Nazli Sabri

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Nazli Sabri
Queen Consort of Egypt
Nazlicoronation.jpg
Sultana Nazli's coronation as Queen Nazli
Sultana of Egypt [1]
Tenure26 May 1919 – 15 March 1922
Queen consort of Egypt
Tenure15 March 1922 – 28 April 1936
Born(1894-06-25)25 June 1894
Alexandria, Khedivate of Egypt
Died29 May 1978(1978-05-29) (aged 83)
Los Angeles, California, United States
Burial
Spouse
Khalil Sabri
(m. 1918;div. 1918)

Fuad I of Egypt
(m. 1919;died 1936)
Issue Farouk I of Egypt
Fawzia, Queen of Iran
Princess Faiza
Princess Faika
Princess Fathia
Full name
Nazli Abdurrahim Sabri
House House of Muhammad Ali (by marriage)
FatherAbdul Rahman Sabri Pasha
MotherTawfika Sharif
Religion Catholic Church
prev. Sunni Islam

Nazli Sabri (Arabic : نزلي صبري / نازلى صبرى; Turkish : Nazlı Sabri; 25 June 1894 – 29 May 1978) was the first Queen of Egypt from 1919 to 1936 as the second wife of King Fuad.

Turkish language Turkic language mainly spoken and used in Turkey

Turkish, also referred to as Istanbul Turkish, and sometimes known as Turkey Turkish, is the most widely spoken of the Turkic languages, with around ten to fifteen million native speakers in Southeast Europe and sixty to sixty-five million native speakers in Western Asia. Outside Turkey, significant smaller groups of speakers exist in Germany, Bulgaria, North Macedonia, Northern Cyprus, Greece, the Caucasus, and other parts of Europe and Central Asia. Cyprus has requested that the European Union add Turkish as an official language, even though Turkey is not a member state.

A queen consort is the wife of a reigning king, or an empress consort in the case of an emperor. A queen consort usually shares her husband's social rank and status. She holds the feminine equivalent of the king's monarchical titles, but historically, she does not share the king's political and military powers.

Kingdom of Egypt 1922-1953 kingdom in Northern Africa

The Kingdom of Egypt was the de jure independent Egyptian state established under the Muhammad Ali dynasty in 1922 following the Unilateral Declaration of Egyptian Independence by the United Kingdom. Until the Anglo-Egyptian treaty of 1936, the Kingdom was only nominally independent, since the British retained control of foreign relations, communications, the military and the Anglo-Egyptian Sudan. Between 1936 and 1952, the British continued to maintain military presence and political advisers, at a reduced level.

Contents

Early life

Nazli was born on 25 June 1894 into a family of Turkish and French origin. [2] [3] Her father was Abdur Rahim Sabri Pasha, [4] minister of agriculture and governor of Cairo, and her mother was Tawfika Khanum Sharif. Nazli had a brother, Sherif Sabri Pasha, and a sister, Amina Sabri. [4]

Turkish people or the Turks, also known as Anatolian Turks, are a Turkic ethnic group and nation living mainly in Turkey and speaking Turkish, the most widely spoken Turkic language. They are the largest ethnic group in Turkey, as well as by far the largest ethnic group among the speakers of Turkic languages. Ethnic Turkish minorities exist in the former lands of the Ottoman Empire. In addition, a Turkish diaspora has been established with modern migration, particularly in Western Europe.

French people are a Romance ethnic group and nation who are identified with the country of France. This connection may be ethnic, legal, historical, or cultural.

Cairo Capital and largest city of Egypt

Cairo is the capital of Egypt. The city's metropolitan area is one of the largest in Africa, the largest in the Middle East and 15th-largest in the world, and is associated with ancient Egypt, as the famous Giza pyramid complex and the ancient city of Memphis are located in its geographical area. Located near the Nile Delta, modern Cairo was founded in 969 AD by the Fatimid dynasty, but the land composing the present-day city was the site of ancient national capitals whose remnants remain visible in parts of Old Cairo. Cairo has long been a centre of the region's political and cultural life, and is titled "the city of a thousand minarets" for its preponderance of Islamic architecture. Cairo is considered a World City with a "Beta +" classification according to GaWC.

She was the maternal granddaughter of Major General Mohamed Sherif Pasha, prime minister and minister of foreign affairs, who was of Turkish origin. [5] She was also a great-granddaughter of the French-born officer Suleiman Pasha. [6]

Mohamed Sherif Pasha Egyptian statesman of Turkish origin

Mohamed Sherif Pasha GCSI (1826–1887) was an Egyptian statesman of Turkish origin. He served as Prime Minister of Egypt three times during his career. His first term was between April 7, 1879 and August 18, 1879. His second term was served from September 14, 1881 to February 4, 1882. His final term was served between August 21, 1882 and January 7, 1884.

Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi Egyptian soldier

Soliman Pasha al-Faransawi, born Joseph Anthelme Sève, was a French-born Egyptian commander.

Nazli first went to the Lycée de la Mère-de-Dieu in Cairo, and later to the Collège Notre-Dame de Sion in Alexandria. Following the death of her mother, she and her sister were sent to a boardingschool in Paris, France, for two years. After returning, Nazli was forced to marry her Turkish cousin, Khalil Sabri. [2] However, the marriage ended in divorce after eleven months. [2] After the separation, she stayed at the house of Safiya Zaghloul where she met Zaghloul's nephew Saeed Zaghloul; the two were engaged until Saeed broke up with her during his exile with his uncle Saad Zaghloul following the 1919 revolution. [2]

Alexandria Metropolis in Egypt

Alexandria is the second-largest city in Egypt and a major economic centre, extending about 32 km (20 mi) along the coast of the Mediterranean Sea in the north central part of the country. Its low elevation on the Nile delta makes it highly vulnerable to rising sea levels. Alexandria is an important industrial center because of its natural gas and oil pipelines from Suez. Alexandria is also a popular tourist destination.

Paris Capital of France

Paris is the capital and most populous city of France, with an area of 105 square kilometres and an official estimated population of 2,140,526 residents as of 1 January 2019. Since the 17th century, Paris has been one of Europe's major centres of finance, diplomacy, commerce, fashion, science, and the arts. The City of Paris is the centre and seat of government of the Île-de-France, or Paris Region, which has an estimated official 2019 population of 12,213,364, or about 18 percent of the population of France. The Paris Region had a GDP of €709 billion in 2017. According to the Economist Intelligence Unit Worldwide Cost of Living Survey in 2018, Paris was the second most expensive city in the world, after Singapore, and ahead of Zürich, Hong Kong, Oslo and Geneva. Another source ranked Paris as most expensive, on a par with Singapore and Hong Kong, in 2018.

France Republic with majority of territory in Europe and numerous oversea territories around the world

France, officially the French Republic, is a country whose territory consists of metropolitan France in Western Europe and several overseas regions and territories. The metropolitan area of France extends from the Mediterranean Sea to the English Channel and the North Sea, and from the Rhine to the Atlantic Ocean. It is bordered by Belgium, Luxembourg and Germany to the northeast, Switzerland and Italy to the east, and Andorra and Spain to the south. The overseas territories include French Guiana in South America and several islands in the Atlantic, Pacific and Indian oceans. The country's 18 integral regions span a combined area of 643,801 square kilometres (248,573 sq mi) and a total population of 67.02 million. France is a unitary semi-presidential republic with its capital in Paris, the country's largest city and main cultural and commercial centre. Other major urban areas include Lyon, Marseille, Toulouse, Bordeaux, Lille and Nice.

Queen

The Sultan of Egypt, Fuad I first saw Nazli at an opera performance. [7] On 12 May 1919, Fuad proposed to her, although he was 25 years her senior. On 24 May 1919 Nazli married Sultan Fuad I at Bustan Palace, Cairo. It was the second marriage for both Nazli and Fuad. [7] She later moved to the haramlek in the Abbasiya Palace. She was under pressure from her husband to produce a son, and was warned that she would be confined to the haremlek if she did not do so.

Sultan of Egypt

Sultan of Egypt was the status held by the rulers of Egypt after the establishment of the Ayyubid dynasty of Saladin in 1174 until the Ottoman conquest of Egypt in 1517. Though the extent of the Egyptian Sultanate ebbed and flowed, it generally included Sham and Hejaz, with the consequence that the Ayyubid and later Mamluk sultans were also regarded as the Sultans of Syria. From 1914, the title was once again used by the heads of the Muhammad Ali dynasty of Egypt and Sudan, later being replaced by the title of King of Egypt and Sudan in 1922.

Fuad I of Egypt Egyptian King and Sultan

Fuad I was the Sultan and later King of Egypt and Sudan, Sovereign of Nubia, Kordofan, and Darfur. The ninth ruler of Egypt and Sudan from the Muhammad Ali dynasty, he became Sultan of Egypt and Sudan in 1917, succeeding his elder brother Sultan Hussein Kamel. He substituted the title of King for Sultan when the United Kingdom recognised Egyptian independence in 1922. His name is sometimes spelled Fouad.

After the birth of their only son, Farouk, she was allowed to move into Koubbeh Palace -the official royal residence- with her husband. [8] When Fuad's title was altered to King, she was given the title of Queen. She then had four daughters: Fawzia, Faiza, Faika, and Fathia.

Koubbeh Palace

Koubbeh Palace, is one of the various Egyptian palaces which currently serve as the country's official guest house for visiting dignitaries.

King of Egypt Wikimedia list article

King of Egypt was the title used by the ruler of Egypt between 1922 and 1951. When the United Kingdom ended its protectorate over Egypt on 28 February 1922, Egypt's Sultan Fouad I issued a decree on 15 March 1922 whereby he adopted the title of King of Egypt. It has been reported that the title change was due not only to Egypt's newly independent status, but also to Fouad I's desire to be accorded the same title as the newly installed rulers of the newly created kingdoms of Hejaz, Syria and Iraq. The only other monarch to be styled King of Egypt was Fouad I's son Farouk I, whose title was changed to King of Egypt and the Sudan in October 1951 following the Wafdist government's unilateral abrogation of the Anglo-Egyptian Treaty of 1936. The monarchy was abolished on 18 June 1953 following the Egyptian Revolution of 1952 and the establishment of a republic. The then-king, the infant Fuad II of Egypt, went into exile in Switzerland.

Fawzia Fuad of Egypt Egyptian royal

Fawzia Fuad of Egypt, also known as Muluk Fawzia of Iran, was an Egyptian princess who became Queen of Iran as the first wife of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi.

Restricted to the palace throughout most of Fuad's reign, she was permitted to attend opera performances, flower shows, and other ladies-only cultural events. As her upbringing had left her remarkably educated, cultured and emancipated for an Egyptian woman of the time, she found this prescribed existence backward and stifling. [9] It was said that whenever the royal couple fought, she was slapped by the king and confined to her suite for weeks. It was also alleged that she tried to commit suicide by overdosing on aspirin.

Nazli accompanied the king during part of his four-month tour of Europe in 1927, and was much fêted in France because of her French ancestry. With the inauguration of Parliament in 1924, she was among the royal attendees at the opening ceremony, seated in a special section of the guest gallery. [2]

Later years

Following the death of King Fuad in 1936, her son Farouk became the new King of Egypt, and she became the Queen Mother. Her brother Sherif Sabri Pasha served on the three-member Regency Council that was formed during Farouk's minority. In 1946, Nazli left Egypt and went to the United States for treatment for a kidney ailment.

In August 1950, King Farouk deprived the Queen Mother, and her daughter Princess Fathia of their rights and titles. This was due to latter's marriage, which Nazli supported, but was against Farouk's wishes, to Riyad Ghali Effendi, a Coptic Christian. Nazli later converted to Christianity, changing her name to Mary-Elizabeth. [9]

In 1955 Nazli purchased, for $63,000, a 28-room mansion in Beverley Hills, where she lived with Fathia, her son-in-law, and their two children, and led an active social life. [10]

In 1965, Nazli attended the funeral of Farouk, in Rome. [7]

Following Fathia's divorce, Nazli moved to a small apartment in Westwood, Los Angeles, where Fathia eventually joined her after temporarily moving to Hawaii. [11] [9]

To meet debt demands, in 1975 Nazli sent her principal jewellery to auction at Sothebys, including a magnificent art deco tiara (720 diamonds weighing 274 carats) and matching necklace commissioned in 1938 from Van Cleef & Arpels. [12] They sold for $127,500 and $140,000 respectively. However, Nazli and Fathia still ended up in bankruptcy court. In 1978, Fathia's jewellery was also sold to meet debts. [11]

In 1976, Nazli sent a request to the then President of Egypt, Anwar Sadat, that passports be provided to her and Princess Fathia to give them right of return to Egypt. Eventually she settled in the US, due to her painful illness. She died on 29 May 1978 in Los Angeles, California. [13]

Legacy

Queen Nazli's art deco necklace reappeared at a Sotheby's sale in December 2015. The Queen ordered the necklace with a matching tiara for her daughter's wedding. The necklace is formed by 600 round and baguette diamonds arranged in a sunburst motif. [14]

Titles and styles

Royal styles of
Queen Nazli of Egypt
Coat of arms of Egypt (1922-1953).svg
Reference style Her Majesty
Spoken styleYour Majesty
Alternative styleHanem

Honours

National dynastic honour

Foreign honour

In 2007, Queen Nazli was played by Egyptian actress Wafaa Amer in the Drama "El-malek Farouk". [22]

In 2008, Rawia Rashed published a book about Queen Nazli, titled Nazli, Malika Fi El Manfa (Nazli, A Queen in Exile). [7] Based on this book, an Egyptian TV series provided an account for the life of Queen Nazli, Queen in Exile, starring Egyptian actress Nadia Al Jundi in 2010. [23]

See also

Related Research Articles

Farouk of Egypt Egyptian King

Farouk I was the tenth ruler of Egypt from the Muhammad Ali dynasty and the penultimate King of Egypt and the Sudan, succeeding his father, Fuad I, in 1936.

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Fathia Ghali Egyptian princess

Fathia Ghali was the youngest daughter of Fuad I of Egypt and Nazli Sabri, and so the youngest sister of Farouk I.

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References

  1. 1 2 Rizk, Yunan Labib (13–19 April 2006). "A palace wedding". Al-Ahram Weekly (790). Archived from the original on 4 May 2010. Retrieved 27 February 2010. ... Britain granted the rulers among the family the title of sultan, a naming that was also applied to their wives.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Rosten, David B (2015), "Queen Nazli Sabri", The Last Cheetah of Egypt: A Narrative History of Egyptian Royalty from 1805 to 1953, iUniverse, ISBN   978-1491779392
  3. Samir Raafat (March 2005). "Women whose husbands ruled the realm" (PDF). Egyptian Europe Organization. Archived from the original (PDF) on 7 September 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
  4. 1 2 Hassan Hassan (1 January 2000). In the House of Muhammad Ali: A Family Album, 1805-1952. American Univ in Cairo Press. p. 46. ISBN   978-977-424-554-1 . Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  5. Goldschmidt, Arthur (2000). Biographical dictionary of modern Egypt . Lynne Rienner Publishers. p. 191. ISBN   1-55587-229-8.
  6. "Weekend Nostalgia". The Middle East Journal. 31 May 2013. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  7. 1 2 3 4 Ahmed Maged (6 February 2008). "Revealing book on Queen Nazli depicts her tragic life in exile". Daily News Egypt. Cairo. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  8. Rosten, David B. (3 December 2015). The Last Cheetah of Egypt: A Narrative History of Egyptian Royalty from 1805 to 1953. iUniverse. ISBN   9781491779392.
  9. 1 2 3 "Revealing book on Queen Nazli depicts her tragic life in exile". Daily News Egypt. 5 February 2008. Retrieved 31 August 2016.
  10. Snapshots of Hollywood Collected at Random The Milwaukee Sentinel, 18 April 1955
  11. 1 2 Goodkind, Mike "Ex-princess loses last of fortune", The Free Lance Star, 21 September 1976
  12. Former Queen Selling Jewels, Spokane Daily Chronicle, 28 October 1975
  13. "Nazli". A Bit of History. Retrieved 6 September 2013.
  14. "Queen's Necklace Sells For $4.3M". www.nationaljeweler.com. Retrieved 15 November 2017.
  15. "Untitled Page" الملك فؤاد الأول أول أمير مصري يتزوج من الشعب وعلى منواله نسج الملك فاروق الأول [King Fuad I, the First Egyptian Prince to Marry a Commoner, and King Farouk I Follows in His Footsteps](Reprint). Al Sabah (in Arabic): 29. 20 January 1938. Retrieved 6 March 2010.
  16. "King Farouk Strips Queen Nazli of Title". Daily Record. Ellensburg, WA. 41 (29): 4. 8 August 1950. Retrieved 7 March 2010.
  17. The Muhammad 'Ali Dynasty Royal Ark
  18. The Arabian Royals Agency. "The Arabian Royals Agency".
  19. Blogspot
  20. Blogspot
  21. Wikimedia
  22. El-malek Farouk, Salah Abdallah, Ezzat Abou Aouf, Ezzat Abou-Oat, retrieved 14 November 2017CS1 maint: others (link)
  23. "Nadia Al Jundi fails". Albawaba. 4 September 2010. Retrieved 6 September 2013.

Bibliography

Egyptian royalty
Vacant
Title last held by
Melek Tourhan
Sultana of Egypt
1919–1922
Became Queen
New title
Kingdom of Egypt established
Queen consort of Egypt
1922–1936
Vacant
Title next held by
Farida