|General Secretary||İsmet Büyükataman|
|Founded||9 February 1969|
|Preceded by||Republican Villagers Nation Party|
|Headquarters||Ehlibeyt Mh. Ceyhun Atuf Kansu Cd No:128, 06105 Ankara, Turkey|
|Paramilitary wing||Grey Wolves (unofficial)|
|Ideology|| Turkish ultranationalism |
|Political position|| Right-wing |
|National affiliation||People's Alliance|
|Colours||Red, White (official) |
Ruby red (customary)
|Slogan||Ülkenin Geleceğine Oy Ver ("Vote for the Country's Future")|
|Grand National Assembly|
48 / 600
1 / 30
233 / 1,351
188 / 1,251
2,819 / 20,498
The Nationalist Movement Party (alternatively translated as Nationalist Action Party; Turkish : Milliyetçi Hareket Partisi, MHP) is a Turkish far-right political party that adheres to Turkish ultranationalism and Euroscepticism. The group is often described as neo-fascist, and has been linked to some violent militias and paramilitaries.
The party was formed in 1969 by former Turkish Army colonel Alparslan Türkeş, who had become leader of the Republican Villagers Nation Party (CKMP) in 1965. The party mainly followed a Pan-Turkist and Turkish nationalist political agenda throughout the latter half of the 20th century. Devlet Bahçeli took over after Türkeş's death in 1997. The party's youth wing is the Grey Wolves (Bozkurtlar) organization, which is also known as the "Nationalist Hearths" (Ülkü Ocakları).[ citation needed ] Türkeş, who is widely revered by Turkish nationalists, is commonly referred to as "Chieftain" (Başbuğ) by them.
Alparslan Türkeş founded the party after criticizing the Republican People's Party (CHP) for moving too far away from the nationalist principles of their founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk, claiming that he would not have founded the MHP had the CHP not deviated from Atatürk's ideology.The MHP won enough seats in the 1973 and 1977 general election to take part in two coalition governments led by Justice Party (AP) leader Süleyman Demirel. Türkeş served as the Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey between 1975 and 1977 in what was referred to as the First Nationalist Front government and again between 1977 and 1978 in the Second Nationalist Front. After Türkeş's death and the election of Devlet Bahçeli as his successor, the party won 18% of the vote and 129 seats in the 1999 general election, its best ever result, coming second only to the Democratic Left Party (DSP). Bahçeli subsequently became Deputy Prime Minister after entering a coalition with the DSP and the Motherland Party (ANAP), though his calls for an early election resulted in the government's collapse in 2002. In the 2002 general election, the MHP fell below the 10% election threshold and lost all of its parliamentary representation after the newly formed Justice and Development Party (AKP) won a plurality.
After the 2007 general election, in which the MHP won back its parliamentary representation with 14.27% of the vote and 71 seats, the party has strongly opposed the peace negotiations between the government and the Kurdistan Workers Party and has been fiercely critical of the governing AKP over government corruption and authoritarianism. Nevertheless, the MHP has often been referred to by critics as the "AKP's lifeline", having either openly or covertly helped the AKP in situations such as the 2007 presidential election, repealing the headscarf ban, and the June–July 2015 parliamentary speaker elections.In the 2011 general election, the party's vote fell to 13% and won 53 seats, though increased to 16.3% and 80 seats in the June 2015 general election. Having consistently maintained third-party status in Parliament since 2007, the MHP halved its parliamentary representation to win 40 seats with 11.9% of the vote in the November 2015 general election, becoming the fourth largest party in Parliament behind the Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP). The MHP supported a 'Yes' vote in the 2017 referendum, and formed the People's Alliance electoral pact with the AKP for the 2018 Turkish general election.
In 1965, nationalist politician and ex-Colonel Alparslan Türkeş, who had trained in the United States for NATO, founded the Turkish Gladio Special Warfare Department, gained control of the conservative rural Republican Villagers Nation Party (Turkish : Cumhuriyetçi Köylü Millet Partisi, CKMP). During an Extraordinary Great Congress held at Adana in Turkey on 8–9 February 1969, Türkeş changed the name of the party to the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP).
The MHP embraced Turkish nationalism, and under the leadership of Türkeş, militias connected to the party were responsible for assassinating numerous left-wing intellectuals and academics, including some Kurds, during the 1970s.The leader of the party's youth wing, known as the Grey Wolves after Turkic mythology, claimed that they had an intelligence organization that was superior to the state's own.
On the other hand, MHP had links to the Aydınlar Ocağı (AO; "Hearth of Intellectuals"), a right-wing think tank launched in 1970 by established university professors, which served as a connecting link between secular-conservative, nationalist and Islamic rightists, promoting the ideology of Turkish-Islamic synthesis. AO's ideas, which have been compared to those of the French Nouvelle Droite, had a determining influence on MHP's programmes and served to lend the far-right party a more legitimate, respectable appearance.
On May 27, 1980, the party's deputy leader and former government minister Gün Sazak was assassinated by members of the Marxist–Leninist militant group Revolutionary Left (Turkish : Devrimci Sol or Dev Sol) in front of his home.
When the Turkish army seized power on September 12, 1980, in a violent coup d'état led by General Kenan Evren, the party was banned, along with all other active political parties at the time, and many of its leading members were imprisoned. Many party members joined the neoliberal Anavatan Partisi or various Islamist parties. Party member (Agâh Oktay Güner) noted that the party's ideology was in power while its members were in prison.
The party was reformed in 1983 under the name "Conservative Party" (Turkish : Muhafazakar Parti). After 1985, however, the name was changed to the "Nationalist Task Party" (Turkish : Milliyetçi Çalışma Partisi) then back again to its former name in 1992. In 1993, Muhsin Yazıcıoğlu and five other deputies separated and founded the Great Union Party, which is an Islamist party.
The MHP's view represents the Nine-Light doctrine, based on Turkish nationalism shaped by Islam. The MHP used to be described as a neo-fascist party – at least in public statements – accepted the rules of parliamentary democracy. Some scholars[ who? ] doubt the sincerity and credibility of this turn and suspect the party of still pursuing a neo-fascist agenda behind a more moderate and pro-democratic façade. Nevertheless, MHP's mainstream overture has strongly increased its appeal to voters and it has grown to the country's third-strongest party, continuously represented in the National Assembly since 2007 with voter shares well above the 10% threshold.linked to extremist and violent militias. Since the 1990s it has, under the leadership of Devlet Bahçeli, gradually moderated its programme, turning from ethnic to cultural nationalism and conservatism and stressing the unitary nature of the Turkish state. Notably, it has moved from strict, Kemalist-style secularism to a more pro-Islamic stance, and has
Due to their ideological differences, the MHP is strongly opposed to any form of dialogue with the left-wing Kurdish nationalist Peoples' Democratic Party (HDP), which Devlet Bahçeli has often opposed by voting against in Parliament. A notable example was in the June–July 2015 parliamentary speaker elections, where the MHP declared that they would not support any candidate and cast blank votes after the HDP announced support for the Republican People's Party (CHP) candidate Deniz Baykal. The MHP also ruled out any prospect of a coalition government that receives support from the HDP after the June 2015 general election resulted in a hung parliament, even rejecting CHP leader Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu's offer of Bahçeli becoming Prime Minister in such a coalition.MHP deputy leader Celal Adan claimed that 'even using our party's name in the same sentence as the HDP will be counted as cruelty by us.'
In early September 2015, the MHP and the HDP both voted against the new interim election government ministers from taking their oaths of office, causing speculation of whether the MHP was dropping their harsh stance against the HDP.However, Semih Yalçın downplayed any notions of an alliance between the two parties, stating that "a broken clock will still show the correct time once a day, the HDP can sometimes take a correct decision in Parliament. Showing this as a 'MHP-HDP coalition' is a deliberate diversion." In 2021 Bahçeli has demanded the closure of the HDP in several speeches, a move that is considered un-democratic and authoritarian.
During the June 2015 Turkish general election, the MHP announced a new economic manifesto. The MHP promised to improve the situation of Turkey’s working poor by lifting taxes on diesel and fertiliser, raising the net minimum wage to $518, giving a $37 transportation subsidy to every minimum wage worker, and giving those who cannot afford a house an additional $92 per month in rental aid. The MHP said these policies would allow a minimum wage earner living in a big city to earn as much an extra $646 annually.
The MHP stated that their economic policies would create 700,000 jobs, increase the national income per person to $13.3K, and increase exports to $238 billion while keeping annual growth at 5.2 percent between 2016 and 2019, although this did not occur, as the GDP per capita and standard of living plummeted in Turkey from 12,614 USD in 2014 to 9,126 in 2019.
In July 2015, amidst a wave of protests against the Xinjiang conflict, MHP-affiliated Ülkücü attacked South Korean tourists on Istanbul's Sultanahmet Square.In an interview with Turkish columnist Ahmet Hakan, MHP leader Devlet Bahçeli played the attacks down, stating that "These are young kids. They may have been provoked. Plus, how are you going to differentiate between Korean and Chinese? They both have slanted eyes. Does it really matter?" Bahceli's remarks were widely considered racist, and together with a banner reading "We crave Chinese blood" at the Ülkücü Istanbul headquarters, the affair caused an uproar in both Turkish and international media.
|Portrait||Constituency||Took office||Left office|
|1|| Alparslan Türkeş |
| Ankara (1965)|
Adana (1969, 1973, 1977)
|8 February 1969||4 April 1997|
|–||Muhittin Çolak (acting)||5 April 1997||6 July 1997|
|2|| Devlet Bahçeli |
Osmaniye (1999, 2007, 2011, Jun/Nov 2015)
|6 July 1997||incumbent|
[ third-party source needed ]deputies,
|Election date||Party leader||Number of votes received||Percentage of votes||Number of deputies|
3 / 450
3 / 450
16 / 450
0 / 550
129 / 550
0 / 550
71 / 550
53 / 550
|June 2015||Devlet Bahçeli||7,516,480||16.29%|
80 / 550
|November 2015||Devlet Bahçeli||5,599,600||11.90%|
40 / 550
49 / 600
|Election date||Party leader||Number of votes received||Percentage of votes||Number of senators|
0 / 52
0 / 54
0 / 50
1 / 50
|Election date||Party leader||Provincial council votes||Percentage of votes||Number of municipalities|
The Grey Wolves, officially known as Idealist Hearths, is a Turkish far-right organization and movement affiliated with the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). Commonly described as ultranationalistic, Islamistic and neo-fascist, it is a youth organization that has been characterized as MHP's paramilitary or militant wing. Its members deny its political nature and claim it to be a cultural and educational foundation, as per its full official name: Ülkü Ocakları Eğitim ve Kültür Vakfı.
Alparslan Türkeş was a Turkish politician, who was the founder and president of the Nationalist Movement Party. He represented the far-right of the Turkish political spectrum. He was and still is called Başbuğ ("Leader") by his devotees.
Devlet Bahçeli is a Turkish politician, economist, former Deputy Prime Minister, and chairman of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). He has been the leader of the MHP since the death of its founder Alparslan Türkeş in July 1997.
The Turkish general election of June 2015 took place on 7 June 2015 in all 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly. This was the 24th general election in the history of the Turkish Republic, electing the country's 25th Parliament. The result was the first hung parliament since the 1999 general election. Unsuccessful attempts to form a coalition government resulted in a snap general election being called for November 2015.
The Anatolia Party was a political party in Turkey led by Emine Ülker Tarhan. It was founded on 14 November 2014 following Tarhan's resignation from the Republican People's Party (CHP) due to disillusionment with the leadership of Kemal Kılıçdaroğlu. Its logo is composed of a rising sun with a sunflower, representing Anatolia and Thrace respectively. The party's name was subject to a legal complaint by former MP Yılmaz Hastürk, who claimed that the political parties law in Turkey forbade party names to refer to geographic regions, though a former party was named Great Anatolia Party without facing legal problems.
The 1997 Nationalist Movement Party Extraordinary Congress referred to two party conventions held by the Nationalist Movement Party, a far-right ultranationalist political party in Turkey, following the death of their first leader Alparslan Türkeş. The first congress was held on 18 May 1997, where six candidates ran for the party leadership. Türkeş's eldest son, Tuğrul Türkeş emerged with a plurality of the vote while Devlet Bahçeli came second. The remaining candidates subsequently withdrew in support for Bahçeli, resulting in violence breaking out between party members supporting rival candidates. The second round was subsequently delayed until 6 July.
The Turkish general election of November 2015 was held on 1 November 2015 throughout the 85 electoral districts of Turkey to elect 550 members to the Grand National Assembly. It was the 25th general election in the History of the Republic of Turkey and elected the country's 26th Parliament. The election resulted in the Justice and Development Party (AKP) regaining a Parliamentary majority following a 'shock' victory, having lost it five months earlier in the June 2015 general election.
The June–July 2015 Turkish Parliament Speaker Elections were held on June 30 and July 1 in order to elect the next Speaker of the Grand National Assembly of Turkey. The election took place due to the election of a new parliament in the 7 June 2015 general election. Outgoing speaker of the 24th Parliament, AKP member Cemil Çiçek, was ineligible to stand as he stood down as an MP at the general election.
The 11th Nationalist Movement Party Ordinary Congress was a political party convention held by the Turkish right-wing Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) on 21 March 2015. The Congress resulted in the re-election of Devlet Bahçeli as party leader, with rivals failing to obtain enough signatures to contest the leadership election.
The 2015 interim election government of Turkey was a temporary election government formed by Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu on the request of President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan. It is also referred to as the Second Davutoğlu Cabinet. As the 63rd government of Turkey, the cabinet presided over the November 2015 general election and dissolved after a new government is formed after the election. It is the first such government to take office in the history of the Turkish Republic.
Yıldırım Tuğrul Türkeş is a Turkish economist and politician, who served as Deputy Prime Minister of Turkey from 28 August 2015 to 19 July 2017. He first joined the interim election government formed by Prime Minister Ahmet Davutoğlu on 28 August 2015 as a Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) politician. He later defected to the Justice and Development Party (AKP) and was elected as an MP as an AKP candidate in the November 2015 general election, continuing to serve as Deputy Prime Minister in the subsequent AKP majority government. He has been a Member of Parliament for Ankara's first electoral district since the 2007 general election and is the eldest son of the MHP's founder Alparslan Türkeş. He is the former leader of the Bright Turkey Party (ATP), which he led from 1997 to 2002.
The Nationalist Movement Party election campaign of June 2015 was the official election campaign of the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP) for the June 2015 general election in Turkey. The campaign was led by Devlet Bahçeli, who was contesting his fifth successive general election since being elected party leader in 1997.
The 2016 Nationalist Movement Party Extraordinary Congresses referred to two party conventions of the Turkish Nationalist Movement Party (MHP), the first of which was held on 19 June 2016, in order to vote on proposed changes to the MHP party constitution and elect a new leader. The congress was initially intended to be held on 15 May 2016 after enough delegates submitted the required signatures, however it was delayed after judiciary conflicts between different courts. After the final decision by Court of Cassation allowing the congress to go ahead, the party executive announced that an extraordinary congress with a leadership election would be held on 10 July while the invitation committee formed by the court declared that the constitutional extraordinary congress would occur on 19 June 2016. Although the MHP executive declared the congress to be against the MHP constitution and legally flawed, the first Congress was held as planned by the inner-party opposition, with a unanimous vote to change the constitution being achieved. The second congress was delayed after judiciary intervention requested by MHP officials, along with a formal request from the Supreme Electoral Council (YSK). The congress was eventually not held, prompting the dissidents to resign and join forces under a new party, namely the İYİ Party.
The Turkish local elections of 2019 were held on Sunday 31 March 2019 throughout the 81 provinces of Turkey. A total of 30 metropolitan and 1,351 district municipal mayors, alongside 1,251 provincial and 20,500 municipal councillors were elected, in addition to numerous local non-partisan positions such as neighbourhood wardens (muhtars) and elderly people's councils.
A constitutional referendum was held throughout Turkey on 16 April 2017 on whether to approve 18 proposed amendments to the Turkish constitution that were brought forward by the governing Justice and Development Party (AKP) and the Nationalist Movement Party (MHP). As a result of its approval, the office of the Prime Minister was abolished and the existing parliamentary system of government was replaced with an executive presidency and a presidential system. The number of seats in Parliament was raised from 550 to 600, while, among a series of other proposals, the president was given more control over appointments to the Supreme Board of Judges and Prosecutors (HSYK). The referendum was held under a state of emergency that was declared following a failed military coup attempt in July 2016.
The 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum 'Yes' campaign refers to a campaign headed by numerous political parties, non-governmental organisations, individuals and media outlets in favour of a 'Yes' vote in the 2017 Turkish constitutional referendum. If successful, the 'Yes' campaign will transform Turkey from a parliamentary republic into an executive presidency. The 'Yes' campaign is rivalled primarily by parties and organisations that lead a 'No' campaign'. Neither campaign has a united or centralised campaign structure, with rallies and campaign events being largely organised by political parties independently of each other.
The Good Party, is a nationalist, Kemalist and secularist political party in Turkey which aims to overcome social injustice by forming a well functioning social state. Established on 25 October 2017 by its current leader Meral Akşener, the party adheres to the principles and ideals of Turkey's founder Mustafa Kemal Atatürk. Their fraternal party is the liberal-conservative Democrat Party. The party's flag is a reference to Emblem of Kayı Tribe.
The 2018 Turkish presidential election took place on 24 June 2018 as part of the 2018 general election, alongside parliamentary elections on the same day. Following the approval of constitutional changes in a referendum held in 2017, the elected President will be both the head of state and head of government of Turkey, taking over the latter role from the to-be-abolished office of the Prime Minister.
The 2018 Turkish parliamentary election took place on 24 June 2018 as part of the 2018 Turkish general election, with a presidential election taking place on the same day. Originally scheduled for 3 November 2019, President Recep Tayyip Erdoğan called a snap election on 18 April after months of speculation. With the passage of a series of constitutional amendments in the 2017 referendum, the number of MPs will be increased from the previous 550 to 600. These representatives will be elected by the constituents of the 87 electoral districts of Turkey by party-list proportional representation.
Multiple political parties in Turkey underwent candidate selection processes in the run-up to the 2018 presidential election. Parties represented in the Grand National Assembly were able to field candidates directly by collecting signatures from at least 20 of their Members of Parliament, as were parties who had no representation but won more than 5% in the previous general election. Candidates that did not meet either criterion were required to obtain over 100,000 signatures from Turkish citizens between 4 and 9 May.
..the nationalist-fascist Turkish National Movement Party (MHP).
...the fascist Nationalist Movement Party...
MHP lideri Türkeş, Ülkü Ocaklarını meşru müdafaa yaptığını söyler. Ülkü Ocakları Genel Başkanı da, 'bizim istihbarat örgütümüz devletin örgütünden güçlüdür' demektedir.Quoted in "Susurluk'ta bütün yollar, devlete uğrayarak CIA'ya çıkar". Kurtuluş Yolu (in Turkish). 4 (39). 2008-09-19. Archived from the original on 2009-05-19. Retrieved 2008-11-04.
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