National Reserve System

Last updated
National Reserve System
Australia
NationalReserveSystem WetTropics.jpg
Established 1992
Area > 137 million hectares (340×10^6 acres)
Managing authorities
Website National Reserve System
Locations of the National Reserve System in Australia (shown in green) Australia national reserves.png
Locations of the National Reserve System in Australia (shown in green)

Australia's National Reserve System (NRS) is a network of more than 10,000 Commonwealth plus state and territory protected areas which, [1] in combination, on a national scale, protect more than 137 million hectares (340×10^6 acres) (greater than 17% of the continent's) unique biodiversity and most significant ecological landscapes for future generations. [2] The aim of the NRS is protect the diversity of all native landscapes, flora and fauna across Australia through strategic habitat protection.

Australia Country in Oceania

Australia, officially the Commonwealth of Australia, is a sovereign country comprising the mainland of the Australian continent, the island of Tasmania and numerous smaller islands. It is the largest country in Oceania and the world's sixth-largest country by total area. The neighbouring countries are Papua New Guinea, Indonesia and East Timor to the north; the Solomon Islands and Vanuatu to the north-east; and New Zealand to the south-east. The population of 25 million is highly urbanised and heavily concentrated on the eastern seaboard. Australia's capital is Canberra, and its largest city is Sydney. The country's other major metropolitan areas are Melbourne, Brisbane, Perth and Adelaide.

States and territories of Australia first-level subdivision of Australia

The states and territories are the first-level administrative divisions of the Commonwealth of Australia. They are the second level of government in Australia, located between the federal and local government tiers.

Protected area location which receives protection because of its recognised natural, ecological or cultural landscape values

Protected areas or conservation areas are locations which receive protection because of their recognized natural, ecological or cultural values. There are several kinds of protected areas, which vary by level of protection depending on the enabling laws of each country or the regulations of the international organizations involved.

Contents

As part of the National Reserve System Cooperative Program, the Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia framework was developed as a planning tool to assist in identifying areas of priority. [3]

Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia biogeographic regionalisation of Australia developed by the Australian Government

The Interim Biogeographic Regionalisation for Australia (IBRA) is a biogeographic regionalisation of Australia developed by the Australian Government's Department of Sustainability, Environment, Water, Population and Communities. It was developed for use as a planning tool, for example for the establishment of a National Reserve System.

History

The move by the Australian Government to establish this National Reserve System was triggered by the international Convention on Biological Diversity, as part of the nation's commitment to fulfilling the objectives of that convention. [4] In particular, after signing and ratifying the convention in 1992 the then Prime Minister, Paul Keating, announced [4]

Convention on Biological Diversity International treaty

The Convention on Biological Diversity (CBD), known informally as the Biodiversity Convention, is a multilateral treaty. The Convention has three main goals including: the conservation of biological diversity ; the sustainable use of its components; and the fair and equitable sharing of benefits arising from genetic resources.

The establishment of a comprehensive system of protected areas is vital if we are to retain our status as a region of megadiversity. Besides being ecologically viable these areas must represent the full range of ecosystems. The Government is committed to the development of a national comprehensive system of parks and reserves. This will be achieved in cooperation with States and Territories.

Within the first 4 years (1992–1996) $11.2 million was spent establishing the system and, with the cooperation and agreement of the Australian States and territories 5,600 properties (covering almost 60 million hectares (150×10^6 acres)) were included within the system and a new Indigenous Protected Area (IPA) program was initiated to include some of the most valuable and rare ecological landscapes on Indigenous Australian owned lands. [4] 17 Indigenous Protected Area were declared by 2003 which significantly added to the NRS. [5]

Indigenous Protected Area area of land or sea in Australia managed by the traditional owners

An Indigenous Protected Area is a class of protected area used in Australia formed by agreement with Indigenous Australians, declared by Indigenous Australians, and formally recognised by the Australian Government as being part of its National Reserve System.

Within the next 10 years (1996–2007), with further substantial investment (through a National Heritage Trust) an additional 30 million hectares (74×10^6 acres) were added to the National Reserve System, two thirds of which were Indigenous Protected Areas. During this time, starting in 1999, Tasmania took a lead investing in partnerships to create protected areas on other private lands; and by 2005 all the states and territories re-affirmed their joint commitment to what was to be described as a national 'flagship in biodiversity conservation'. [4]

Tasmania island state of Australia

Tasmania is an island state of Australia. It is located 240 km (150 mi) to the south of the Australian mainland, separated by Bass Strait. The state encompasses the main island of Tasmania, the 26th-largest island in the world, and the surrounding 334 islands. The state has a population of around 526,700 as of March 2018. Just over forty percent of the population resides in the Greater Hobart precinct, which forms the metropolitan area of the state capital and largest city, Hobart.

The National Reserve System continues to be an Australian Government priority, with continuing funding "target[ing] areas with low levels of protection, including the sub-tropical savanna from Cape York to the Kimberley, the Mitchell grass country of north-west Queensland and arid central Australia; [4] continuing investment in indigenous protected areas; [4] plus a new National Reserve System strategy identifying priorities and actions to be taken over the next 20 years. [6]

Cape York Peninsula peninsula in Far North Queensland, Australia

Cape York Peninsula is a large remote peninsula located in Far North Queensland, Australia. It is the largest unspoiled wilderness in northern Australia. The land is mostly flat and about half of the area is used for grazing cattle. The relatively undisturbed eucalyptus-wooded savannahs, tropical rainforests and other types of habitat are now recognized and preserved for their global environmental significance, but native wildlife is threatened by introduced species and weeds. In 1606, Dutch sailor Willem Janszoon on board the Duyfken reached Australia as its first known European explorer, discovering the Cape York Peninsula.

Kimberley (Western Australia) Region in Western Australia

The Kimberley is the northernmost of the nine regions of Western Australia. It is bordered on the west by the Indian Ocean, on the north by the Timor Sea, on the south by the Great Sandy and Tanami Deserts in the region of Pilbara, and on the east by the Northern Territory.

Astrebla genus of plants

Astrebla is a small genus of xerophytic grasses found only in Australia They are the dominant grass across much of the continent. They are commonly known as Mitchell grass after Scottish explorer, Thomas Mitchell, who first collected a specimen near Bourke in New South Wales.

Appraisal

The NRS has been praised by the WWF Australia as a successful, cost-effective conservation measure. [7] CSIRO modelling has concluded that the NRS will be an important conservation tool to combat the effects of climate change in Australia on the environment. [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

Protected areas of Australia

Protected areas of Australia include Commonwealth and off-shore protected areas managed by the Australian government, as well as protected areas within each of the six states of Australia and two self-governing territories, the Australian Capital Territory and the Northern Territory, which are managed by the eight state and territory governments.

Protected areas of South Australia areas protected for conservation in the Australian state of South Australia

Protected areas of South Australia consists of protected areas located within South Australia and its immediate onshore waters and which are managed by South Australian Government agencies. As of March 2018, South Australia contains 359 separate protected areas declared under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972, the Crown Land Management Act 2009 and the Wilderness Protection Act 1992 which have a total land area of 211,387.48 km2 (81,617.16 sq mi) or 21.5% of the state's area.

Hacks Lagoon Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Hacks Lagoon Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in the locality of Bool Lagoon about 24 kilometres south of the municipal seat of Naracoorte.

Tanami Desert desert in Northern Australia

The Tanami Desert is a desert in northern Australia situated in the Northern Territory and Western Australia.

Munga-Thirri—Simpson Desert Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Munga-Thirri—Simpson Desert Conservation Park is a protected area located in the Australian state of South Australia about 970 kilometres (600 mi) north of the state capital of Adelaide and above 215 kilometres (134 mi) north-east of the town of Oodnadatta.

Para Wirra Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Para Wirra Conservation Park is a 1,417-hectare (3,500-acre) protected area located in the foothills of the Mount Lofty Ranges in the northern end of the Adelaide metropolitan area in South Australia. The conservation park is part of a larger, 2,573-hectare (6,360-acre) block of contiguous native vegetation, the remainder of which is owned by PIRSA Forestry, SA Water and private landholders.

Protected areas of Indonesia comprise both terrestrial and marine environments in any of the six IUCN Protected Area categories. There are over 500 protected areas in Indonesia, of which 50 national parks are covering 16.4 million ha, and another 527 nature and game reserves cover further 28.3 million ha. The total protected land area represents over 15% of Indonesia's landmass. Marine Protected Areas comprise over 15.7 million ha representing ca. 5% of territorial waters.

Busby Islet Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Busby Islet Conservation Park is a protected area located on Busby Islet in Nepean Bay on the north coast of Kangaroo Island in South Australia. The conservation park is located about 2 kilometres north of the town of Kingscote and occupies an area of 17 hectares on Busby Islet. It was dedicated in 1967 for 'the conservation of wildlife habitat' replacing previous statutory protection dating back to 1909. A management philosophy for the park published in 1987 supports the need to 'ensure the conservation, in perpetuity, of the natural environment, in particular the breeding habitat for birds of the ocean and seashore'. The conservation park is reported as supporting breeding populations of Australian pelicans, black-faced and pied cormorants, pied and sooty oystercatchers, and silver and Pacific gulls, serving as a roost site for migratory waders and being a place visited by Rock parrots and little grassbirds. The conservation park was declared as a 'no entry' area in October 2014. The conservation park is classified as an IUCN Category Ia protected area.

Nuyts Reef Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Nuyts Reef Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia associated with Nuyts Reef which is located off the state's west coast in the Great Australian Bight about 29 kilometres west south-west of Fowlers Bay.

Olive Island Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Olive Island Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia associated with Olive Island off the west coast of Eyre Peninsula and which is located about 25 kilometres west-northwest of the town of Streaky Bay.

Nicolas Baudin Island Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Nicolas Baudin Island Conservation Park is a protected area associated with Nicolas Baudin Island which is located off Cape Blanche on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula in South Australia about 30 kilometres south of Streaky Bay. The conservation park was proclaimed in 2003 under the National Parks and Wildlife Act 1972 to ‘protect a significant breeding location for the Australian sea lion.’

Lipson Island Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Lipson Island Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia associated with Lipson Island in Spencer Gulf about 12 kilometres north northeast of Lipson.

Mount Dutton Bay Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Mount Dutton Bay Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the west coast of Eyre Peninsula on islands located on waters in the sector between the north west to the east of the town of Coffin Bay.

Adelaide International Bird Sanctuary National Park—Winaityinaityi Pangkara Protected area in South Australia

The Adelaide International Bird Sanctuary National Park—Winaityinaityi Pangkara is a protected area in South Australia established by the South Australian government on the northeast coast of Gulf St Vincent, between Parham in the north and the southern end of Barker Inlet in the south, for the purpose of rehabilitating land used as salt pans, protecting habitat for international migratory shorebirds, managing water quality in adjoining parts of Gulf St Vincent, creation of ‘green’ space, development of niche tourism and creation of opportunities for indigenous people.

Media Island Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Media Island Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located in the Riverland in the gazetted locality of Loxton about 3 kilometres (1.9 mi) north-east of the Loxton town centre.

Rilli Island Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Rilli Island Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the Riverland in the gazetted locality of Loxton North about 6.5 kilometres (4.0 mi) north-east of the Loxton town centre.

Kapunda Island Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Kapunda Island Conservation Park is a protected area in the Australian state of South Australia located on the Riverland in the gazetted locality of Loxton about 1 kilometre (0.62 mi) north-west of the Loxton town centre.

Gower Conservation Park Protected area in South Australia

Gower Conservation Park is a protected area located in the Australian state of South Australia in the locality of Tantanoola about 353 kilometres (219 mi) south-east of the state capital of Adelaide and about 25 kilometres (16 mi) north west of the regional city of Mount Gambier.

References

  1. Tony Burke (6 July 2011). "WWF praise for Australia's natural safety net". Media Release. Commonwealth of Australia. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  2. Australian Government Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts "Caring for Our Country: National Reserve System" webpage. Accessed 2 June 2010
  3. Wearing, Stephen; John Neil (2012). Ecotourism. Routledge. p. 97. ISBN   0750641371 . Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Australian Government Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts "Caring for Our Country: History of the National Reserve System" webpage. Accessed 2 June 2010
  5. Figgis, Penny (2004). Conservation on Private Lands: The Australian Experience. IUCN. p. 9. ISBN   283170779X . Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  6. Australian Government Department of Environment, Water, Heritage and the Arts "Caring for Our Country: Strategy for Australia's National Reserve System 2009-2030" webpage. Accessed 2 June 2010
  7. Victoria Laurie (15 July 2011). "Big success: Australia's protected areas". Australian Geographic. Archived from the original on 30 January 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2013.
  8. "Major changes needed to protect Australia's species and ecosystems". CSIRO. 18 September 2012. Archived from the original on 8 April 2013. Retrieved 3 February 2013.