Ned Hanlan, 1887
12 July 1855
|Died||4 January 1908 52) (aged|
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
|Resting place|| Necropolis Cemetery, Toronto|
|Other names||Edward Hanlan (Hanlon)|
|Height||5 ft 8.75 in (1.7 m)|
|Weight||150 lb (68.0 kg)|
|Title||World champion sculler|
|Spouse(s)||Margaret Gordon Sutherland|
Edward "Ned" Hanlan (12 July 1855 – 4 January 1908) was a professional sculler, hotelier, and alderman from Toronto, Ontario, Canada.
Rowing, sometimes referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain.
A hotel manager, hotelier, or lodging manager is a person who manages the operation of a hotel, motel, resort, or other lodging-related establishment. Management of a hotel operation includes, but is not limited to management of hotel staff, business management, upkeep and sanitary standards of hotel facilities, guest satisfaction and customer service, marketing management, sales management, revenue management, financial accounting, purchasing, and other functions. The title "hotel manager" or "hotelier" often refers to the hotel's General Manager who serves as a hotel's head executive, though their duties and responsibilities vary depending on the hotel's size, purpose, and expectations from ownership. The hotel's General Manager is often supported by subordinate department managers that are responsible for individual departments and key functions of the hotel operation.
An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.
Hanlan was born to Irish parents; one of two sons and two daughters. His mother was Mary Gibbs, his father, John, was first a fisherman and later a hotel keeper on the Toronto Islands. The Hanlan family originally lived at the east end of Toronto Island, but a severe storm in 1865 pushed their house into the harbour. It washed ashore near the north end of Gibraltar Point, at the island's west end. A few years later, Hanlan's father built a small hotel there, and the area started becoming known as Hanlan's Point, long before Hanlan became famous. Young Hanlan used to row several kilometres across the harbour to go to and from George Street public school, Toronto every day. He developed speed and strength by rowing his boat with freshly-caught fish to sell at market before other fishermen arrived to compete.By the time Hanlan was a teenager, he was competing in rowing events and he gained his first important success at the age of eighteen, when he became amateur champion of Toronto Bay.
The Toronto Islands are a chain of 15 small islands in Lake Ontario, south of mainland Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Comprising the only group of islands in the western part of Lake Ontario, the Toronto Islands are located just offshore from the city centre, and provide shelter for Toronto Harbour. The islands are home to parkland, the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, several yacht clubs, Centreville Amusement Park, and Hanlan's Beach. The island community is considered to be the largest urban car-free community in North America, although some service vehicles are permitted. Access to the Islands is by ferry, including the City of Toronto ferries operating from Jack Layton Ferry Terminal at the foot of Bay Street, or by water taxis.
He turned professional in c. 1874 / 5 and soon afterwards he beat all comers at the Centennial International Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. In 1877 he became champion sculler of Canada, followed by Champion sculler of the United States in 1878. That same year, Hanlan won the Dufferin Gold Medal.After further success in North America he decided to test his mettle against Europe and traveled to England in 1879 where, on 16 June 1879 he defeated the English champion, W. Elliott of Blyth, rowing the course from the Mansion House in Newcastle upon Tyne to the Scotswood Bridge on the River Tyne in the record time of 21 minutes 2 seconds. Ultimately he lost only six of his 300 races during his rowing career. He was the world sculling champion for five consecutive years from 1880-1884.
Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.
The Dufferin Medal was a Canadian award instituted in 1873 by the Earl of Dufferin — Canada's third Governor-General who served in that role from 1872 to 1878. The Dufferin Medal was an official British commendation to Canadian students and athletes who had achieved high excellence in academics and athletics. Lord Dufferin and Lady Dufferin presented the medals to honorees, annually, through the end of their appointment in 1878. Dufferin Medals were the forerunner to Governor General's Awards. While gold, silver, and bronze denoted first, second, and third, acknowledgement in biographies often only reference the "Dufferin Medal." Gold medals in proficiency categories — where competition was not involved — were rarely awarded.
England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.
Unlike his English professional rivals, he used the slide simultaneously with the swing, kept his body well back, and held his arms straight long past the perpendicular before bending them, added strength being given by the skilful use of his great leg power.
With this triple crown the Hanlan Club disbanded, its mission accomplished. But the oarsman himself had one more goal, the World Championship, held by Australian Edward Trickett. On 15 November 1880 he raced him on the River Thames's historic Putney to Mortlake course and, with 100,000 spectators lining the banks, won easily. In doing so he became Canada's first world sporting champion in an individual or singles event. He rowed a boat built by George Warin of Toronto.News of Hanlan's success, spread by telegraph and newspaper, touched off a rare moment of communion among English-speaking Canadians. His victory also enriched “hundreds” of Ontarians “from Judges to peanut vendors” (Toronto Globe) who had backed him with cabled wagers.
Edward "Ned" Trickett was an Australian rower. He was the first Australian to be recognised as a world champion in any sport, after winning the World Sculling Championship in 1876, a title he held until 1880, when he was beaten by Canadian Ned Hanlan.
The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn.
Hanlan was an active champion, accepting frequent challenges and racing often against the larger fields of non-title regattas. Defending his United States title against the latest American hope was particularly lucrative. In 1878 he had won an unprecedented $10,000 by defeating Charles Edward Courtney at Lachine, Que. Two years later Hanlan beat him again in Washington, D.C., winning $6,000. Although it was the champion's prerogative to veto the site of any match, he never insisted on home advantage. Three months after he trounced Trickett he defended his world title against another Australian, Elias C. Laycock, on the Thames.
Elias Connell Laycock was an Australian competitive rower who three times tried to become the World Sculling Champion.
In 1882 he returned to beat Englishman R. W. Boyd and, a month later, Trickett again. The following year, (1883) after a bout with typhoid which had led to reports of his death, he turned back challenges in the United States from James Kennedy, an American, and Wallace Ross. There is some debate about these two races as they are not recorded in the list of Championship Races such as the one published in 1930 by the British Rowing Almanac nor in other publications. There is no doubt that the races took place. The Kennedy match was for $2500 a side and was rowed in Boston. Wallace Ross had beaten Hanlan in an earlier non-title match and thus claimed to be the unofficial World Champion. To try to make it official Ross challenged Hanlan and the match took place in New York. Hanlan won and made a record time in the process by taking fifty seconds off the previous best time for the four mile course. These two matches were the only World Championship matches ever held in the US, other than one in 1932. In 1884 Hanlan again beat Laycock, this time on the Nepean River, in New South Wales. Strangely enough, of the twelve Championship races that Hanlan rowed none of them was raced in Canada. For further details of his Championship races see World Sculling Championship.
Hanlan's genius was a superbly efficient stroke – he was the father of the modern technique. He took full advantage of the sliding seat, not only to obtain greater reach but to drive with the large muscles of the legs in a coordinated, fluid motion so that the power of his whole body was marshalled into every stroke. This movement was no easy task in a frail, tipsy shell. Novices were discouraged from employing the slider for many years, and many of his rivals who did use it pulled primarily with their arms. Hanlan, who was only 5 feet 8 3/4 inches tall, weighed a mere 150 pounds in most of his races, yet his powerful stroke enabled him to beat larger, stronger men. While he rarely rowed at more than 36 strokes per minute, compared with as many as 42 for his rivals, he usually led from the start, often toying with opponents. During his championship race against Morris he slowed down, and twice stopped altogether, to enable the American to make a race of it; he still won by three lengths. He competed with icy calm and, although the term had yet to be coined, was a master at "psyching out" opponents with timely taunts. He had no qualms about humiliating those he disliked. When racing the arrogant Trickett he chatted with spectators and blew them kisses, stopped and waited, faked a collapse, and rowed in zigzags while the Australian laboured in his wake. On one occasion Hanlan crossed the line so far in front that he leisurely rowed back to his opponent and then beat him to the finish line a second time.
Hanlan's main occupation for many years continued to be rowing. He held his world title until 16 Aug. 1884, when he was defeated by Australian Bill Beach on the Parramatta River near Sydney. Hanlan's friends put the blame for the loss on a second bout with typhoid, the debilitating effects of almost eight months of foreign travel, and a near collision during the race with a chartered steamer, but the muscular blacksmith was an exceptional opponent. Unlike Hanlan's other challengers, Beach had mastered the use of the sliding seat; he also outweighed the defending champion by 50 pounds. Hanlan stayed another seven months for a rematch but Beach beat him then, and again in 1887. Returning the following year to race Beach's successor, Peter Kemp, Hanlan was twice unsuccessful. The next Canadian to hold the world championship would be Jake Gaudaur Snr., in 1896.
Despite having lost his American title to John Teemer in 1885, Hanlan was far from finished. Although he chose opponents with increasing care, he raced with success and drew large crowds to his exhibitions for another decade. In 1891 he teamed up with fellow Torontonian (and new American champion) William Joseph O’Connor* to win the American doubles championship, only to lose it the following year to Gaudaur and an American, George Hosmer. After O’Connor died in 1892, Hanlan raced with other partners but never again took a major doubles title. During his career he won more than 300 races, including exhibitions, and suffered fewer than a dozen defeats. As befits a sporting hero Hanlan was affable, handsome, hard-working, and generally honest. (After a brief scrape with the law – he escaped arrest for bootlegging outside his father's hotel in 1876 by rowing out to a cross-lake ferry, only to return in glory following his victory in Philadelphia – he managed to avoid the scandals which plagued his rivals.) When newspapers in the United States claimed him as an American because of his successes there, he stressed his Canadian identity. His confident victories against the best rowers from the United States and Britain seemed to confirm the wisdom of the attempt to build a new northern nation, and the vitality of its rising cities and towns. The Globe called him Canada's best immigration agent.
Hanlan was involved in twelve championship races with seven wins and five losses. Strangely, none of these races were in Canada. For further details of the World Title races that Hanlan was involved in see World Sculling Championship.
Diminutive compared to his competition at the height of 5 feet 8.75 inches (1.7 m) and normal race weight of 150 pounds (68.0 kg) and familiar blue shirt, Hanlan was called "the boy in blue". Actor Nicolas Cage portrayed Hanlan in the 1986 film The Boy in Blue . He married on 19 December 1877 Margaret Gordon Sutherland of Pictou, Nova Scotia; they had two sons and six daughters. His elder son, Edward Gordon Hanlan, served as a lieutenant in the Royal Flying Corps and died in a flying accident in England in 1917.
Following his career as an athlete, Hanlan became a hotelier like his father, and eventually became involved in municipal politics as an alderman of Toronto. He was the first head coach of the University of Toronto Rowing Club in 1897. In 1900, he decided to leave and coach the crew of Columbia University, New York for some years.Hanlan died of pneumonia at age 52. Ten thousand Torontonians thronged to pay their final respects at the church where his body lay in state.
Toronto, New South Wales, Australia was named after Toronto, Ontario, in honour of Edward Hanlan.Hanlan's visit to Australia in 1884 coincided with the opening of the new subdivision. The area's subdividers, the Excelsior Company, named the land in honour of Hanlan's visit.
In 1926, a larger-than-life bronze statue of a mustachioed, muscular, shirtless Hanlan, shown clad in his rowing trunks, was unveiled on the grounds of the Canadian National Exhibition. This monument was relocated to a site near the ferry dock at Hanlan's Point in 2004.In 1980, a postage stamp was issued in his honour commemorating the centenary of his first world championship. In addition, the Ned Hanlan Steamboat is named after him.
A community in Mississauga along Britannia Road between Tomken and Dixie Roads was named for Hanlan, as well as Hanlan Public School (closed 1957), but all that remains of the area's name is Hanlan Reservoir and Pumping Station.
Hanlan Road in Vaughan, Ontario is named after him. Gaudaur Road, named after a fellow World Champion, runs off Hanlan Road. A road in Surfer's Paradise, Australia is also named after Hanlan.
Ned Hanlan was inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame in 2002.
|Date (DMY)||Event||Place or Course||Length||Opposition||Stake||Win/Lose||Comments|
|1874||Local Championship||Burlington Bay||-||Thomas Louden||-||w||First professional race|
|1875||-||Toronto Bay||-||Thomas Louden||$100 a side||w||in summer|
|1875||Governor General's Medal||Toronto||2 miles||Louden & Douglas||-||w|
|1876||-||-||-||James Douglas||w||in spring|
|1876||-||-||-||William McKay||-||w||in spring|
|12/8/1876||Championship of Ontario||-||-||McKen||-||w|
|1876||International Centennial Regatta||Philadelphia||3 miles||Many top men||-||w||Won several heats also|
|13/6/1876||match||Silver Lake, Boston||-||Fred Plaisted||-||l|
|26/6/1877||Silver Lake, Boston||-||Johnston & Driscoll||-||w|
|4/7/1877||Regatta||Charles River, Boston||-||Fred Plaisted||-||l||Fouled opponent|
|15/10/1877||Match||St John, N.B.||5 miles||Wallace Ross||$1000 a side||w||Championship of British Provinces (i.e. Canada)|
|15/5/1878||Match||Toronto Bay||2 miles||Fred Plaisted||$2000||w||Canadian Championship|
|20/6/1878||Championship of USA||Hulton Course, Pittsberg||5 miles with turn||Evan Morris||-||w||American Champion|
|1/7/1878||Regatta||Brockville||4 miles with turn||7 others||-||w|
|31/7/1878||Kennebecasis||St John N.B.||5 miles with turn||Wallace Ross||$2000||w||Canadian Championship. Ross fell out of his boat|
|12/8/1878||Barrie Regatta||-||-||9 others||-||w|
|3/10/1878||Lachine||Canada||5 miles||Charles E. Courtney||$8000||w||won easily. US Championship|
|8/5/1879||Match||Tyne UK||3m, 760yds||John Hawdon||£400||w|
|16/6/1879||Championship of England||Tyne||3m, 760yds||William Elliott (rower)||£200 a side||w||Plus Sportsman's Challenge Cup|
|18/8/1879||Barrie Regatta||-||-||Various||-||l||Said to be out of condition|
|October 1879||US Title||Chatauqua Lake||5 miles with turn||Charles E. Courtney||$6000||w||“The Fixed Match” US Championship. Stake Unpaid.|
|19/5/1880||-||Potomac River, Washington||-||Charles E. Courtney||-||w||US Championship|
|26/5/1880||-||Potomac River||-||James Riley||w||US Championship|
|17/6/1880||“Hop Bitters” Regatta||Rhode Island||4 miles with turn||Various||$5000||l||won some heats|
|15/11/1880||World Title||Thames UK||4.25 miles||Edward Trickett||£400||w||World Champion plus English Championship|
|14/2/1881||World Title||Thames||4.25 miles||Elias C. Laycock||£500 a side||w||And Championship of England also|
|3/4/1882||World Title||Tyne||3m, 760yds||Robert Boyd||w|
|1/5/1882||World Title||Thames||4.25 miles||Edward Trickett||w|
|30/5/1883||World Title||Boston||3 miles||John A Kennedy||w|
|18/7/1883||World Title||New York||4 miles||Wallace Ross||w|
|22/5/1884||World Title||Nepean, Aust||Elias C. Laycock||w|
|16/8/1884||World Title||Parramatta Sydney||3.25 miles||Bill Beach||£500 a side||l||Loss of World Title|
|7/2/1885||Match||Parramatta Sydney||3.25 miles||Tom Clifford||w|
|28/5/1885||World Title||Parramatta Sydney||3.25 miles||Bill Beach||£500 a side||l|
|23/7/1885||Match||Cazenovia Lake, Syracuse||2.5 miles||George Hosmer||-||w|
|7/9/1885||3-way match||Sheephead Bay||3 miles with turn||Ross and Lee||w|
|24/10/1885||US Title||Albany||3 miles with turn||John Teemer||l||Loss of US Championship|
|25/6/1886||Match||Lake St Joseph (Quebec)||3 miles with turn||George Hosmer||$1500||w|
|1/7/1886||Match||Richelien River (St Johns)||3 miles with turn||Wallace Ross||$3000||w||Won by about six inches.|
|9/8/1886||Regatta||Nantasket Beach||3 miles with turn||Hosmer, James A. Ten Eyck, J McKay||w||won easily.|
|1/9/1886||Match||Jamaica Bay||3 miles||Charles E. Courtney||w||record time claimed, but disputed.|
|30/05/1887||US Title||New York||-||Jacob Gaudaur||l|
|23/07/1887||US Title||New York||3 miles with turn||Jacob Gaudaur||$1000 a side||w||US Championship regained but farcial result as Gaudaur failed to race properly.|
|13/08/1887||US Title||Toronto||John Teemer||l||US Title lost (again)|
|26/11/1887||World Title||Parramatta Sydney||3.25 miles||Bill Beach||l|
|5/5/1888||World Title||Parramatta Sydney||3.25 miles||Peter Kemp (rower)||£500 a side||l|
|13/6/1888||Match||Rockhampton||3 miles||Edward Trickett||w|
|28/9/1888||World Title||Parramatta Sydney||3.25 miles||Peter Kemp (rower)||£500 a side||l|
|27/11/1888||Match||Parramatta Sydney||3.25 miles||Bill Beach||£500 a side||l|
|01/09/1892||Match||Toronto||2 miles||Charles Stephenson (rower)||-||w|
|24/7/1893||Match||Orillia, Ontario||3 miles||Jacob Gaudaur||l||about his major last race.|
Although Hanlan mainly raced in the single sculls he sometimes partnered another person to race double sculls. At least twice Hanlan became the joint holder of the Double Sculls World Championship title. The following are some of his double sculls races.
|Date (DMY)||Event||Partner||Place or Course||Length||Opposition||Stake||Win/Lose||Comments|
|5/6/1886||Hanlan Regatta||George Lee||Toronto||3 miles with turn||George Hosmer & John McKay||-||w||by 4 lengths, in 26m.18s.|
|8/8/1891||World Championship||William Joseph O'Connor||Hamilton, Ontario||3 miles with turn||Jacob Gaudaur & John McKay||$1000 a side||w||by 4+ lengths, in 18m.26.5s.|
|23/6/1892||World Championship||William Joseph O'Connor||Eire, Pennsylvania||3 miles with turn||George Hosmer & Jacob Gaudaur||$1500||w||won by two feet in 19m.55s.|
|5/9/1892||World Championship||William Joseph O'Connor||Ontario Beach||3 miles with 3 turns||George Hosmer & Jacob Gaudaur||$1500||l||loss of Championship|
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Charles Stephenson was a New Zealand rower. He was born in Hobson Street, Auckland. He passed most of his boyhood at the Thames, and after leaving school went to the Northern Wairoa district, where he took to a bushman's life. His work in the kauri bushes was varied by an occasional spell as a boatman on the river, and so he got his first lessons in rowing. For three years he was in the service of the Hon. E. Mitchelson, at Dargaville, and during that time got a good deal of rough practice in rowing. His first race was rowed, with J. Wilson as a partner, in the pairs at the Wairoa Regatta in April 1887. Their principal opponents were the Brothers Brown, who were recognised at the time as the "bosses" of the river. To the surprise of everyone young Stephenson and his mate won easily. The Browns were not satisfied with their defeat, and a match was made with their conquerors for £50 a-side, to come off a month after the regatta. This had the same result, and Stephenson's reputation began to grow. In January 1888, he was one of the Northern Wairoa Whaleboat Crew which finished third at Auckland Anniversary Regatta. Waitemata winning and North Shore rowing second. After this he went back to the bush; but in November 1888, he and two friends left the Wairoa, intending to go to Tasmania. Stephenson, however, got no further than Sydney, where he determined to try his luck as a professional sculler.
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