In New Zealand, native schools were established to provide education for Māori. The first schools for Māori children were established by the Church Missionary Society (CMS) in the Bay of Islands after the arrival of the CMS in 1814. Bishop Pompallier arrived in 1838. Priests and brothers of the Marist order, established schools for the Māori throughout the country, including Hato Paora College (Feilding) and Hato Petera College (Auckland). St Joseph's Māori Girls' College (Taradale) was founded by the Sisters of Our Lady of the Missions.
The Native Schools Act 1867 established a national system of village primary schools under the control of the Native Department. As part of the Government's policy to assimilate Māori into Pākehā society, instruction was to be conducted entirely in English where practical. Under the Act, it was the responsibility of Māori communities to request a school for their children, form a school committee, supply land for the school and, until 1871, pay for half of the building costs and a quarter of the teacher's salary. Despite this, many communities were keen for their children to learn English as a second language and by 1879 there were 57 Native Schools. In 1880 the first inspector of native schools was appointed and issued a Native Schools Code that prescribed a curriculum, established qualifications for teachers, and standardised operation for the Māori schools.
The CMS founded its first mission at Rangihoua in the Bay of Islands in 1814 and over the next decade established schools in the Bay of Islands. The education of Māori children and adults was advanced with the arrival of the Revd. Henry Williams and his wife Marianne in 1823.In 1826 Henry's brother, the Revd. William, and his wife Jane joined the CMS mission and settled at Paihia in the Bay of Islands, where schools were established. Richard Taylor, was appointed as head of the CMS school at Te Waimate mission in 1839 and remained there until 1842.
Schools for Māori children and adults were established in locations where the CMS established mission stations. For example, the Revd. William Williams and his family arrived at Tūranga, Poverty Bay on 20 January 1840.The schools run by William and Jane Williams were well attended, the school opened with five classes for men, two classes for women and classes for boys. Classes covered practical knowledge as well as the teaching of the scriptures.
Until the 1860s, the government subsidised church schools for Māori. Early missionary schools were often conducted in the Māori language, which was the predominant language throughout the early part of the 19th century. By the 1860s, three-quarters of the Māori population could read in Māori and two-thirds could write in Māori. The Education Ordinance of 1847 provided funding for mission schools and required them to conduct classes in English in order to receive subsidies.
The New Zealand Wars forced the closure of many of the mission schools.However, Te Aute College and Hukarere Girls' College in Hawkes Bay, which were established by the CMS, were not impacted by the wars. Schools for Māori children that followed the Roman Catholic tradition, including Hato Paora College (Feilding); and St Joseph's Māori Girls' College (Taradale), were also not impacted by the wars.
The Native Schools Act of 1867 was a major shift in policy. Rather than helping churches to rebuild mission schools after the wars, the government offered secular, state-controlled, primary schools to Māori communities who petitioned for them. In return for providing a suitable site, the government provided a school, teacher, books, and materials.Native school teachers frequently also provided medicines and medical advice to their pupils and their families, and acted as liaison between rural communities and the government. The Act required that instruction be carried out in English where practicable. While there was no official policy banning children from speaking Te Reo Māori, Māori children were often physically punished for speaking their native tongue at school. This practice, which persisted for decades after the act was introduced in the mid 19th century, contributed to the massive decline in Te Reo Māori.
James Henry Pope (1837–1913) was appointed the organising inspector of native schools in January 1880 and he issued a Native Schools Code later in 1880 that prescribed a curriculum, established qualifications for teachers, and standardised operation for the native schools. The primary mission was to assimilate Māori into European culture. Māori could attend board of education schools and non-Māori could attend native schools, although the primary purpose of the native schools was providing European education for Māori. Throughout the 20th century the number of native schools decreased and Māori increasingly attended board of education schools.
In the late 1800s, George Hogben, Director of Education, implemented the policy of removing academic subjects, such as Latin, Euclidian geometry and algebra, which were subjects that were part of the matriculation programme for entry to a university, and focused the curriculum of native schools on agricultural and technical instruction and domestic skills.It was pointed out that there was nothing to stop a Māori from learning classics, maths and algebra (for example) at a regular public school. Regarding Te Aute College, there was a recommendation in 1906 that "having regard to the circumstances of the Māoris as owners of considerable areas of suitable agricultural and pastoral land, it is necessary to give prominence in the curriculum to manual and technical instruction in agriculture. This view was supported by Māori politicians. William Bird, Inspector of Native Schools, expressed the opinion that the objective of Māori education should be to prepare pupils for life among Māori where they could take the skills they had learned to improve the lives of people in their home villages.
The native schools remained distinct from other New Zealand schools until 1969, when the last 108 native schools were transferred to the control of education boards.
Te Aute College is a school in the Hawke's Bay region of New Zealand. It opened in 1854 with twelve pupils under Samuel Williams, an Anglican missionary, and nephew and son-in-law of Bishop William Williams. It has a strong Māori character.
George Augustus Selwyn was the first Anglican Bishop of New Zealand. He was Bishop of New Zealand from 1841 to 1869. His diocese was then subdivided and Selwyn was Metropolitan of New Zealand from 1858 to 1868. Returning to Britain, Selwyn served as Bishop of Lichfield from 1868 to 1878.
Henry Williams was the leader of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) mission in New Zealand in the first half of the 19th century.
Te Waimate Mission was the fourth mission station established in New Zealand and the first settlement inland from the Bay of Islands. The members of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) appointed to establish Te (the) Waimate Mission at Waimate North were the Rev. William Yate and lay members Richard Davis, George Clarke and James Hamlin.
Octavius Hadfield was Archdeacon of Kapiti, Bishop of Wellington from 1870 to 1893 and Primate of New Zealand from 1890 to 1893. He was a member of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) for thirty years. He was recognised as an authority on Māori customs and language. His views on Māori rights, expressed in several books strongly criticised the actions of the New Zealand Government. Hadfield married Catherine (Kate) Williams a daughter of the Rev. Henry Williams and Marianne Williams.
Elizabeth Fairburn Colenso was a missionary, teacher and Bible translator in New Zealand.
William Leonard Williams (1829–1916) was an Anglican Bishop of Waiapu. He was regarded as an eminent scholar of the Māori language. His father, William Williams, was the first Bishop of Waiapu, Williams was the third bishop, and his son, Herbert Williams, was the sixth bishop of Waiapu.
William Williams was consecrated as the first Anglican Bishop of Waiapu, New Zealand, on 3 April 1859 by the General Synod at Wellington. His son, Leonard Williams became the third Bishop of Waiapu and his grandson, Herbert Williams, the sixth. His brother, the Rev. Henry Williams, led the Church Missionary Society (CMS) mission in New Zealand. William Williams led the CMS missionaries in translating the Bible into Māori and published an early dictionary and grammar of the Māori language.
Marianne Williams, together with her sister-in-law Jane Williams, was a pioneering educator in New Zealand. They established schools for Māori children and adults as well as educating the children of the Church Missionary Society (CMS) in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand. The Māori women called her Mata Wiremu.
Jane Williams, born Jane Nelson, was a pioneering educator in New Zealand. Together with her sister-in-law Marianne Williams she established schools for Māori children and adults. She also educated the children of the Church Missionary Society in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
Rota Waitoa was a New Zealand Anglican clergyman, of Māori descent. Waitoa identified with the Ngati Raukawa iwi. He was born in Waitoa, Waikato, New Zealand. Waitoa's ordination as deacon at St Paul's, Auckland, on 22 May 1853, was the first ordination of a Māori into the Anglican church.
Robert Maunsell was a New Zealand missionary, linguist and translator. He was born in Milford, near Limerick, Ireland on 24 October 1810.
George Clarke was a New Zealand missionary, teacher, public servant, politician and judge. He was born in Wymondham, Norfolk, England on 27 January 1798. He joined the Church Missionary Society (CMS). Clarke married Martha Elizabeth Blomfield. the second daughter of Ezekiel Blomfield, a Congregational minister.
Samuel Williams was a New Zealand missionary, educationalist, farmer and pastoralist.
Edward Marsh Williams was a missionary, interpreter, and judge who played a significant role in the British colonisation of New Zealand. He was born in Hampstead, London, the eldest son of Archdeacon Henry Williams and Marianne Williams.
The New Zealand Church Missionary Society is a mission society working within the Anglican Communion and Protestant, Evangelical Anglicanism. The parent organisation was founded in England in 1799. The Church Missionary Society (CMS) sent missionaries to settle in New Zealand. The Rev. Samuel Marsden, the Society's Agent and the Senior Chaplain to the New South Wales government, officiated at its first service on Christmas Day in 1814, at Oihi Bay in the Bay of Islands, New Zealand.
James Stack was a Wesleyan Methodist missionary at Kaeo, New Zealand in the 19th century. He later became an Anglican missionary and a member of the Church Missionary Society (CMS). In 1837 he experienced the Wesleydale Methodist Mission being ransacked by warriors of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe). In the late 1830s he worked with other CMS missionaries in Te Papa Mission at Tauranga, after a war party lead by Te Waharoa, the leader of the Ngāti Hauā, attacked neighbouring tribes in Rotorua and Tauranga. He later worked with William Williams in the mission to the Māori of the Gisborne District.
Piripi Kingi Karawai Patiki was a teacher and missionary, who was blind. Of Māori descent, he was a rangatira (chief) of the Ngāpuhi iwi (tribe). He was born near Titoki in the Mangakahia Valley, Northland, New Zealand. Sir William Martin, the first chief justice of New Zealand, said of Piripi Patiki that he resembled the well-known bust of Socrates.
Tamihana Huata (c1821–1908) was a notable New Zealand teacher and missionary. Of Māori descent, he identified with the Ngāti Mihi and Ngati Kahungunu iwi (tribe). He was born in Frasertown, near Wairoa, Hawkes Bay.
Matiaha Pahewa (1818–1906) was a teacher and missionary. Of Māori descent, he identified with the Ngāti Porou iwi (tribe). He was born in Tokomaru Bay, East Coast, New Zealand. He was the son of Hone Te Pahewa and Te Pakou o Hinekau.