of Macedonian (359–336 BC) and Alexander the Great (336–323 BC). The collection also contains unique items: a golden medallion of Emperor Valentinian I, minted 364 AD, silver Dinars from the reign of King Stefan Radoslav of Serbia, and others.
The museum also holds a large collection of medieval artifacts, mostly from Europe and Asia. The most important is the illustrated 362 page manuscript of the Miroslav Gospels written in 1186 in Kingdom of Serbia (medieval). The manuscript was entered into UNESCO’s Memory of the World Register in recognition of its historical value.The collection also includes the sarcophagus of Saint King Stefan Decanski from the 14th century, rings belonging to the Serbian Queen Theodora (before 1322) and King Stephen Radoslav of Serbia (1219–20), King Milutin's mantle from the 1300s, the Eulogy to Prince Lazar - Euphemia's famous embroidery from 1402, about 120 icons from 1200 to 1500, including the Ohrid collection.
The Collection of Drawings and Prints of International Artists has 2,446 items and the Yugoslav Art Collection has more than 6,000 items, including 1,700 paintings of Serbian authors from 18th to 19th century and 3,000 paintings from the 20th century. This does not include the Serbian Medieval Art Collection.The museum includes Serbian medieval, French, Dutch, Flemish, Italian, Russian, German, Japanese, Chinese (from 1644-1978), English, Spanish, Hungarian, Romanian, Bulgarian, Yugoslav and miscellaneous art collections. In total the collection numbers some 16,000 paintings, graphics, drawings, icons and prints, plus over 900 sculptures.
The French masters collection is the National Museum's most significant holding. It comprises extremely rare pieces from Matisse, Picasso, Renoir, Rouault, Degas, Cézanne and others. Most of these paintings were collected and donated by Prince Paul of Yugoslavia. Erih Šlomović, a young Belgrader born at the turn of the 20th century, became in his youth the protégé of the world's biggest art merchant, Ambroise Vollard. The connection led him to develop his own collection, comprising a total of 600 pieces by 1941. The Slomovic Collection is the largest and richest collection of French art in the Balkans, as well as one of the most beautiful in the world.
The Italian Art Collection, consisting of more than 230 works of art, is famous for containing creative works from individual masters and artistic workshops from the 14th to the 20th century. They include works by Domenico Veneziano, Giovanni di Paolo, Raphael, Titian, Tintoretto, Domenico Robusti, Vittore Carpaccio, Lorenzo di Credi, Guido Reni, Spinello Aretino, Francesco Bassano the Younger, Leandro Bassano, Giovanni Battista Tiepolo, Canaletto, Francesco Guardi, Giulio Carpioni, Andrea Celesti, Biagio Faggioni etc. The graphic and etching collection includes work by Botticelli, Annibale Carracci, Giovanni Battista Piranesi, Paolo Veronese, Amedeo Modigliani, Luigi Ontani, Guglielmo Achille Cavellini, Giuseppe Pinot-Gallizio, and others.
Highlights in the museum include:
The Dutch and Flemish collection consists of more than 500 works (210 paintings of art and 220 graphics and engravings, and over 80 drawings). The National Museum in Belgrade was the first museum in the world to include a Piet Mondrian painting in its permanent display.Represented artists include Juan de Flandes, Hieronymus Bosch, Cornelis de Vos, Anthony van Dyck, Antonis Mor, Jan Brueghel the Elder, Marten de Vos, Joos van Cleve, Jan Antonisz. van Ravesteyn, Rubens, Jan van Goyen, Justus Sustermans, Simon de Vos, Jan Victors, Willem van Aelst, Frans van Mieris, Sr., Paulus Potter, Caspar Netscher, Jan Frans van Bloemen, Adam Frans van der Meulen, Godfried Schalcken, Adriaen van Utrecht, Johan Jongkind, Kees van Dongen, Anton Mauve, Allart van Everdingen, Vincent van Gogh and Piet Mondrian.
Highlights in the museum include:
The French Art Collection consists of more than 250 paintings and more than 400 graphics and drawings, from the 16th to early 20th century, including the Slomovic Collection (58 paintings and over 200 graphics). Among the French painters represented in the collection are Nicolas Tournier, Robert Tournières, Hubert Robert, Gauguin, Renoir, Lautrec, Matisse, Monet, Cézanne, Degas, Corot, Paul Signac, Maurice Utrillo, Rodin, Georges Rouault, Pierre Bonnard, Pissarro, Redon, Gustave Moreau, Honoré Daumier, Eugène Carrière, Maurice de Vlaminck, André Derain, Suzanne Valadon, Forain, Robert Delaunay, Rosa Bonheur, Marie Laurencin, Félix Ziem. The graphic and etching collection includes work by Charles Le Brun, Sébastien Bourdon, Jacques Callot, Charles-François Daubigny, Degas, Delacroix, Jean-Baptiste-Camille Corot, Le Corbusier (3 graphic), Renoir, Jean Cocteau, Eugène Carrière, etc. .
Some of the Museum French Highlights are:
The Russian art collection has 90 paintings, and numerous prints, etchings and was mostly donated by Prince Paul of Yugoslavia. The collection also has over 100 icons from the 15th to the 19th centuries. The collection includes work by painters and sculptors such as Ivan Aivazovsky, Marc Chagall, Kandinsky, Roerich, Repin, Filipp Malyavin, Alexei Harlamov, Mikhail Larionov, Boris Grigoriev, Vladimir Borovikovsky, Pavel Kuznetsov, Konstantin Korovin, Kazimir Malevich, Alexandre Benois, El Lissitzky, Mstislav Dobuzhinsky, Alexander Nikolayevich Samokhvalov, Pyotr Nilus etc.
Some of Russian Art Highlights are:
Includes painters usually from the late 19th century, mostly impressionist and post-impressionist. The vast majority of the collection was donated by Prince Paul of Yugoslavia before World War II. In collection is 64 paintings and watercolors and 51 graphics and etchings. They include painters such as Alfred Sisley, Charles Conder, Philip Wilson Steer, Walter Sickert, Hermione Hammond, James Bolivar Manson, Wyndham Lewis, Roger Fry, Duncan Grant, Vanessa Bell and Rowland Fisher,and graphic works from William Hogarth.
Some of English Art works are:
The Japanese Art Collection has 220 works including 36 graphics and paintings (all the graphics belonging to the Ukiyo-e genre, which developed in Japan from the 17th to 19th century - one of the most frequent motifs was the city of Edo). The collection also contains work from Kunisada, Toyokuni, Keisai Eisen, Hiroshige, Utamaro, and Tsuguharu Foujita.
Austrian and German art collection in National Museum in Belgrade has 112 paintings and numerous graphics and etchings. Painters were usually from 19th and 20th century, while graphics are from the 15th century. Most famous painters in collection are Max Liebermann, Lovis Corinth, Fritz von Uhde, Karl Hofer, while prints works include Albrecht Dürer (49 prints), Gustav Klimt, Lovis Corinth, Max Slevogt etc. Most paintings were donated by House of Obrenović and Prince Paul of Yugoslavia. Some of the works are:
Other Art Collection in National Museum in Belgrade include works from Spain, USA, Bulgaria, Hungary, Poland, Australia, China, Canada etc..Collections include paintings from El Greco, Picasso, Mary Cassatt, Burne Hogarth, Felix Philipp Kanitz, László Moholy-Nagy, Eduardo Arroyo, Erró, Sol LeWitt etc.
Some of works are:
The Serbian and Yugoslav Art Collection consisting of more 6000 pieces created between the 17th and 20th century. Some of the artists represented are: Marina Abramović, Paja Jovanović, Stojan Aralica, Petar Lubarda, Milan Konjović, Uroš Predić, Đura Jakšić, Marko Murat, Đorđe Andrejević Kun, Nadežda Petrović, Petar Dobrović, Mića Popović and Sava Šumanović. There are also Slovenian Art works with Matija Jama- (7 canvases), Avgust Černigoj - (6 works), Sketch for theater, Rihard Jakopič - (7 canvases) Birch Trees, Ivan Grohar, Na Pasi and Matej Sternen (4 canvases) Female Reader etc.
The Museum houses sculptures from the early Roman period to the 20th century. The Yugoslav Collection consists of 850 works and the foreign collection has over 50. The most significant collections come from sculptors such as Ivan Meštrović - (96 works), Toma Rosandic, Antun Augustinčić, Frano Kršinić, César Baldaccini, Aristide Maillol, George Minne, Kai Nielsen (sculptor), Risto Stijović, Matija Vuković and Julije Knifer.
Maria Anna Angelika Kauffmann, usually known in English as Angelica Kauffman, was a Swiss Neoclassical painter who had a successful career in London and Rome. Remembered primarily as a history painter, Kauffmann was a skilled portraitist, landscape and decoration painter. She was, along with Mary Moser, one of two female painters among the founding members of the Royal Academy in London in 1768.
Pointillism is a technique of painting in which small, distinct dots of color are applied in patterns to form an image.
The Museo Nacional Centro de Arte Reina Sofía is Spain's national museum of 20th-century art. The museum was officially inaugurated on September 10, 1990, and is named for Queen Sofía. It is located in Madrid, near the Atocha train and metro stations, at the southern end of the so-called Golden Triangle of Art.
The Armory Show, also known as the International Exhibition of Modern Art, was a show organized by the Association of American Painters and Sculptors in 1913. It was the first large exhibition of modern art in America, as well as one of the many exhibitions that have been held in the vast spaces of U.S. National Guard armories.
Lovis Corinth was a German artist and writer whose mature work as a painter and printmaker realized a synthesis of impressionism and expressionism.
Andrea Solari (1460–1524) was an Italian Renaissance painter of the Milanese school. He was initially named Andre del Gobbo, but more confusingly as Andrea del Bartolo a name shared with two other Italian painters, the 14th-century Siennese Andrea di Bartolo, and the 15th-century Florentine Andrea di Bartolo.
The Städel, officially the Städelsches Kunstinstitut und Städtische Galerie, is an art museum in Frankfurt, with one of the most important collections in Germany. The Städel Museum owns 3,100 paintings, 660 sculptures, more than 4,600 photographs and more than 100,000 drawings and prints. It has around 4,000 m² of display and a library of 115,000 books.
Pavle "Paja" Jovanović was a Serbian painter who painted more than 1,100 works including: The Wounded Montenegrin (1882), Decorating of the Bride (1886) and Migration of the Serbs (1896). Paja was also the premier portraitist of Europe after 1905, he painted the Emperor Franz Joseph I of Austria over 14 times, he painted royalty, major industrialists, scientists, bankers, oil barons and monopolists, including certain heirs to the Standard Oil fortune in the United States of America. He was a very sought after portraitist world-wide, this made him incredibly wealthy in his lifetime. Many European and international museums carry his works, signed under various names including: Paul Joanowitch in the National Gallery of Victoria and also two portraits in the Utah Museum of Fine Arts, Paul Joanowits, Paul Ivanovitch, Paul Joanovitch, Paul Joanovitsch, P. Joanowitsch and others.
Picasso's African Period, which lasted from 1906 to 1909, was the period when Pablo Picasso painted in a style which was strongly influenced by African sculpture, particularly traditional African masks and art of ancient Egypt, in addition to non-African influences including Iberian sculpture, and the art of Paul Cézanne and El Greco. This proto-Cubist period following Picasso's Blue Period and Rose Period has also been called the Negro Period, or Black Period. Picasso collected and drew inspiration from African art during this period, but also for many years after it.
The San Diego Museum of Art is a fine arts museum located at 1450 El Prado in Balboa Park in San Diego, California that houses a broad collection with particular strength in Spanish art. The San Diego Museum of Art opened as The Fine Arts Gallery of San Diego on February 28, 1926, and changed its name to the San Diego Museum of Art in 1978. The official Balboa Park website calls the San Diego Museum of Art "the region's oldest and largest art museum". Nearly half a million people visit the museum each year.
Tomislav Krizman (1882–1955), was a Croatian painter, graphic artist, costume and set designer, teacher, author and organizer of cultural events. He painted in oils and tempera, although he is principally remembered for his remarkable graphic art.
Ignjat Job was an important representative of colour expressionism in the art scene of Yugoslavia during the 1930s. Job's landscapes of Dalmatia are reminiscent of the style of Van Gogh. He is best known for his series of paintings inspired by life on the island of Brač. Job said that “the beneficial influence of the Brač landscape can be felt, the hot sun, blue sea, and green branches of olive trees swayed by the breath of the maestral”. His paintings depicted the Mediterranean landscape, motifs of the town of Supetar, fishing themes, and more rarely portraits and nudes.
Portrait of Queen Christina of Denmark is late work of the Italian Renaissance master Titian, painted in 1555–1556 as an oil on canvas and now housed in the National Museum of Serbia of Belgrade, Serbia. It depicts Christina of Denmark. This painting was part of collection of Mary of Hungary (1505–1558) already in 1556. Before the World War II was part of Contini Bonacossi Collection.
Stevan "Steva" Todorović was a Serbian painter and the founder of modern fencing and Sokol movement in Yugoslavia.
Dragana Đorđevic is a Serbian painter who was trained in this traditional craft under the guidance of orthodox nun Porfirija. This Greek nun introduced her to the beauty of byzantine art toward which Dragana inclined ever since. During her over 30 years long career she has researched style of the great late byzantine masters whose monumental frescoes influenced and refined her own work. Her admiration toward Michael Astrapas and Eutychios or Panselinos encouraged her to mimic their styles in order to improve her own skill and only through that acquire particular trait of her art. Today she is praised as someone whose icons are of exceptional quality. Since 1988 Dragana has presented her icons on numerous exhibitions in Serbia and abroad and has participated in a number of art colonies, thus actively participating in defining development of contemporary religious art. She painted two icons of Serbian Patriarch Pavle who was considered saint by many in Serbia even before he deceased in 2009, and whose image is still very well-known. A few years after his death Dragana tried to incorporate his familiar facial features into the traditional technique of icon painting. In 1997 she also became a member of UPIDIV.
Jovan Isailović Jr. was a Serbian academic painter during the early and mid-nineteenth century.
Natalija Cvetković was a Serbian war artist.
Nikola Milojević was one of the most prolific Serbian portraitists of his generation.He was also a popular Belgrade studio photographer,a representative of academic realism of the 19th century along with many of his colleagues.
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