Last updated

Nebka (meaning "Lord of the ka ") is the throne name of an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Third Dynasty during the Old Kingdom period, in the 27th century BCE. He is thought to be identical with the Hellenized name Νεχέρωχις (Necherôchis or Necherôphes) recorded by the Egyptian priest Manetho of the much later Ptolemaic period.


Nebka's name is otherwise recorded from the near contemporeanous tomb of a priest of his cult as well as in a possible cartouche from Beit Khallaf, later New Kingdom king lists and in a story of the Papyrus Westcar. If the Beit Khallaf seal impression is indeed a cartouche of Nebka then he is the earliest king to have thus recorded his throne name, otherwise this innovation can be ascribed to Huni.

Nebka is thought by most Egyptologists to be the throne name of Sanakht, the third or fourth ruler of the Third Dynasty, who is sparsely attested by archaeological evidence and must have had only a short reign. Older hypotheses followed two New Kingdom sources which credit Nebka with founding the Third Dynasty, a view that is now believed to contradict the archaeological evidence. The tomb of Nebka has not been located with any certainty and three locations have been proposed: a mastaba in Beit Khallaf attributed to Sanakht by John Garstang, a mudbrick structure in Abu Rawash seen as the tomb of Nebka by Swelim and Dodson, and the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet El Aryan.

Name sources

The earliest source for Nebka's name is the mastaba tomb of the late Third Dynasty high official Akhetaa who, among other positions, held that of "priest of Nebka". [4] [5] [6] The exact location of Akhetaa's mastaba is now lost, hindering further research. It may be near Abusir, where some relief-bearing blocks from the tomb were found re-used as construction material. [7]

The next oldest source is found in a story recorded on the Westcar Papyrus which dates to the Seventeenth Dynasty, but which was likely first written during the late Middle Kingdom period, [8] possibly at the end of the Twelfth Dynasty. [9] There, a king Nebka is cited in the story known as “Nebka and the crocodile”, which pertains to adultery and the typical sort of punishment for that during the Old Kingdom. The story throws a positive light on the personality of king Nebka, who is depicted as a strict but lawful judge. He punishes mischief and unethical behavior, in this case punishing the betrayal of an unfaithful wife with the death penalty. [10] [11] The passage involving Nebka starts after a magician, Ubaoner, throws a commoner who had an affair with Ubaoner's wife to a crocodile, who swallows him for seven days:

During these seven days Ubaoner is received by pharaoh Nebka for an important audience. After the audience Ubaoner invites Nebka to visit his house with the words: “May thy majesty proceed and see the wonder that has happened in the time of thy majesty [... text damaged ...] a commoner.” Nebka and Ubaoner walk to the lake where Ubaoner orders the crocodile to come out of the water and to release the commoner. When king Nebka sees that he says: “This crocodile is dangerous!” But Ubaoner bends down and touches the crocodile and immediately it becomes a figurine of wax again. Then Ubaoner gives a report to Nebka about the affairs. Nebka tells the crocodile: “Take away what is yours!” and the animal grabs the commoner and then disappears. The wife of Ubaoner is brought to Nebka too, and the pharaoh sentences her to death. She is brought to a place east of the palace and burnt alive. Her ash is thrown into the Nile. [10] [12] [11]

The subsequent historical sources date to the Nineteenth Dynasty: the Royal Table of Saqqara mentions a Nebkara close to the end of the Third Dynasty as the direct successor of Sekhemket and predecessor of Huni. This Nebkara is likely a variant of the name Nebka. [13] [14] [15] The near contemporaneous Abydos King list and Turin canon record a king Nebka, this time as the founder of the Third Dynasty. [16]

Finally, a king Necherôchis is listed as the founder of the Third Dynasty in the Aegyptiaca , a history of Egypt written in the 3rd century BCE during the reign of Ptolemy II (283–246 BCE) by an Egyptian priest, Manetho. No copies of the Aegyptiaca have survived to this day and it is now known only through later writings by Sextus Julius Africanus and Eusebius, themselves quoted by the Byzantine scholar George Syncellus. According to these sources, the Aegyptiaca gave Necherôchis as the predecessor of Sesorthos or Tosorthros, both names being widely held to refer to Djoser as the Aegyptiaca credits Sesorthos with the invention of stone architecture. Necherôchis (Eusebius) or Necherôphes (Africanus), both likely Hellenized forms of Nebka, is said to have faced a rebellion of Libyans during his reign, but "when the moon waxed beyond reckoning, they surrendered in terror". [17] Africanus further credits Necherôphes with 28 years of reign. [18]


Seal impression from Beit Khallaf showing Sanakht's serekh together with what could be a cartouche of Nebka. Nebka Sanakht.png
Seal impression from Beit Khallaf showing Sanakht's serekh together with what could be a cartouche of Nebka.

Nebka's identity with respect to other Third Dynasty rulers is now partially settled. Most scholars including Thomas Schneider, [2] Darell Baker, [20] Peter Clayton, [21] Michel Baud, [22] Jaromír Málek, [23] Toby Wilkinson, [24] Kenneth Anderson Kitchen, [15] Stephan Seidlmayer, [25] Michael Rice, [26] Donald Leprohon [3] and Rainer Stadelmann are convinced that Nebka was identical with Hor-Sanakht. This opinion is based on a single fragmentary clay seal discovered by Garstand in 1902 in Beit Khallaf, [27] [28] a locality north of Abydos. [22] Kurt Sethe proposed that the damaged sealing shows the serekh of Sanakht next to a fragmentary cartouche housing an archaic form of the sign for "ka". [29] The cartouche is believed to be just large enough to have enclosed the further sign "Neb". [28] In addition, a further two dozen sealings of Sanakht were uncovered in Beit Khallaf's nearby tomb K2, [28] [30] [1] which John Garstang believed to be this king's tomb. [27] [28] If the identification of Nebka with Sanakht is correct, then Nebka is the earliest king to write his throne name in a cartouche and otherwise this innovation would pass to Huni. [31]

Egyptologists John D. Degreef, Nabil Swelim and Wolfgang Helck resisted the equation of Nebka with Sanakht in earlier research. They underline the heavily damaged nature of the Beit Khallaf seal fragment and hence that the alleged cartouche can be hardly identified with certainty. Instead, they propose that the cartouche could actually be the oval-shaped crest of a royal fortress with one or several boats in it, a city that may have already been mentioned under the name “Elder's boats” in sources dating to the Second Dynasty king Peribsen. [2] [14] [32]


Relief fragment of Sanakht from Sinai ReliefFragmentOfPharaohSanakht-BritishMuseum-August21-08.jpg
Relief fragment of Sanakht from Sinai

Nebka's relative chronological position has been the subject of debate in earlier Egyptology, as he is listed as the first pharaoh of the Third Dynasty in both the Turin (third column, seventh line) and Abydos (15th entry) king lists. [20] Some Egyptologists including Málek tried to reconcile this position in the list with the evidence from Beit Khallaf by proposing that Nebka Sanakht reigned for a short time between the last Second Dynasty ruler Khasekhemwy and Djoser, whom Málek sees as a younger brother to Sanakht. [33]

This is now understood to "flatly contradict" (quoting Wilkinson) much archaeological evidence, [34] [35] which rather point to Djoser as the first ruler of the dynasty and Sekhemket as his immediate successor. For example, numerous seal fragments of Djoser uncovered in the tomb of Khasekhemwy strongly suggest that he buried this king who might have been his father. Khasekhemwy's wife and likely Djoser's mother, queen Nimaethap, was herself buried in tomb K1 of Beit Khallaf which yielded many seals of Djoser but none of Sanakht. [28] Nimaethap was furthermore given the title of “Mother of a king”, that is with a singular, implying that she had only one son who ascended the throne, precluding the reign of Sanakht between those of Khasekhemwy and Djoser. Kitchen also observes that the Turin Canon gives exactly the same reign length of 19 years to both Nebka and Djoser, hinting at an error in the placement of Nebka's name on the canon and the attribution of Djoser's regnal years to Nebka. [2] [14] [32] [36] In addition, the Saqqara king list places Nebka after Sekhemket rather than before Djoser. [20]

Further indirect evidence for Nebka's placement in the late Third Dynasty comes from the Papyrus Westcar, which records the story of "Nebka and the crocodile" between two tales set in the reigns of Djoser and Huni and Sneferu, respectively. [37] Evidence from the tomb of Akhetaa regarding the chronological position of Nebka is inconclusive: on the one hand, Akhetaa's title could indicate that he was priest of the cult of the reigning king and thus that Nebka was alive at the end of the Third Dynasty. On the other hand, it could equally be that Akhetaa was priest of a funerary cult, in which case Nebka's placement could be somewhat earlier. [34]

Given the likely identification of Nebka with Sanakht and the placement of the later in the late Third Dynasty, perhaps as the penultimate king of this line, it is possible that Nebka Sanakht reigned for six years. This is the duration credited by the Turin canon to the immediate predecessor of Huni, whose name is lost, [1] and in any case a short reign better fits the scant archaeological evidence for both Nebka and Sanakht. [1] [3] [16]


Skull uncovered in Beit Khallaf tomb K2, attributed to Sanakht by Garstang. Hen Nekht.png
Skull uncovered in Beit Khallaf tomb K2, attributed to Sanakht by Garstang.

The tomb of Nebka has not been located with any certainty, nor has that of Sanakht. Garstang, who excavated mastaba K2 at Beit Khallaf, believed that it belonged to Sanakht as seals bearing this pharaoh's name were uncovered there, beside a burial. [27] [38] Dieter Arnold and other Egyptologists now think mastaba K2 was the tomb of a private individual rather than a royal one. [39]

Swelim and Aidan Dodson have instead proposed that a mudbrick structure located in Abu Rawash could be the tomb of Nebka. Dodson states that it is a "mudbrick enclosure 330 m × 170 m (1,080 ft × 560 ft) with a 20 m (66 ft) central square massif of the same material, located north of the modern village of Abu Roash, known as El Dair. It has been badly damaged by drainage work since first being discovered in 1902, and now may be beyond saving. However, the plan seems to closely resemble royal funerary monuments of the late Second and early Third Dynasties, while pottery from the site has been dated to the latter period". [40]

Stone sarcophagus from the unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet El Aryan. Photo-cuve-grande-excavation.jpg
Stone sarcophagus from the unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet El Aryan.

On the other hand, some Egyptologists have noticed that Nebka's name seems to be inscribed in the Unfinished Northern Pyramid of Zawyet El Aryan under the form Nebkara, so that this structure could have been started by this king. More precisely, they point to several graffiti made of black and red ink which were found in the chamber and in the descending stairway of the pyramid. Alessandro Barsanti recorded at least 67 inscriptions with the names of different workmen crews as well as the name of the planned pyramid complex: Seba ?-Ka, meaning "The Star of ?-Ka". The workmen crew whose name appears most often — thus being the leading crew during the building works — was Wer-ef-seba ?-Ka, meaning "Great Like the Star of (King) ?-Ka". Inscription No. 35 gives the name Neferka-Nefer (meaning "His Beautiful Ka is Flawless"), but otherwise lacks any reference to known people from the Third or Fourth Dynasty, to which this pyramid is usually ascribed. Graffiti No. 15 and No. 52 mention the royal name Nebkarâ, meaning "Lord of the Ka of " and a further inscription, No. 55, mentions a possible Horus of Gold name: Neb hedjet-nwb, meaning "Lord of the Golden Crown". Some Egyptologists propose that this is either the Horus name of king Huni or the Horus of Gold name of Nebka. [41] [42] [43]

References and sources

Related Research Articles

Unas Egyptian pharaoh

Unas or Wenis, also spelled Unis, was a pharaoh, the ninth and last ruler of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt during the Old Kingdom. Unas reigned for 15 to 30 years in the mid-24th century BC, succeeding Djedkare Isesi, who might have been his father.

Djoser Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty

Djoser was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom and the founder of this epoch. He is also known by his Hellenized names Tosorthros and Sesorthos. He was the son of king Khasekhemwy and queen Nimaathap, but whether he also was the direct throne successor is still unclear. Most Ramesside Kinglists name a king Nebka before him, but since there are still difficulties in connecting that name with contemporary Horus names, some Egyptologists question the received throne sequence.

Sahure Egyptian pharaoh, second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt in the 25th century BC

Sahure was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh and second ruler of the Fifth Dynasty. He reigned for about 12 years in the early 25th century BC during the Old Kingdom Period. Sahure's reign is considered to mark the political and cultural high point of the Fifth Dynasty. He was probably the son of his predecessor Userkaf with Queen Neferhetepes II, and was in turn succeeded by his son Neferirkare Kakai.

The Fifth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is often combined with Dynasties III, IV and VI under the group title the Old Kingdom. The Fifth Dynasty pharaohs reigned for approximately 150 years, from the early 25th century BC until the mid 24th century BC.

Sanakht Egyptian pharaoh

Sanakht was an ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) of the Third Dynasty during the Old Kingdom. His chronological position is highly uncertain, and it is also unclear under which Hellenized name the ancient historian Manetho could have listed him. Many Egyptologists connect Sanakht with the Ramesside cartouche name Nebka. However, this remains disputed because no further royal title of that king has ever been found; either in contemporary source or later ones. There are two relief fragments depicting Sanakht originally from the Wadi Maghareh on the Sinai Peninsula.

Westcar Papyrus Ancient Egyptian text

The Westcar Papyrus is an ancient Egyptian text containing five stories about miracles performed by priests and magicians. In the papyrus text, each of these tales are told at the royal court of king Khufu (Cheops) by his sons. The story in the papyrus usually is rendered in English as, "King Cheops and the Magicians" and "The Tale of King Cheops' Court". In German, into which the text of the Westcar Papyrus was first translated, it is rendered as Die Märchen des Papyrus Westcar.

Huni ancient Egyptian king

Huni was an ancient Egyptian king and the last pharaoh of the 3rd dynasty during the Old Kingdom period. Following the Turin king list, he is commonly credited with a reign of 24 years, ending c. 2613 BC.

Userkaf Ancient Egyptian pharaoh

Userkaf was a pharaoh of ancient Egypt and the founder of the Fifth Dynasty. He reigned for seven to eight years in the early 25th century BC, during the Old Kingdom period. He probably belonged to a branch of the Fourth Dynasty royal family, although his parentage is uncertain; he could have been the son of Khentkaus I. He had at least one daughter and very probably a son, Sahure, with his consort Neferhetepes. This son succeeded him as pharaoh.

Neferirkare Kakai Egyptian pharaoh

Neferirkare Kakai was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh, the third king of the Fifth Dynasty. Neferirkare, the eldest son of Sahure with his consort Meretnebty, was known as Ranefer A before he came to the throne. He acceded the day after his father's death and reigned for eight to eleven years, sometime in the early to mid-25th century BCE. He was himself very likely succeeded by his eldest son, born of his queen Khentkaus II, the prince Ranefer B who would take the throne as king Neferefre. Neferirkare fathered another pharaoh, Nyuserre Ini, who took the throne after Neferefre's short reign and the brief rule of the poorly known Shepseskare.

Menkauhor Kaiu Pharaoh of Egypt

Menkauhor Kaiu was an Ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Old Kingdom period. He was the seventh ruler of the Fifth Dynasty at the end of the 25th century BC or early in the 24th century BC.

Khaba pharaoh of Ancient Egypt

Khaba was a pharaoh of Ancient Egypt, active during the 3rd dynasty of the Old Kingdom period. The exact time during which Khaba ruled is unknown but may have been around 2670 BC.

Pyramid of Unas Pyramid complex of the last pharaoh of the Fifth Dynasty of Egypt built at Saqqara

The Pyramid of Unas is a smooth-sided pyramid built in the 24th century BC for the Egyptian pharaoh Unas, the ninth and final king of the Fifth Dynasty. It is the smallest Old Kingdom pyramid, but significant due to the discovery of Pyramid Texts, spells for the king's afterlife incised into the walls of its subterranean chambers. Inscribed for the first time in Unas's pyramid, the tradition of funerary texts carried on in the pyramids of subsequent rulers, through to the end of the Old Kingdom, and into the Middle Kingdom through the Coffin Texts that form the basis of the Book of the Dead.

John Garstang British archaeologist

John Garstang was a British archaeologist of the ancient Near East, especially Anatolia and the southern Levant. He was the younger brother of Professor Walter Garstang, FRS, a marine biologist and zoologist. Garstang is considered a pioneer in the development of scientific practices in archaeology as he kept detailed records of his excavations with extensive photographic records, which was a comparatively rare practice in early 20th-century archaeology

Beit Khallaf Place in Sohag, Egypt

Beit Khallaf is a village located 10 kilometers west of Girga in Upper Egypt. The village has been ruled by the Sibaq family, a wealthy and traditionally powerful tribe of Houara descent. Beit Khallaf is part of the area known as the Hajer line, which is composed of three other villages: Beit Allam, Beit Khuraybi, and Beit Dawud Sahl. As of 2006, the total population of the village is 10,895 people.

Nimaathap was an Ancient Egyptian queen consort at the transition time from 2nd dynasty to 3rd dynasty. Nimaathap may have acted as regent for her son Djoser.

Baufra is the name of an alleged son of the ancient Egyptian king (pharaoh) Khufu from the 4th dynasty of the Old Kingdom. He is known from a story in the Papyrus Westcar and from a rock inscription at Wadi Hammamat. He is neither contemporarily nor archaeologically attested, which makes his historical figure disputable to scholars up to this day.

Third Dynasty of Egypt dynasty of ancient Egypt

The Third Dynasty of ancient Egypt is the first dynasty of the Old Kingdom. Other dynasties of the Old Kingdom include the Fourth, Fifth and Sixth. The capital during the period of the Old Kingdom was at Memphis.

Ba, also known as Horus Ba, is the serekh-name of an early Egyptian or ancient Egyptian king who may have ruled at the end of the 1st dynasty, the latter part of 2nd dynasty or during the 3rd dynasty. Neither the exact length of his reign nor his chronological position is known.

Horus Sa

Horus Sa was a possible early Egyptian pharaoh who may have reigned during the 2nd or 3rd dynasty of Egypt. His existence is disputed, as is the meaning of the artifacts that have been interpreted as confirming his existence.

Akhetaa was an Ancient Egyptian high official during the mid to late 3rd dynasty. He is mostly known for his tomb inscriptions, which refer to various seldom used titles as well as to the shadowy king Nebka, in whose cult Akhetaa served.


  1. 1 2 3 4 Wilkinson 1999, p. 102.
  2. 1 2 3 4 Schneider 2002, pp. 167 & 243.
  3. 1 2 3 Leprohon 2013, p. 33.
  4. Wilkinson 1999, pp. 102–103.
  5. Weill 1908, pp. 262–273, pls. VI–VII.
  6. Porter, Moss & Burney 1974, p. 500.
  7. Ziegler 1999, pp. 189–190.
  8. Parkinson 2001, p. 24.
  9. Burkard, Thissen & Quack 2003, p. 178.
  10. 1 2 Lepper 2008, pp. 35–41 & 308–310.
  11. 1 2 Lichtheim 2000, pp. 215–220.
  12. Erman 1890, pp. 7–10.
  13. von Beckerath 1999, pp. 49, 283 & 293.
  14. 1 2 3 Helck 1987.
  15. 1 2 Kitchen 1998, pp. 534–538.
  16. 1 2 Baker 2008, pp. 347–348.
  17. Waddell 1971, pp. 42–43.
  18. Waddell 1971, p. 41.
  19. Garstang 1903, pl. XIX.
  20. 1 2 3 Baker 2008, p. 347.
  21. Clayton 1994, p. 32.
  22. 1 2 Baud 2007, pp. 19–20 & 41.
  23. Málek 2000, p. 96.
  24. Wilkinson 1999, pp. 101–104.
  25. Seidlmayer 1996, p. 121, pl. 23.
  26. Rice 1999, p. 174.
  27. 1 2 3 Garstang 1903, pp. 3, 11–14, 24–25 & pls. XVII, XIX & XXIII.
  28. 1 2 3 4 5 Baker 2008, p. 348.
  29. Pätznik 2005, pp. 69–72 & 78–80.
  30. Kahl 2001, p. 592.
  31. Verner 2001, p. 586.
  32. 1 2 Wildung 1969, pp. 54–58.
  33. Málek 2000, pp. 85 & 87.
  34. 1 2 Wilkinson 1999, p. 103.
  35. Kahl 2001, p. 591.
  36. Swelim 1983, pp. 196–198.
  37. Parkinson 2001, p. 25.
  38. 1 2 Myers 1901, pp. 152–153.
  39. Arnold et al. 2003, pp. 28–29.
  40. Dodson 1998, p. 30.
  41. Verner 1999, pp. 270–272.
  42. Stadelmann 1985, pp. 77 & 140–145.
  43. Gundacker 2009, pp. 26–30.


Allen, James; Allen, Susan; Anderson, Julie; Arnold, Arnold; Arnold, Dorothea; Cherpion, Nadine; David, Élisabeth; Grimal, Nicolas; Grzymski, Krzysztof; Hawass, Zahi; Hill, Marsha; Jánosi, Peter; Labée-Toutée, Sophie; Labrousse, Audran; Lauer, Jean-Phillippe; Leclant, Jean; Der Manuelian, Peter; Millet, N. B.; Oppenheim, Adela; Craig Patch, Diana; Pischikova, Elena; Rigault, Patricia; Roehrig, Catharine H.; Wildung, Dietrich; Ziegler, Christiane (1999). "Relief Block with the Figure of Aa-akhti". Egyptian Art in the Age of the Pyramids. New York: The Metropolitan Museum of Art. pp. 189–190. ISBN   978-0-8109-6543-0. OCLC   41431623.
Arnold, Dieter; Gardiner, Sabine H.; Strudwick, Helen; Strudwick, Nigel (2003). The Encyclopedia of Ancient Egyptian Architecture. Princeton, N.J.: Princeton University Press. ISBN   978-0-69-111488-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Baker, Darrell (2008). The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC. Stacey International. ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Baud, Michel (2007). Djéser et la IIIe dynastie. Grands pharaons (in French). Paris: Pygmalion. ISBN   978-2-75-641753-0.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Burkard, Günter; Thissen, Heinz Josef; Quack, Joachim Friedrich (2003). Einführung in die altägyptische Literaturgeschichte. Band 1: Altes und Mittleres Reich. Einführungen und Quellentexte zur Ägyptologie. 1,3,6. Münster: LIT. ISBN   978-3-82-580987-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Clayton, Peter (1994). Chronicle of the Pharaohs. London: Thames & Hudson. ISBN   978-0-500-05074-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Dodson, Aidan (1998). "On the threshold of glory: the third dynasty". KMT: A Modern Journal of Egyptology. 9 (2): 26–40.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Erman, Adolf (1890). Die Märchen des Papyrus Westcar I. Einleitung und Commentar. Mitteilungen aus den Orientalischen Sammlungen (in German). V. Berlin: Spemann, Königliche Museen zu Berlin. OCLC   898843662.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Garstang, John (1903). Maḥâsna and Bêt Khallâf. London: B. Quaritch. OCLC   457606654.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Gundacker, Roman (2009). "Zur Struktur der Pyramidennamen der 4. Dynastie". Sokar (in German). 18. ISSN   1438-7956.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Helck, Wolfgang (1987). Untersuchungen zur Thintenzeit. Ägyptologische Abhandlungen (in German). 45. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN   978-3-447-02677-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Kahl, Jochem (2001). "Third Dynasty". In Redford, Donald B. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 591–593. ISBN   978-0-19-510234-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Kitchen, Kenneth A (1998). Ramesside Inscriptions, Translated and Annotated Notes and Comments. Volume II, Ramesses II, Royal inscriptions. London: Blackwell. ISBN   978-0-63-118435-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Lichtheim, Miriam (2000). Ancient Egyptian literature: a book of readings. The Old and Middle Kingdoms, Volume 1. University of California Press. ISBN   978-0-520-02899-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Lepper, Verena M. (2008). Untersuchungen zu pWestcar. Eine philologische und literaturwissenschaftliche (Neu-)Analyse. Ägyptologische Abhandlungen (in German). 70. Wiesbaden: Harrassowitz. ISBN   978-3-447-05651-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Leprohon, Ronald J. (2013). The great name: ancient Egyptian royal titulary. Writings from the ancient world, no. 33. Atlanta: Society of Biblical Literature. ISBN   978-1-58983-736-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Málek, Jaromír (2000). "The Old Kingdom (c. 2160–2055 BC)". In Shaw, Ian (ed.). The Oxford History of Ancient Egypt. Oxford: Oxford University Press. ISBN   978-0-19-815034-3.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Myers, Charles S. (1901). "The Bones of Hen Nekht, an Egyptian King of the Third Dynasty". The Journal of the Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. London: Royal Anthropological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. XXX, New series III.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Parkinson, R. B. (2001). "Papyrus Westcar". In Redford, Donald B. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 3. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 24–25. ISBN   978-0-19-510234-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Pätznik, Jean-Pierre (2005). Die Siegelabrollungen und Rollsiegel der Stadt Elephantine im 3. Jahrtausend v. Chr. : Spurensicherung eines archäologischen Artefaktes. Breasted's Ancient Records (BAR), International Series (in German). 1339. Oxford: Archaeopress. ISBN   978-1-84171-685-5. OCLC   492410616.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Porter, Bertha; Moss, Rosalind L. B.; Burney, Ethel W. (1974). Topographical bibliography of ancient Egyptian hieroglyphic texts, reliefs, and paintings. III/1. Memphis. Abû Rawâsh to Abûṣîr (PDF) (second, revised and augmented by Jaromír Málek ed.). Oxford: Griffith Institute, Oxford University Press at the Clarendon Press. ISBN   978-0-900416-19-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Rice, Michael (1999). Who is who in Ancient Egypt. London & New York: Routledge. ISBN   978-0-203-44328-6.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Schneider, Thomas (2002). Lexikon der Pharaonen (in German). Düsseldorf: Albatros Verlag. ISBN   978-3-49-196053-4.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Seidlmayer, S. J. (1996). "Town and state in the early Old Kingdom. A view from Elephantine". In Spencer, Jeffrey (ed.). Aspects of Early Egypt. London: British Museum Press. ISBN   978-0-71-410999-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Stadelmann, Rainer (1985). Die Ägyptischen Pyramiden: vom Ziegelbau zum Weltwunder. Kulturgeschichte der antiken Welt (in German). 30. Mainz: von Zabern. ISBN   978-3805308557.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Swelim, Nabil (1983). "Some Problems on the History of the Third Dynasty". Archaeological and Historical Studies. 7. Alexandria: The Archaeological Society of Alexandria.Cite journal requires |journal= (help)CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Verner, Miroslav (1999). Die Pyramiden (in German). Reinbek: Rowohlt-Taschenbuch-Verlag. ISBN   978-3-4996-0890-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Verner, Miroslav (2001). "Old Kingdom: An Overview". In Redford, Donald B. (ed.). The Oxford Encyclopedia of Ancient Egypt, Volume 2. Oxford: Oxford University Press. pp. 585–591. ISBN   978-0-19-510234-5.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
von Beckerath, Jürgen (1999). Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen. Münchner ägyptologische Studien (in German). 49. Mainz: Philip von Zabern. ISBN   978-3-8053-2591-2.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Waddell, William Gillan (1971). Manetho. Loeb classical library, 350. Cambridge, Massachusetts; London: Harvard University Press; W. Heinemann. OCLC   6246102.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Weill, Raymond (1908). Les Origines de l'Egypte Pharaonique, 1ère Partie. La IIe et la IIIe Dynasties (in French). Paris: Ernest Leroux. OCLC   422033129.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Wildung, Dietrich (1969). Die Rolle ägyptischer Könige im Bewusstsein ihrer Nachwelt. Posthume Quellen über die Könige der ersten vier Dynastien. Münchner ägyptologische Studien. 17. Berlin: B. Hessling. OCLC   644820022.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)
Wilkinson, Toby A. H. (1999). Early Dynastic Egypt. Strategies, Society and Security. London: Routledge. ISBN   978-0-415-18633-9.CS1 maint: ref=harv (link)