In the Republic of Ireland, a national school is a type of primary school that is financed directly by the state, but typically administered jointly by the state, a patron body, and local representatives. In national schools, most major policies, such as the curriculum and teacher salaries and conditions, are managed by the state through the Department of Education and Skills. Minor policies of the school are managed by local people, sometimes directed by a member of the clergy, as representative of the patron, through a local 'board of management'.Most primary schools in the Republic of Ireland fall into this category, which is a pre-independence concept.
While there are other forms of primary school in Ireland, including a relatively small number of private denominational schools which do not receive state aid,there were just 34 such private primary schools in 2012, with a combined enrollment of 7,600 pupils. By comparison there were, as of 2019, over 3,200 national schools in Ireland with a combined enrollment of 567,000 pupils.
National schools, established by the United Kingdom of Great Britain and Ireland government with the Stanley Letter in 1831, were originally multi-denominational.The schools were controlled by a state body, the National Board of Education, with a six-member board consisting of two Roman Catholics, two Church of Ireland, and two Presbyterians.
In the national schools, there was strict delimitation between religious and non-religious education, where the teacher had to declare that religious education was beginning, hang a sign on the wall or door indicating that religious education was in process, and remove all religious symbols and objects from sight when religious education finished.[ citation needed ] Also, parents had the right to remove their children from this period of religious education if it conflicted with their religious beliefs. Lastly, schools who failed to abide by these rules or who refused admissions of different faiths to the patron were denied state funding. These rules largely remain in place today, but are not consistently recognised by the state, the patron bodies, or the general public.[ citation needed ][ original research? ]
In the early nineteenth century, in a climate of animosity between the churches, the multi-denominational system was strongly opposed: the established church (Protestant Church of Ireland), though the church of the minority, held a special position and a right to government support in promoting Protestantism.Both the Catholic Church, which was emerging from a period of suppression in Ireland, and the Presbyterians, who had also suffered under the penal laws, had sought state support for schools of their own tradition.
For example, James Doyle (Roman Catholic Bishop of Kildare and Leighlin) was an early proponent, seeking to improve on the informal hedge school system. Doyle spoke before a Parliamentary Committee as follows, "I do not see how any man wishing well to the public peace, and who looks to Ireland as his country, can think that peace can be permanently established, or the prosperity of the country ever well secured, if children are separated at the commencement of life on account of their religious opinions". From a political point of view, Doyle believed that separate schools would endanger the public peace, which was not yet permanent.[ citation needed ] He dealt with the effect of separation on the children themselves by saying "I do not know of any measures that would prepare the way for better feeling in Ireland than uniting children at an early age, and bringing them up in the same school, leading them to commune with one another and to form those little intimacies and friendships which subsist through life. Children thus united know and love each other as children brought up together always will and to separate them is I think, to destroy some of the finest feelings in the hearts of men".[ citation needed ]
In 1831, Edward Stanley (who later became the 14th Earl of Derby), Chief Secretary for Ireland, in a letter to Augustus FitzGerald, 3rd Duke of Leinster, outlined the new state-supported system of primary education (this letter remains today the legal basis of the system).The two legal pillars of the national school system were to be (i) children of all religious denominations to be taught together in the same school, with (ii) separate religious instruction. There was to be no hint of proselytism in this new school system. The new system, initially well supported by the religious denominations, quickly lost support of the Churches. However, the population showed great enthusiasm and flocked to attend these new national schools.
In the second half of the nineteenth century, first the Catholic Church, and later the Protestant churches conceded to the state, and accepted the "all religious denominations together" legal position. Where possible, parents sent their children of a national school under the local management of their particular Church. The result was that by the end of the nineteenth century the system had become increasingly denominational, with individuals choosing to attend schools primarily catering to children of their own religion.However, the legal position de jure , that all national schools are multi-denominational, remains to this day. Although, since the establishment of the Free State consistent pressure has been exerted by the Catholic Church to drop the multi-denominational legal position, this has never been conceded by the state. A report was submitted to government in 1953 showing more than 90% of the schools were attended by only one denomination – that most national schools were de facto denominational. From 1965, changes in the 'Rules for National Schools' allowed for the integration of religious education into the curriculum. Today, following many years of immigration, a majority of national schools cater for more than one religion. Today national schools are both de jure and de facto multi-denominational.
While there is no proscribed naming scheme for national schools, initials (within the name) are sometimes used to describe the type of school it is. For example, 'GNS' (as an abbreviation for Girls' National School) may denote a girl-only single gender school.Similarly, 'BNS' is used as an abbreviation for Boys' National School. 'SN', an abbreviation for the Irish language term Scoil Naisiúnta may sometimes appear before the name of the school (rather than after it).
While national-school teachers would sometimes historically use the post-nominal letters 'N.T.', this is no longer common.
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In secular usage, religious education is the teaching of a particular religion and its varied aspects: its beliefs, doctrines, rituals, customs, rites, and personal roles. In Western and secular culture, religious education implies a type of education which is largely separate from academia, and which (generally) regards religious belief as a fundamental tenet and operating modality, as well as a prerequisite for attendance.
State schools, called public schools in North America and many other countries, are generally primary or secondary schools mandated for or offered to all children without charge, funded in whole or in part by taxation.
The levels of Ireland's education are primary, secondary and higher education. In recent years further education has grown immensely. Growth in the economy since the 1960s has driven much of the change in the education system. For universities there are student service fees, which students are required to pay on registration, to cover examinations, insurance and registration costs.
A parochial school is a private primary or secondary school affiliated with a religious organization, and whose curriculum includes general religious education in addition to secular subjects, such as science, mathematics and language arts. The word "parochial" comes from the same root as "parish", and parochial schools were originally the educational wing of the local parish church. Christian parochial schools are often called "church schools" or "Christian schools". In Ontario, parochial schools are called "separate schools".
A Christian school is a school run on Christian principles or by a Christian organization.
A Sunday school is an educational institution, usually Christian in character. Sunday school classes usually precede a Sunday church service and are used to provide catechesis to Christians, especially children and teenagers, and oftentimes adults as well. Churches of many Christian denominations have classrooms attached to the church used for this purpose. Many Sunday school classes operate on a set curriculum, with some teaching attendees a catechism. Members often receive certificates and awards for participation, as well as attendance. Due to the fact that Sunday school classes precede morning worship on the Lord's Day, many provide a light breakfast, such doughnuts and coffee, except on days in which Holy Communion is being celebrated due to the fact that many Christian denominations encourage fasting before receiving the Eucharistic elements.
Glanmire is a town nine kilometres outside Cork, in the civil parish of Rathcooney, County Cork, Ireland.
Ardee is a town and townland in County Louth, Ireland. It is located at the intersection of the N2, N52, and N33 roads. The town shows evidence of development from the thirteenth century onward but as a result the continued development of the town since then much of the fabric of the medieval town has been removed.
In education in the Republic of Ireland, a voluntary secondary school is a post-primary school that is privately owned and managed. Most are denominational schools, and the managers are often Catholic Church authorities, especially in the case of Catholic schools. Like national schools at primary level, voluntary secondary schools are supported by the Department of Education, on a per capita basis. Approximately 90% of teachers' salaries are met by the state. Some schools charge tuition fees, while many others request top-up funding or voluntary fee contributions from parents. The local community may also be involved in fund raising.
A Catholic school is a parochial school or education ministry of the Catholic Church. As of 2011, the Catholic Church operates the world's largest non-governmental school system. In 2016, the church supported 43,800 secondary schools, and 95,200 primary schools. Catholic schools participate in the evangelizing mission of the Church, integrating religious education as a core subject within their curriculum.
Maher v Town Council of Portland is a Canadian constitutional law court decision dealing with the constitutional guarantees for denominational schools set out in section 93 of the Constitution Act, 1867. The issue was whether the Common Schools Act, enacted by the Province of New Brunswick in 1871, infringed the guarantee of denominational schools set out in section 93(1).
The Elementary Education Act 1870, commonly known as Forster's Education Act, set the framework for schooling of all children between the ages of 5 and 12 in England and Wales. It established local education authorities with defined powers, authorized public money to improve existing schools, and tried to frame conditions attached to this aid so as to earn the goodwill of managers. It was long been seen as a milestone in educational development, but recent commentators have stressed that it brought neither free nor compulsory education, and its importance has thus tended to be diminished rather than increased.
A faith school is a school in the United Kingdom that teaches a general curriculum but which has a particular religious character or formal links with a religious or faith-based organisation. The term is most commonly applied to state-funded faith schools, although many independent schools also have religious characteristics.
Hedge schools were small informal illegal schools, particularly in 18th- and 19th-century Ireland, designed to secretly provide the rudiments of primary education to children of 'non-conforming' faiths. Under the penal laws only schools for those of the Anglican faith were allowed. Instead Catholics and Presbyterians set up highly informal secret operations that met in private homes.
Doon is a village in east County Limerick, Ireland, close to the border of County Tipperary. It is also a civil parish in the historic barony of Coonagh. and is an ecclesiastical parish in the Roman Catholic Archdiocese of Cashel and Emly.
Educate Together is an educational charity in the Republic of Ireland which is the patron body to "equality-based, co-educational, child centred, and democratically run" schools. It was founded in 1984 to act as the patron body for the new multidenominational schools that opened after the establishment of the Dalkey School Project. As of 2019, Educate Together is the patron of 90 national schools in the Republic of Ireland. In 2014 three Educate Together Second Level Schools opened in Dublin 15, Drogheda and Lucan along with the first Educate Together school outside Ireland, in Bristol in the United Kingdom. In joint patronage with Kildare and Wicklow ETB, Educate Together opened another second-level school, Celbridge Community School, in 2015.
The Dalkey School Project is a school in Glenageary, County Dublin in Ireland. It was set up on September 18, 1978 by parents in Dublin who wanted their children to attend a Multidenominational school.
There have been several educational controversies in the Republic of Ireland.
The Stanley letter is the title given to a letter written in 1831 by Edward Stanley, then Chief Secretary for Ireland. This letter outlined his broad vision and a very practical proposal which helped the U.K. Government to establish legal basis for national schools in Ireland. The letter was written two years after the government led by Field Marshal The 1st Duke of Wellington, in alliance with the Daniel O'Connell, secured the passage and Royal Proclamation of the Catholic Emancipation bill. It was penned by the Chief Secretary for Ireland, Edward Stanley and was addressed to the 3rd Duke of Leinster.
Education in the Republic of Ireland is mostly denominational at primary and secondary level. That is to say, most schools are associated with a particular religion or Christian denomination. Denominational schools include most national schools at primary level and most voluntary secondary schools, both of which types are publicly funded by the Department of Education. The school's patron or the chair of the board of management will often be a cleric or religious. The denomination influences the ethos, although in subjects other than religion a standard curriculum is prescribed by the Department of Education for all publicly funded schools. Denominational schools can give priority of admission to pupils of the given denomination but not refuse to admit pupils based on religion.
All National Schools (Number) by County and Year [..] All Counties [..] 2019 [..] 3,241
National School Pupils by School Programme, County, Statistical Indicator and Year [..] All first level school programmes [..] All Counties [..] Pupils in National Schools (Number) [..] 2019 [..] 567,772