Nativity scene

Last updated
Neapolitan presepio at the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh Carnegie Presepio.JPG
Neapolitan presepio at the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh
Detail of an elaborate Neapolitan presepio in Rome Presepe naples rome2.jpg
Detail of an elaborate Neapolitan presepio in Rome

In the Christian tradition, a nativity scene (also known as a manger scene, crib, crèche ( /krɛʃ/ or /krʃ/ , or in Italian presepio or presepe) is the special exhibition, particularly during the Christmas season, of art objects representing the birth of Jesus. [1] While the term "nativity scene" may be used of any representation of the very common subject of the Nativity of Jesus in art, it has a more specialized sense referring to seasonal displays, either using model figures in a setting or reenactments called "living nativity scenes" ( tableau vivant ) in which real humans and animals participate. Nativity scenes exhibit figures representing the infant Jesus, his mother, Mary, and her husband, Joseph.

Christianity is an Abrahamic monotheistic religion based on the life and teachings of Jesus of Nazareth. Its adherents, known as Christians, believe that Jesus is the Christ, the Son of God, and the savior of all people, whose coming as the Messiah was prophesied in the Hebrew Bible, called the Old Testament in Christianity, and chronicled in the New Testament. It is the world's largest religion with about 2.4 billion followers.

Italian language Romance language

Italian is a Romance language of the Indo-European language family. Italian descended from the Vulgar Latin of the Roman Empire and, together with Sardinian, is by most measures the closest language to it of the Romance languages. Italian is an official language in Italy, Switzerland, San Marino and Vatican City. It has an official minority status in western Istria. It formerly had official status in Albania, Malta, Monaco, Montenegro (Kotor) and Greece, and is generally understood in Corsica and Savoie. It also used to be an official language in the former Italian East Africa and Italian North Africa, where it still plays a significant role in various sectors. Italian is also spoken by large expatriate communities in the Americas and Australia. Italian is included under the languages covered by the European Charter for Regional or Minority languages in Bosnia and Herzegovina and in Romania, although Italian is neither a co-official nor a protected language in these countries. Many speakers of Italian are native bilinguals of both Italian and other regional languages.

Nativity of Jesus Birth of Jesus

The nativity of Jesus or birth of Jesus is described in the gospels of Luke and Matthew. The two accounts differ, but agree that Jesus was born in Bethlehem in Judea during the reign of King Herod the Great, his mother Mary was married to a man named Joseph, who was descended from King David and was not his biological father, and that his birth was caused by divine intervention.


Other characters from the nativity story, such as shepherds, sheep, and angels may be displayed near the manger in a barn (or cave) intended to accommodate farm animals, as described in the Gospel of Luke. A donkey and an ox are typically depicted in the scene, and the Magi and their camels, described in the Gospel of Matthew, are also included. Several cultures add other characters and objects that may or may not be Biblical.

Manger structure used to hold food to feed animals

A manger, is a rack for fodder, or a structure or feeder used to hold food for animals. The word comes from the French manger, from Latin mandere.

Gospel of Luke Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Luke, also called the Gospel of Luke, or simply Luke, is the third of the four canonical Gospels. It tells of the origins, birth, ministry, death, resurrection, and ascension of Jesus Christ.

Donkey El burrito de sheck

The donkey or ass is a domesticated member of the horse family, Equidae. The wild ancestor of the donkey is the African wild ass, E. africanus. The donkey has been used as a working animal for at least 5000 years. There are more than 40 million donkeys in the world, mostly in underdeveloped countries, where they are used principally as draught or pack animals. Working donkeys are often associated with those living at or below subsistence levels. Small numbers of donkeys are kept for breeding or as pets in developed countries.

Saint Francis of Assisi is credited with creating the first live nativity scene in 1223 in order to cultivate the worship of Christ. He himself had recently been inspired by his visit to the Holy Land, where he'd been shown Jesus's traditional birthplace. The scene's popularity inspired communities throughout Catholic countries to stage similar pantomimes.

Distinctive nativity scenes and traditions have been created around the world, and are displayed during the Christmas season in churches, homes, shopping malls, and other venues, and occasionally on public lands and in public buildings. Nativity scenes have not escaped controversy, and in the United States of America their inclusion on public lands or in public buildings has provoked court challenges.

Church (building) Building used for Christian religious activities

A church building or church house, often simply called a church, is a building used for Christian religious activities, particularly for Christian worship services. The term is often used by Christians to refer to the physical buildings where they worship, but it is sometimes used to refer to buildings of other religions. In traditional Christian architecture, a church interior is often structured in the shape of a Christian cross. When viewed from plan view the vertical beam of the cross is represented by the center aisle and seating while the horizontal beam and junction of the cross is formed by the bema and altar.

Shopping mall Complex of shops with interconnecting walkways

A shopping mall is a modern, chiefly North American, term for a form of shopping precinct or shopping center in which one or more buildings form a complex of shops with interconnecting walkways, usually indoors. In 2017, shopping malls accounted for 8% of retailing space in the United States.

Birth of Jesus

Neapolitan presepe of Maiori Maiori Presepe Giardini Mezzacapo 2004 038.JPG
Neapolitan presepe of Maiori
German paper nativity scene, 1885 Papierkrippenberg Trebitsch 1885.JPG
German paper nativity scene, 1885
At Church and College of Sao Lourenco or Church of the Crickets or Major Seminary of the Cathedral of Porto, Portugal, 2007 Se-Igreja de S. Lourenco - Presepio.jpg
At Church and College of São Lourenço or Church of the Crickets or Major Seminary of the Cathedral of Porto, Portugal, 2007

A nativity scene takes its from the accounts of the birth of Jesus in the Gospels of Matthew and Luke. [2] [3] Luke's narrative describes an angel announcing the birth of Jesus to shepherds who then visit the humble site where Jesus is found lying in a manger, a trough for cattle feed.( Luke 2:8-20 ) Matthew's narrative tells of "wise men" (Greek : μαγοι, romanized: magoi ) who follow a star to the house where Jesus dwelt, and indicates that the Magi found Jesus some time later, less than two years after his birth, rather than on the exact day.( Mat.2:1-23 ) Matthew's account does not mention the angels and shepherds, while Luke's narrative is silent on the Magi and the star. The Magi and the angels are often displayed in a nativity scene with the Holy Family and the shepherds although there is no scriptural basis for their presence.( Luke 2:7;2:12;2:17 )

Gospel of Matthew Book of the New Testament

The Gospel According to Matthew is the first book of the New Testament and one of the three synoptic gospels. It tells how the promised Messiah, Jesus, rejected by Israel, is killed, is raised from the dead, and finally sends the disciples to preach the gospel to the whole world. Most scholars believe it was composed between AD 80 and 90, with a range of possibility between AD 70 to 110. The anonymous author was probably a male Jew, standing on the margin between traditional and non-traditional Jewish values, and familiar with technical legal aspects of scripture being debated in his time. Writing in a polished Semitic "synagogue Greek", he drew on the Gospel of Mark as a source, and likely used a hypothetical collection of sayings known as the Q source, although the existence of Q has been questioned by some scholars. He also used material unique to his own community, called the M source or "Special Matthew".

Greek language Language spoken in Greece, Cyprus and Southern Albania

Greek is an independent branch of the Indo-European family of languages, native to Greece, Cyprus and other parts of the Eastern Mediterranean and the Black Sea. It has the longest documented history of any living Indo-European language, spanning more than 3000 years of written records. Its writing system has been the Greek alphabet for the major part of its history; other systems, such as Linear B and the Cypriot syllabary, were used previously. The alphabet arose from the Phoenician script and was in turn the basis of the Latin, Cyrillic, Armenian, Coptic, Gothic, and many other writing systems.

Romanization of Greek is the transliteration (letter-mapping) or transcription (sound-mapping) of text from the Greek alphabet into the Latin alphabet. The conventions for writing and romanizing Ancient Greek and Modern Greek differ markedly, which can create confusion. The sound of the English letter B was written as β in ancient Greek but is now written as the digraph μπ, while the modern β sounds like the English letter V instead. The Greek name Ἰωάννης became Johannes in Latin and then John in English, but in Greek itself has instead become Γιάννης; this might be written as Yannis, Jani, Ioannis, Yiannis, or Giannis, but not Giannes or Giannēs as it would have been in ancient Greek. The masculine Greek word Ἅγιος or Άγιος might variously appear as Hagiοs, Agios, Aghios, or Ayios, or simply be translated as "Holy" or "Saint" in English forms of Greek placenames.

Origins and early history

St. Francis at Greccio by Giotto Giotto - Legend of St Francis - -13- - Institution of the Crib at Greccio.jpg
St. Francis at Greccio by Giotto

Saint Francis of Assisi is credited with creating the first nativity scene [4] [5] [6] in 1223 at Greccio, central Italy, [4] [7] in an attempt to place the emphasis of Christmas upon the worship of Christ rather than upon secular materialism and gift giving. [8] [9] The nativity scene created by Francis is described by Saint Bonaventure in his Life of Saint Francis of Assisi written around 1260. [10] Staged in a cave near Greccio, Saint Francis' nativity scene was a living one [4] with humans and animals cast in the Biblical roles. [11] Pope Honorius III gave his blessing to the exhibit. [12]

Assisi Comune in Umbria, Italy

Assisi is a town and comune of Italy in the Province of Perugia in the Umbria region, on the western flank of Monte Subasio.

Greccio Comune in Lazio, Italy

Greccio is an old hilltown and comune of the province of Rieti in the Italian region of Lazio, overhanging the Rieti valley on a spur of the Monti Sabini, a sub-range of the Apennines, about 16 kilometres by road northwest of Rieti, the nearest large town.

Pope Honorius III pope

Pope Honorius III, born as Cencio Savelli, was head of the Catholic Church and ruler of the Papal States from 18 July 1216 to his death in 1227.

Such reenactment pantomimes became hugely popular and spread throughout Christendom. [11] Within a hundred years every church in Italy was expected to have a nativity scene at Christmastime. [7] Eventually, statues replaced human and animal participants, and static scenes grew to elaborate affairs with richly robed figurines placed in intricate landscape settings. [11] Charles III, King of the Two Sicilies, collected such elaborate scenes, and his enthusiasm encouraged others to do the same. [7]

The scene's popularity inspired much imitation in Catholic countries, and in the Early modern period sculpted cribs, often exported from Italy, were set up in Catholic churches and homes. These elaborate scenes reached their artistic apogee in the Papal state, in Emilia, in the Kingdom of Naples and in Genoa. By the end of the 19th century nativity scenes became popular beyond Catholic settings, and many versions in various sizes and made of various materials, such as terracotta, paper, wood, wax, and ivory, were marketed, often with a backdrop setting of a stable.

Different traditions of nativity scenes emerged in different countries. Hand-painted santons are popular in Provence. In southern Germany, Austria and Trentino-Alto Adige the wood figurines are handcut. Colorful szopka are typical in Poland.

A tradition in England involved baking a mince pie in the shape of a manger which would hold the Christ child until dinnertime, when the pie was eaten. When the Puritans banned Christmas celebrations in the 17th century, they also passed specific legislation to outlaw such pies, calling them "Idolaterie in crust". [7]

Distinctive nativity scenes and traditions have been created around the world and are displayed during the Christmas season in churches, homes, shopping malls, and other venues, and occasionally on public lands and in public buildings. The Vatican has displayed a scene in St. Peter's Square near its Christmas tree since 1982 and the Pope has for many years blessed the mangers of children assembled in St. Peter's Square for a special ceremony.[ citation needed ] In the United States, the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City annually displays a Neapolitan Baroque nativity scene before a 20 feet (6.1 m) blue spruce. [13]

Nativity scenes have not escaped controversy. A life-sized scene in the United Kingdom featuring waxworks celebrities provoked outrage in 2004, [14] and, in Spain, a city council forbade the exhibition of a traditional toilet humor character [15] in a public nativity scene. People for the Ethical Treatment of Animals (PETA) indicates that animals in living displays lack proper care and suffer abuse. [16] In the United States, nativity scenes on public lands and in public buildings have provoked court challenges, and the prankish theft of ceramic or plastic nativity figurines from outdoor displays has become commonplace. [17]


Static nativity scenes

Exhibition of several nativity scenes Kresh expo 1.JPG
Exhibition of several nativity scenes

Static nativity scenes may be erected indoors or outdoors during the Christmas season, and are composed of figurines depicting the infant Jesus resting in a manger, Mary, and Joseph. Other figures in the scene may include angels, shepherds, and various animals. The figures may be made of any material, [4] and arranged in a stable or grotto. The Magi may also appear, and are sometimes not placed in the scene until the week following Christmas to account for their travel time to Bethlehem. [18] While most home nativity scenes are packed away at Christmas or shortly thereafter, nativity scenes in churches usually remain on display until the feast of the Baptism of the Lord. [4]

Outdoor nativity scene of life-sized figurines in Barcelona (2009) BarcelonaNativityScene.jpg
Outdoor nativity scene of life-sized figurines in Barcelona (2009)

The nativity scene may not accurately reflect gospel events. With no basis in the gospels, for example, the shepherds, the Magi, and the ox and ass may be displayed together at the manger. The art form can be traced back to eighteenth-century Naples, Italy. Neapolitan nativity scenes do not represent Palestine at the time of Jesus but the life of the Naples of 1700, during the Bourbon period. Families competed with each other to produce the most elegant and elaborate scenes and so, next to the Child Jesus, to the Holy Family and the shepherds, were placed ladies and gentlemen of the nobility, representatives of the bourgeoisie of the time, vendors with their banks and miniatures of cheese, bread, sheep, pigs, ducks or geese, and typical figures of the time like gypsy predicting the future, people playing cards, housewives doing shopping, dogs, cats and chickens. [19]

Peruvian crucifix with nativity scene at its base, c.1960 Peru Crucifix with Christmas scene c1960.jpg
Peruvian crucifix with nativity scene at its base, c.1960

Regional variants on the standard nativity scene are many. The putz of Pennsylvania Dutch Americans evolved into elaborate decorative Christmas villages in the twentieth century. In Colombia, the pesebre may feature a town and its surrounding countryside with shepherds and animals. Mary and Joseph are often depicted as rural Boyacá people with Mary clad in a countrywoman's shawl and fedora hat, and Joseph garbed in a poncho. The infant Jesus is depicted as European with Italianate features. Visitors bringing gifts to the Christ child are depicted as Colombian natives. [20] After World War I, large, lighted manger scenes in churches and public buildings grew in popularity, and, by the 1950s, many companies were selling lawn ornaments of non-fading, long-lasting, weather resistant materials telling the nativity story. [21]

Living nativity scenes

Living nativity in Sicily, which also contains a mock rural 19th-century village Sicilian artigiana 2.jpg
Living nativity in Sicily, which also contains a mock rural 19th-century village
Living nativity in Bascara Erabascara.jpg
Living nativity in Bascara

Pantomimes similar to the scene staged by St. Francis at Greccio became an annual event throughout Christendom [22] . Abuses and exaggerations in the presentation of mystery plays during the Middle Ages, however, forced the church to prohibit performances during the 15th century. [4] The plays survived outside church walls, and 300 years after the prohibition, German immigrants brought simple forms of the nativity play to America. Some features of the dramas became part of both Catholic and Protestant Christmas services with children often taking the parts of characters in the nativity story. Nativity plays and pageants, culminating in living nativity scenes, eventually entered public schools. Such exhibitions have been challenged on the grounds of separation of church and state. [4]

In some countries, the nativity scene took to the streets with human performers costumed as Joseph and Mary traveling from house to house seeking shelter and being told by the houses' occupants to move on. The couple's journey culminated in an outdoor tableau vivant at a designated place with the shepherds and the Magi then traveling the streets in parade fashion looking for the Christ child. [21]

Living nativity scenes are not without their problems. In the United States in 2008, for example, vandals destroyed all eight scenes and backdrops at a drive-through living nativity scene in Georgia. About 120 of the church's 500 members were involved in the construction of the scenes or playing roles in the production. The damage was estimated at more than US$2,000. [23] Additionally, the use of real animals in living nativity scenes has provoked complaint.[ citation needed ]

In southern Italy, living nativity scenes (presepe vivente) are extremely popular. They may be elaborate affairs, featuring not only the classic nativity scene but also a mock rural 19th-century village, complete with artisans in traditional costumes working at their trades. These attract many visitors and have been televised on RAI. In 2010, the old city of Matera in Basilicata hosted the world's largest living nativity scene of the time, which was performed in the historic center, Sassi. [24]

Animals in nativity scenes

The ox, the ass, and the infant Jesus in one of the earliest depictions of the nativity, (Ancient Roman Christian sarcophagus, 4th century) 9821 - Milano - Sant'Ambrogio - Sarcofago di Stilicone - Foto Giovanni Dall'Orto 25-Apr-2007.jpg
The ox, the ass, and the infant Jesus in one of the earliest depictions of the nativity, (Ancient Roman Christian sarcophagus, 4th century)
Christmas crib parish Church St. James in Ebing, Germany Ebing-Kirche-Krippe-P1080066.jpg
Christmas crib parish Church St. James in Ebing, Germany

A donkey (or ass) and an ox typically appear in nativity scenes. Besides the necessity of animals for a manger, this is an allusion to the Book of Isaiah: "the ox knoweth his owner, and the ass his master's crib; but Israel doth not know, my people doth not consider" Isaiah 1:3. The Gospels do not mention an ox and donkey [25] Another source for the tradition may be the extracanonical text, the Gospel of Pseudo-Matthew of the 7th century. (The translation in this text of Habakkuk 3:2 is not taken from the Septuagint.): [26] [27]

"And on the third day after the birth of our Lord Jesus Christ, Mary went out of the cave, and, entering a stable, placed the child in a manger, and an ox and an ass adored him. Then was fulfilled that which was said by the prophet Isaiah, "The ox knows his owner, and the ass his master's crib." Therefore, the animals, the ox and the ass, with him in their midst incessantly adored him. Then was fulfilled that which was said by Habakkuk the prophet, saying, "Between two animals you are made manifest." [25]

The ox traditionally represents patience, the nation of Israel, and Old Testament sacrificial worship while the ass represents humility, readiness to serve, and the Gentiles. [28]

Living scene in Germany Esslingen - Weihnachtskrippe.jpg
Living scene in Germany

The ox and the ass, as well as other animals, became a part of nativity scene tradition. In a 1415, Corpus Christi celebration, the Ordo paginarum notes that Jesus was lying between an ox and an ass. [29] Other animals introduced to nativity scenes include elephants and camels. [18]

By the 1970s, churches and community organizations increasingly included animals in nativity pageants. [21] Since then, automobile-accessible "drive-through" scenes with sheep and donkeys have become popular. [30]

Selection of distinctive scenes

At the Vatican

In 1982, Pope John Paul II inaugurated the annual tradition of placing a nativity scene on display in the Vatican City in the Piazza San Pietro before the Christmas Tree. [31]

In 2006, the nativity scene featured seventeen new figures of spruce on loan to the Vatican from sculptors and wood sawyers of the town of Tesero, Italy in the Italian Alps. [32] The figures included peasants, a flutist, a bagpipe player and a shepherd named Titaoca. [32] Twelve nativity scenes created before 1800 from Tesero were put on display in the Vatican audience hall. [32]

Saint Peter's Square Piazza San Pietro (febbraio 2005).jpg
Saint Peter's Square

The Vatican nativity scene for 2007 placed the birth of Jesus in Joseph's house, based upon an interpretation of the Gospel of Matthew. Mary was shown with the newborn infant Jesus in a room in Joseph's house. To the left of the room was Joseph's workshop while to the right was a busy inn—a comment on materialism versus spirituality. [33] The Vatican's written description of the diorama said, "The scene for this year's Nativity recalls the painting style of the Flemish School of the 1500s." [34] The scene was unveiled on December 24 and remained in place until February 2, 2008 for The Feast of the Presentation of the Lord. [35] Ten new figures were exhibited with seven on loan from the town of Tesero and three—a baker, a woman, and a child—donated to the Vatican. [35] The decision for the atypical setting was believed to be part of a crackdown on fanciful scenes erected in various cities around Italy. In Naples, Italy, for example, Elvis Presley and Prime Minister of Italy Silvio Berlusconi, were depicted among the shepherds and angels worshipping at the manger.

In 2008, the province of Trento, Italy provided sculpted wooden figures and animals as well as utensils to create depictions of daily life. [36] The scene featured seventeen figures [36] with nine depicting the Holy Family, the Magi, and the shepherds. [37] The nine figures were originally donated by Saint Vincent Pallotti for the nativity at Rome's Church of Sant'Andrea della Valle in 1842 [36] and eventually found their way to the Vatican. They are dressed anew each year for the scene. [37] The 2008 scene was set in Bethlehem with a fountain and a hearth representing regeneration and light. [38] The same year, the Paul VI Audience Hall exhibited a nativity designed by Mexican artists. [36]

Since 1968, the Pope has officiated at a special ceremony in St. Peter's Square on Gaudete Sunday that involves blessing hundreds of mangers and Babies Jesus for the children of Rome. [12] In 1978, 50,000 schoolchildren attended the ceremony. [12]


A santon produce seller Santon maraicher.jpg
A santon produce seller

A santon (Provençal: "little saint") is a small hand-painted, terracotta nativity scene figurine produced in the Provence region of southeastern France. [39] In a traditional Provençal crèche, the santons represent various characters from Provençal village life such as the scissors grinder, the fishwife, and the chestnut seller. [39] The figurines were first created during the French Revolution when churches were forcibly closed and large nativity scenes prohibited. [40] Today, their production is a family affair passed from parents to children. [41] During the Christmas season, santon makers gather in Marseille and other locales in southeastern France to display and sell their wares. [40]

Kraków szopka

Szopka in Krakow Szopka krakowska2.JPG
Szopka in Kraków

Szopka are traditional Polish nativity scenes dating to 19th century Kraków, Poland. [42] Its cultural significance has landed it on the UNESCO cultural heritage list. Their modern construction incorporates elements of Kraków's historic architecture including Gothic spires, Renaissance facades, and Baroque domes, [42] and utilizes everyday materials such as colored tinfoils, cardboard, and wood. [43] Some are mechanized. [44] Prizes are awarded for the most elaborately designed and decorated pieces [42] in an annual competition held in Kraków's main square beside the statue of Adam Mickiewicz. [44] Some of the best are then displayed in Kraków's Museum of History. [45] Szopka were traditionally carried from door-to-door in the nativity plays (Jasełka) by performing groups. [46]

A similar tradition, called "betlehemezés" and involving schoolchildren carrying portable folk-art nativity scenes door-to-door, chanting traditional texts, is part of Hungarian folk culture, and has enjoyed a renaissance in recent years. An example of such a portable wooden nativity scene is on display at the Nativity Museum in Bethlehem.

In the Czech Republic

Part of the Kryza's creche - a castle KJ hrad.jpg
Part of the Krýza's crèche – a castle

The Czech Republic, and the cultures represented in its predecessors i.e. Czechoslovakia and the lands of former Bohemia, have a long tradition regarding betlémy (literally "Bethlehems"), crèches. The tradition of home Nativity scenes is often traced to the 1782 ban of church and institutional crèches by emperor Joseph II, officially responding to public disturbances and the resulting "loss of dignity" of such displays. [47] [48] As this followed the Edict of Toleration proclaimed the previous year, it reduced State support of the Catholic church in this multi-confessional land. [49] [50]

The issue of cost arose, and paper-cut crèches (papírový betlém), "the crèche of the poor", became one major expression, [51] as well as wood-carved ones, some of them spectacular as they grew in complexity and detail. Many among the major Czech artists, sculptors and illustrators have as a significant part of their legacy the crèches that they created.

The following people are known for creating Czech paper crèches:

Krýza's crèche

Tomáš Krýza (1838–1918) built in a period of over 60 years a nativity scene covering 60 m² (length 17 m, size and height 2 m) which contains 1389 figures of humans and animals, of which 133 are moveable. It is on display in southern Bohemian town Jindřichův Hradec. Since 1998, it figures as the largest mechanical nativity scene in the world in the Guinness Book of World Records .

In the United States

White House nativity scene, 2008 White House Nativity Scene.jpg
White House nativity scene, 2008

Perhaps the best known nativity scene in America is the Neapolitan Baroque Crèche displayed annually in the Medieval Sculpture Hall of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City. Its backdrop is a 1763 choir screen from the Cathedral of Valladolid and a twenty-foot blue spruce decorated with a host of 18th-century angels. The nativity figures are placed at the tree's base. The crèche was the gift of Loretta Hines Howard in 1964, and the choir screen was the gift of The William Randolph Hearst Foundation in 1956. [52] Both this presepio and the one displayed in Pittsburgh originated from the collection of Eugenio Catello.

A life-size nativity scene has been displayed annually at Temple Square in Salt Lake City, Utah for several decades as part of the large outdoor Christmas displays sponsored by The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints.

Each holiday season, from Light Up Night in November through Epiphany in January, the Pittsburgh Crèche delights visitors to downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. The Pittsburgh Creche, a larger-than-life nativity scene, is the world's only authorized replica of the Vatican's Christmas crèche, on display in St. Peter's Square in Rome. [53] Pittsburgh's Carnegie Museum of Art also displays a Neapolitan presepio. Handcrafted between 1700 and 1830, the presepio has lifelike figures and colorful details that re-create the Nativity within a vibrant and detailed panorama of 18th-century Italian village life. More than 100 superbly modeled human and angelic figures, along with animals, accessories, and architectural elements, cover 250 square feet and create a memorable depiction of the Nativity as seen through the eyes of Neapolitan artisans and collectors. [54]

The Radio City Christmas Spectacular, an annual musical holiday stage show presented at Radio City Music Hall in New York City, features a Living Nativity segment with live animals. [55] [56]

In 2005, President of the United States of America, George W. Bush and his wife, First Lady of the United States, Laura Bush displayed an 18th-century Italian presepio. The presepio was donated to the White House in the last decades of the 20th century. [57]

The Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York City and the Carnegie Museum of Art in Pittsburgh annually display Neapolitan Baroque nativity scenes which both originated from the collection of Eugenio Catello.

On her Christmas Day 2007 television show, Martha Stewart exhibited the nativity scene she made in pottery classes at the Alderson Federal Prison Camp in Alderson, West Virginia while serving a 2005 sentence. She remarked, "Even though every inmate was only allowed to do one a month, and I was only there for five months, I begged because I said I was an expert potter—ceramicist actually—and could I please make the entire nativity scene." [58] She supplemented her nativity figurines on the show with tiny artificial palm trees imported from Germany. [58]

In Australia

Nativity Scene at St. Elizabeth's, Dandenong North. Creator and Artist Wilson Fernandez Australian Nativity Scene, 2012.jpg
Nativity Scene at St. Elizabeth's, Dandenong North. Creator and Artist Wilson Fernandez

Christmas is celebrated by Australians in a number of ways. Due to its multiculturalism and diversity, the immigrants have influenced the way Christmas is celebrated around the country. In Australia, it's summer season and is very hot during Christmas time.

During the Christmas time, locals and visitors visit places around their towns and suburbs to view the outdoor and indoor displays. All over the towns, the places are lit with colorful and modern spectacular lighting displays. The displays of nativity scenes with Aussie featured native animals like kangaroos and koalas are also evident.

In Melbourne, a traditional and authentic Nativity Scene is becoming very popular at St. Elizabeth's Parish, Dandenong North. This annual Australian Nativity Scene creator and artist Wilson Fernandez has been building and creating the traditional nativity scenes since 2004 at St. Elizabeth's Parish. [59]

To mark this special event, Most Reverend Denis Hart Archbishop of Melbourne celebrated the Vigil Mass and blessed the Nativity Scene on Saturday, 14 December 2013. [60]

In Canada

Bethlehem Live is an all-volunteer living nativity produced by Gateway Christian Community Church in Winnipeg, Manitoba, Canada. The production includes a reconstruction of the ancient town of Bethlehem and seven individual vignettes. There also happens to be an annual, highly publicized nativity scene at the St. Patrick's Basilica, Ottawa in Ottawa, Ontario. [61] [62]

Associations and notable collections

The Universalis Foederatio Praesepistica, World association of Friends of Cribs was founded in 1952, counting today 20 national associations dedicated to this subject. Central office is in Austria. [63]

In the United States and Canada Friends of the Creche has over 200 members, with a major conference every two years. [64] FotC maintains a list of permanent exhibits of Nativity scenes in the United States and a list of permanent exhibits of Nativity scenes in other parts of the world.

The Bavarian National Museum displays a notable collection of Nativity scenes from the fifteenth through nineteenth centuries.

Every year in Lanciano, Abruzzo (Italy), a Nativity Scene exhibition (called in Italian "Riscopriamo il presepe") takes place at Auditorium Diocleziano, usually until the 6th of January. An average of one hundred Nativity scenes are shown, coming from every region of Italy. There are also many Nativity scenes made by local kindergarten, primary, secondary and high school. The event is organised by Associazione Amici di Lancianovecchia [65]

Museums dedicated specifically to paper Nativity scenes exist in Pečky, Zábrdí.


United States of America

Nativity scenes have been involved in controversies and lawsuits. [66]

A static outdoor nativity scene in the United States, (Christkindlmarket, Chicago, Illinois) NativityScene ChristkindlmarketChicago 12190011a.jpg
A static outdoor nativity scene in the United States, (Christkindlmarket, Chicago, Illinois)

In 1969, the American Civil Liberties Union (representing three clergymen, an atheist, and a leader of the American Ethical Society), tried to block the construction of a nativity scene on The Ellipse in Washington, D.C. [67] When the ACLU claimed the government sponsorship of a distinctly Christian symbol violated separation of church and state, [67] the sponsors of the fifty-year-old Christmas celebration, Pageant of Peace, who had an exclusive permit from the Interior Department for all events on the Ellipse, responded that the nativity scene was a reminder of America's spiritual heritage. [67] The United States Court of Appeals ruled on December 12, 1969, that the crèche be allowed that year. [67] The case continued until September 26, 1973, when the court ruled in favor of the plaintiffs [67] and found the involvement of the Interior Department and the National Park Service in the Pageant of Peace amounted to government support for religion. [67] The court opined that the nativity scene should be dropped from the pageant or the government end its participation in the event in order to avoid "excessive entanglements" between government and religion. [67] In 1973, the nativity scene vanished. [67]

Nativity scenes are permitted on public lands in the United States as long as equal time is given to non-religious symbols. United States Capitol Christmas tree lighting ceremony - December 5, 2007.JPG
Nativity scenes are permitted on public lands in the United States as long as equal time is given to non-religious symbols.

In 1985, the United States Supreme Court ruled in ACLU v. Scarsdale, New York that nativity scenes on public lands violate separation of church and state statutes unless they comply with "The Reindeer Rule"—a regulation calling for equal opportunity for non-religious symbols, such as reindeer. [68] This principle was further clarified in 1989, when the Supreme Court in County of Allegheny v. ACLU ruled that a crèche placed on the grand staircase of the Allegheny County Courthouse in Pittsburgh, PA violated the Establishment Clause, because the "principal or primary effect" of the display was to advance religion.

In 1994, at Christmas, the Park Board of San Jose, California, removed a statue of the infant Jesus from Plaza de Cesar Chavez Park and replaced it with a statue of the plumed Aztec god, Quetzalcoatl, commissioned with US$500,000 of public funds. In response, protestors staged a living nativity scene in the park. [68]

In 2006, a lawsuit by the Alliance Defense Fund, a conservative Christian group in the United States, was brought against the state of Washington when it permitted a public display of a holiday tree and a menorah but not a nativity scene. Because of the lawsuit, the decision was made to permit a nativity scene to be displayed in the rotunda of the state Capitol, in Olympia, as long as other symbols of the season were included. [69]

In 2013, Gov. Rick Perry signed into Texas law the Merry Christmas bill which would allow school districts in Texas to display nativity scenes.

Baby Jesus theft

In the United States, nativity figurines are sometimes stolen from outdoor public and private displays during the Christmas season [70] in an act that is generally called Baby Jesus theft. The thefts are usually pranks with figurines recovered within a few hours or days of their disappearances. [71] Some have been damaged beyond repair or defaced with profanity, antisemitic epithets, or Satanic symbols. [72] [73] It is unclear if Baby Jesus theft is on the rise as United States federal law enforcement officials do not track such theft. [71] Some communities protect outdoor nativity scenes with surveillance cameras or GPS devices concealed within the figurines. [72]

United Kingdom

In December 2004, Madame Tussaud's London, England, United Kingdom nativity scene featured waxwork models of soccer star David Beckham and his wife Victoria Beckham as Joseph and Mary, and Kylie Minogue as the Angel. [74] Tony Blair, George W. Bush, and the Duke of Edinburgh were cast as the Magi while actors Hugh Grant, Samuel L. Jackson, and comedian Graham Norton were cast as shepherds. [75] The celebrities were chosen for the roles by 300 people who visited the Madame Tussaud's in October 2004 and voted on the display. The Archbishop of Canterbury was not impressed, and a Vatican spokesperson said the display was in very poor taste. Other officials reacted angrily, with one noting it was "a nativity stunt too far". [75] "We're sorry if we have offended people," said Diane Moon, a spokesperson for the museum. She said the display was intended in the spirit of fun. [76] The scene was damaged in protest by James Anstice, a member of the Jesus Fellowship Church, who pushed over one of the figures and knocked the head off another. He was later ordered to pay £100 in compensation. [77]


There is a regional tradition in the Catalonia region where an additional figure is added to the Nativity scene: the Caganer. It depicts a person defecating. In 2005, the Barcelona city council provoked a public outcry by commissioning a nativity scene which did not include a Caganer. See Caganer for details.

See also

Related Research Articles

Christmas in Poland Christmas celebrations and traditions in Poland

Christmas in Poland is a major annual celebration, as in most countries of the Christian world. The observance of Christmas developed gradually over the centuries, beginning in ancient times; combining old Polish pagan customs with the religious ones introduced after the Christianization of Poland by the Catholic Church. Later influences include mutual permeating of local traditions and various folk cultures. It is one of the most important religious holidays for Poles, who follow a somewhat strict traditional custom. Christmas trees are decorated and lit in family rooms on the day of Christmas Eve. Other trees are placed in most public areas and outside churches. Christmas in Poland is called "Boże Narodzenie", which translates to 'God's Birth'.

Church of the Nativity basilica in Bethlehem

The Church of the Nativity, or Basilica of the Nativity is a basilica located in Bethlehem in the Palestinian West Bank. The grotto it contains holds a prominent religious significance to Christians of various denominations as the birthplace of Jesus. The grotto is the oldest site continuously used as a place of worship in Christianity, and the basilica is the oldest major church in the Holy Land.

Christmas Eve Evening or entire day before Christmas Day

Christmas Eve is the evening or entire day before Christmas Day, the festival commemorating the birth of Jesus. Christmas Day is observed around the world, and Christmas Eve is widely observed as a full or partial holiday in anticipation of Christmas Day. Together, both days are considered one of the most culturally significant celebrations in Christendom and Western society.

Biblical Magi group of distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth

The biblical Magi, also referred to as the (Three) Wise Men or (Three) Kings, were – in the Gospel of Matthew and Christian tradition – distinguished foreigners who visited Jesus after his birth, bearing gifts of gold, frankincense and myrrh. They are regular figures in traditional accounts of the nativity celebrations of Christmas and are an important part of Christian tradition.

Adoration of the Magi name given to the Christian subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi worship Jesus

The Adoration of the Magi or Adoration of the Kings is the name traditionally given to the subject in the Nativity of Jesus in art in which the three Magi, represented as kings, especially in the West, having found Jesus by following a star, lay before him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh, and worship him. It is related in the Bible by Matthew 2:11: "On entering the house, they saw the child with Mary his mother; and they knelt down and paid him homage. Then, opening their treasure chests, they offered him gifts of gold, frankincense, and myrrh. And having been warned in a dream not to return to Herod, they left for their own country by another path".

Caganer figure featured in Catalan xmas scenes

A Caganer is a figurine depicted in the act of defecation appearing in nativity scenes in Catalonia and neighbouring areas with Catalan culture such as Andorra, Valencia, and Northern Catalonia. It is most popular and widespread in these areas, but can also be found in other areas of Spain (Murcia), Portugal, and southern Italy (Naples).

Christmas village decorative, miniature-scale village

A Christmas village is a decorative, miniature-scale village often set up during the Christmas season. These villages are rooted in the elaborate Christmas traditions of the Moravian church, a Protestant denomination. Mass-produced cardboard Christmas villages became popular in the United States during the early and mid-20th century, while porcelain versions became popular in the later part of the century.

Santon (figurine)

Santons are small hand-painted terracotta nativity scene figurines produced in the Provence region of southeastern France. In a traditional Provençal crèche, there are 55 individual figures representing various characters from Provençal village life such as the scissors grinder, the fishwife, the blind man, and the chestnut seller.

Krýzas crèche

The nativity scene (creche) created by Tomáš Krýza is a large mechanical construction, since 1998 mentioned in Guinness Book of World Records as the largest one in the world.

Kraków szopka

Kraków szopka[ˈkrakuf ˈʂɔp.ka] or nativity scene is a Christmas tradition originating from Kraków, Poland, and dating back to the 19th century. An unusual and characteristic feature of the szopka is the use of historical buildings of Kraków as backdrop for the Nativity of Jesus. In 2018, it was inscribed on the list of UNESCO Intangible Cultural Heritage of Humanity.

Nativity of Jesus in art Artistic depictions of the Nativity or birth of Jesus, celebrated at Christmas

The Nativity of Jesus has been a major subject of Christian art since the 4th century.

Nativity play Christmas-based theatrical genre

A Nativity play or Christmas pageant is a play which recounts the story of the Nativity of Jesus. It is usually performed at Christmas, the feast of the Nativity.

Annunciation to the shepherds part of the Christmas story of Jesuss nativity

The annunciation to the shepherds is an episode in the Nativity of Jesus described in the Bible in Luke 2, in which angels tell a group of shepherds about the birth of Jesus. It is a common subject of Christian art and of Christmas carols.

Baby Jesus theft

Baby Jesus theft is the theft of plastic or ceramic figurines of the infant Jesus from outdoor public and private nativity displays during the Christmas season. It is an "enduring practice" according to The New York Times journalist Katie Rogers, "believed to be part of a yearly tradition, often carried out by bored teenagers looking for an easy prank." The prevalence of such thefts has caused the owners of outdoor manger scenes to protect their property with GPS devices, surveillance cameras, or by other means.

Vatican Christmas Tree public Christmas tree in the Vatican City

The Vatican Christmas Tree, also called the Saint Peter's Square Christmas Tree, is the decorated tree that is erected annually in the Saint Peter's Square directly in front of St. Peter's Basilica in the Vatican City to celebrate the Christmas holiday season.

Christmas in Mexico Christmas celebrations and traditions in Mexico

Christmas in Mexico is celebrated during a season that begins near December 12 to January 6, candlemas on February 2. During this entire time, one can see nativity scenes, poinsettias and Christmas shoes. The season begins with celebrations related to the Virgin for life, the patroness of Mexico, followed by traditions such as Las Posadas and pastorelas.

<i>Adoration of the Shepherds</i> (Domenichino) painting by Domenichino

The painting of the Adoration of the Shepherds of c. 1607–10 by the Italian 17th century master Domenichino has been in the National Gallery of Scotland in Edinburgh since 1971, and was previously in the Dulwich Picture Gallery in London.

Pittsburgh Crèche

The Pittsburgh Crèche is a large-scale crèche, or nativity scene, located on the outside courtyard of the U.S. Steel Tower in downtown Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. Since 1999, the crèche appears annually during the winter season from November's Light Up Night to Epiphany in January. It is the only authorized replica of the nativity scene in Saint Peter’s Basilica in Rome. It is sponsored by the ecumenical Christian Leaders Fellowship.

<i>Adoration of the Magi</i> (Fra Angelico and Filippo Lippi) painting by Fra Angelico en Filippo Lippi

The Adoration of the Magi is a tondo, or circular painting, of the Adoration of the Magi assumed to be that recorded in 1492 in the Palazzo Medici Riccardi in Florence as by Fra Angelico. It dates from the mid-15th century and is now in the National Gallery of Art in Washington D.C. Most art historians think that Filippo Lippi painted more of the original work, and that it was added to some years after by other artists, as well as including work by assistants in the workshops of both the original masters. It has been known as the Washington Tondo and Cook Tondo after a former owner, and this latter name in particular continues to be used over 50 years after the painting left the Cook collection.


  1. Berliner, R. The Origins of the Creche. Gazette des Beaux-Arts, 30 (1946), p. 251.
  2. Brown, Raymond E.. The Birth of the Messiah. Doubleday, 1997.
  3. Vermes, Geza. The Nativity: History and Legend. Penguin, 2006
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Dues, Greg.Catholic Customs and Traditions: A Popular Guide Twenty-Third Publications, 2000.
  5. Thomas, George F.. Vitality of the Christian Tradition. Ayer Co. Publishing, 1944.
  6. "#MyLivingNativity". Upper Room Books. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Johnson, Kevin Orlin. Why Do Catholics Do That? Random House, Inc., 1994.
  8. Mazar, Peter and Evelyn Grala. To Crown the Year: Decorating the Church Through the Year. Liturgy Training, 1995. ISBN   1-56854-041-8
  9. Federer, William J.. There Really is a Santa Claus: The History of Saint Nicholas & Christmas Holiday Traditions. Amerisearch, Inc., 2003. p. 37.
  10. St. Bonaventure. "The Life of St. Francis of Assisi". e-Catholic 2000. Archived from the original on 14 June 2014. Retrieved 28 September 2013.
  11. 1 2 3 Santino, Jack. All Around the Year: Holidays and Celebrations in American Life. University of Illinois Press, 1995. ISBN   0-252-06516-6.
  12. 1 2 3 Christmas in Italy. World Book Encyclopedia, Inc., 1996, 1979.
  13. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 2016-12-21. Retrieved 2016-12-21.CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  14. "Celebrity wax Nativity scene vandalized". Chicago Tribune. Archived from the original on 28 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  15. "BBC News - A traditional Nativity scene, Catalan-style". BBC News. Archived from the original on 24 December 2010. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  16. "PETA mistakenly targets nativity scene - US news - Weird news - Animal weirdness - NBC News". Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  18. 1 2 Tangerman, Elmer John. The Big Book of Whittling and Woodcarving. Courier Dover Publications, 1989. ISBN   0-486-26171-9.
  19. "Neapolitan Crib: The crib and 1700’s Naples." Archived 2013-12-20 at Wikiwix. Retrieved December 18, 2013.
  20. Duncan, Ronald J. The Ceramics of Ráquira, Colombia: Gender, Work, and Economic Change. University Press of Florida, 1998. ISBN   0-8130-1615-0.
  21. 1 2 3 Collins, Ace. Stories Behind the Great Traditions of Christmas. Zondervan, 2003. ISBN   0-310-24880-9.
  22. "#MyLivingNativity". Upper Room Books. Retrieved 2018-10-31.
  23. Mehta, Hemant. "Would You Help Restore a Nativity Scene?" Archived 2009-02-09 at the Wayback Machine . The Friendly Atheist, December 13, 2008.
  24. "Most people in a nativity scene: Welton Baptist Church sets world record". 4 December 2011. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 6 January 2015.
  25. 1 2 Hobgood-Oster, Laura. Holy Dogs and Asses: Animals in the Christian Tradition. University of Illinois Press, 2008. ISBN   0-252-03213-6.
  26. Gill, John (1748–63). John Gill's Exposition of the Bible. Archived from the original on 2010-08-21.
  27. Saxon, Elizabeth. The Eucharist in Romanesque France: iconography and theology. Boydell Press. p. 107. ISBN   978-1-84383-256-0.
  28. Webber, F.R.. Church Symbolism. Kessinger Publishing, 2003. ISBN   0-7661-4009-1.
  29. King, Pamela M.. The York Mystery Cycle and the Worship of the City. DS Brewer, 2006. ISBN   1-84384-098-7.
  30. "California Nativity: Drive Thru & Living Nativities in California" Archived 2009-01-27 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved January 8, 2008.
  31. Murphy, Bruce and Alessandra de Rosa. Italy for Dummies. For Dummies, 2007. ISBN   0-470-06932-5.
  32. 1 2 3 Wooden, Cindy. "No Room at the Inn? Vatican Nativity Scene Gets More Figures". Catholic Online International News, December 18, 2007.
  33. "Vatican Nativity Scene Trades Manger for St. Joseph’s House". Catholic News Agency.
  34. Glatz, Carol. "Vatican Nativity Scene Places Christ's Birth in Edifice in Bethlehem". Catholic News Service, December 26, 2007.
  35. 1 2 Glatz, Carol. "Vatican Nativity Scene". Catholic Online, December 15, 2007.
  36. 1 2 3 4 Bunson, Matthew E.. Catholic Almanac 2009. Our Sunday Visitor Publishing, 2008. ISBN   1-59276-441-X.
  37. 1 2 De Cristofaro, Maria, and Sebastian Rotella. "Vatican, Rome Go Head-to-Head with Nativities" Archived 2008-12-27 at the Wayback Machine . Los Angeles Times, December 24, 2008.
  38. CNS, Vatican Nativity scene unveiled Archived 2009-05-14 at Wikiwix, December 24, 2008.
  39. 1 2 Porter, Darwin, and Danforth Prince and Cheryl A. Pientka. France for Dummies. For Dummies, 2007. ISBN   0-470-08581-9.
  40. 1 2 Williams, Nicola. Lonely Planet: Provence and the Côte D'Azur. Lonely Planet, 2007. ISBN   1-74104-236-4.
  41. "Christmas in France". World Book, Inc., 1995. ISBN   0-7166-0876-6.
  42. 1 2 3 Deck-Partyka, Alicja. Poland: A Unique Country and Its People. AuthorHouse, 2006. ISBN   1-4259-1838-7.
  43. Salter, Mark, and Jonathan Bousfield. Poland. Penguin Putnam, 2002.
  44. 1 2 Wilson, Neil. Poland. Lonely Planet, 2005. ISBN   1-74059-522-X.
  45. Johnstone, Sarah. Europe on a Shoestring. Lonely Planet, 2007. ISBN   1-74104-591-6.
  46. Silverman, Deborah Anders. Polish-American Folklore. University of Illinois Press, 2000. ISBN   0-252-02569-5
  47. "From Nutshells to Life‑size Statues" (PDF). Bridge Publishing House. December 2010. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  48. Velinger, Jan (December 7, 2005). "Czech Nativity scenes". Archived from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  49. "Edict of Toleration (2 January 1782): Emperor Joseph II" (PDF). New Hartford, New York: New Hartford Central School District. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 December 2013. Retrieved 30 November 2013.
  50. "The Eighteenth Century". LITURGIE &CETERA. Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  51. Osborne (2004). "Paper Crèches". Archived from the original on 2014-12-31. Retrieved 24 November 2013.
  52. Special Exhibitions Archived 2009-12-04 at the Wayback Machine Metropolitan Museum of Art
  53. Albrecht Powell. "Pittsurgh Creche - Pittsburgh Nativity Scene". About. Archived from the original on 26 December 2014. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  54. "Carnegie Museum of Art". Archived from the original on 14 May 2013. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  55. "Living nativity scene in Radio City Christmas Spectacular". Archived from the original on 2017-03-10.
  56. "Arrival of live animals that appear in Radio City Christmas Spectacular's living nativity scene". Archived from the original on 2017-03-09.
  57. Walters, Gary. "Ask the White House" Archived 2017-07-12 at the Wayback Machine . 2005.
  58. 1 2 "Martha Built Nativity Scene in Prison". Huffington Post, December 25, 2007.
  59. "Australian Nativity Scene Homepage". Australian Nativity Scene Homepage. Archived from the original on 2015-12-23. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  60. "Kairos, Volume 25 Issue 23". Archived from the original on 2016-03-04. Retrieved 2015-12-22.
  61. "Doing the time-warp". CBC News. 12 December 2010. Archived from the original on 4 March 2011.
  62. "Business-Class Web Hosting by (mt) Media Temple". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 26 December 2014.
  63. "Universalis Foederatio Praesepistica". Archived from the original on 2013-12-02.
  64. "Friends of the Creche". Archived from the original on 2 December 2013. Retrieved 23 November 2013.
  65. "Riscopriamo il presepe 2014" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2014-12-19.
  66. Sherrill, Roland A.. Religion and the Life of the Nation. University of Illinois Press. 1990. p. 165.
  67. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Menendez, Albert J.. Christmas in the White House. The Westminster Press, 1983.
  68. 1 2 Comfort, David. Just Say Noel: A History of Christmas from the Nativity to the Nineties. Simon and Schuster, 1995. ISBN   0-684-80057-8.
  69. "Nonbelievers' sign at Capitol counters Nativity" Archived 2012-01-22 at the Wayback Machine . Seattle Times. December 2, 2008.
  70. Cloud, Olivia M. Joy to the World: Inspirational Christmas Messages from America's Preachers. Simon and Schuster, 2006. ISBN   1-4165-4000-8. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
  71. 1 2 Nasaw, Daniel."Thefts of Baby Jesus Figurines Sweep US" Archived 2013-09-05 at the Wayback Machine . The Guardian. January 1, 2009. Retrieved January 3, 2009.
  72. 1 2 "Communities Protect Baby Jesus Statues With Hidden Cameras, GPS" Archived 2008-12-14 at the Wayback Machine . Associated Press. December 10, 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
  73. Lee, Don."Suspect Arrested in Baby Jesus Theft" Archived 2008-12-28 at the Wayback Machine Lovely County Citizen, Eureka Springs, Arkansas. December 22, 2008. Retrieved January 2, 2009.
  74. "Madame Tussaud's Celebrity Nativity Scene" Archived 2011-05-26 at the Wayback Machine . Retrieved January 5, 2009.
  75. 1 2 "Posh and Beckham in Wax Nativity" Archived 2006-03-30 at the Wayback Machine . BBC News, December 8, 2004. Retrieved January 5, 2008.
  76. "Celebrity Nativity Scene Draws Ire in UK" Archived 2008-12-02 at the Wayback Machine . Red Orbit, December 9, 2004.
  77. "Becks waxworks vandal discharged- BBC News" Archived 2007-01-25 at the Wayback Machine Retr. 8/1/2017

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Nativity scenes at Wikimedia Commons