Ned Hanlan

Last updated
Ned Hanlan
Ned Hanlan.jpg
Ned Hanlan, 1887
Born
Edward Hanlan

(1855-07-12)12 July 1855
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Died4 January 1908(1908-01-04) (aged 52)
Toronto, Ontario, Canada
Resting place Necropolis Cemetery, Toronto
43°40′4″N79°21′41″W / 43.66778°N 79.36139°W / 43.66778; -79.36139
Nationality Canadian
Other namesEdward Hanlan (Hanlon)
Height5 ft 8.75 in (1.7 m)
Weight150 lb (68.0 kg)
TitleWorld champion sculler
Term1880–1884
Predecessor Edward Trickett
Successor Bill Beach
Spouse(s)Margaret Gordon Sutherland
Notes
[1]

Edward "Ned" Hanlan (12 July 1855 – 4 January 1908) was a professional sculler, hotelier, and alderman from Toronto, Ontario, Canada.

Rowing (sport) Sport where individuals or teams row boats by oar

Rowing, sometimes referred to as crew in the United States, is a sport whose origins reach back to Ancient Egyptian times. It involves propelling a boat on water using oars. By pushing against the water with an oar, a force is generated to move the boat. The sport can be either recreational for enjoyment or fitness, or competitive, when athletes race against each other in boats. There are a number of different boat classes in which athletes compete, ranging from an individual shell to an eight-person shell with a coxswain.

A hotel manager, hotelier, or lodging manager is a person who manages the operation of a hotel, motel, resort, or other lodging-related establishment. Management of a hotel operation includes, but is not limited to management of hotel staff, business management, upkeep and sanitary standards of hotel facilities, guest satisfaction and customer service, marketing management, sales management, revenue management, financial accounting, purchasing, and other functions. The title "hotel manager" or "hotelier" often refers to the hotel's General Manager who serves as a hotel's head executive, though their duties and responsibilities vary depending on the hotel's size, purpose, and expectations from ownership. The hotel's General Manager is often supported by subordinate department managers that are responsible for individual departments and key functions of the hotel operation.

An alderman is a member of a municipal assembly or council in many jurisdictions founded upon English law. The term may be titular, denoting a high-ranking member of a borough or county council, a council member chosen by the elected members themselves rather than by popular vote, or a council member elected by voters.

Contents

Early life

Hanlan was born to Irish parents; one of two sons and two daughters. His mother was Mary Gibbs, his father, John, was first a fisherman and later a hotel keeper on the Toronto Islands. The Hanlan family originally lived at the east end of Toronto Island, but a severe storm in 1865 pushed their house into the harbour. It washed ashore near the north end of Gibraltar Point, at the island's west end. A few years later, Hanlan's father built a small hotel there, and the area started becoming known as Hanlan's Point, long before Hanlan became famous. Young Hanlan used to row several kilometres across the harbour to go to and from George Street public school, Toronto every day. He developed speed and strength by rowing his boat with freshly-caught fish to sell at market before other fishermen arrived to compete. [2] [3] By the time Hanlan was a teenager, he was competing in rowing events and he gained his first important success at the age of eighteen, when he became amateur champion of Toronto Bay.

Toronto Islands archipelago in Lake Ontario, Canada

The Toronto Islands are a chain of 15 small islands in Lake Ontario, south of mainland Toronto, Ontario, Canada. Comprising the only group of islands in the western part of Lake Ontario, the Toronto Islands are located just offshore from the city centre, and provide shelter for Toronto Harbour. The islands are home to parkland, the Billy Bishop Toronto City Airport, several yacht clubs, Centreville Amusement Park, and Hanlan's Beach. The island community is considered to be the largest urban car-free community in North America, although some service vehicles are permitted. Access to the Islands is by ferry, including the City of Toronto ferries operating from Jack Layton Ferry Terminal at the foot of Bay Street, or by water taxis.

Rowing career

Ned Hanlan monument, sculpted by Emanuel Hahn, on the Toronto Islands Ned Hanlan statue on the Toronto Islands.jpg
Ned Hanlan monument, sculpted by Emanuel Hahn, on the Toronto Islands

He turned professional in c. 1874 / 5 and soon afterwards he beat all comers at the Centennial International Exhibition at Philadelphia in 1876. In 1877 he became champion sculler of Canada, followed by Champion sculler of the United States in 1878. That same year, Hanlan won the Dufferin Gold Medal. [4] After further success in North America he decided to test his mettle against Europe and traveled to England in 1879 where, on 16 June 1879 he defeated the English champion, W. Elliott of Blyth, rowing the course from the Mansion House in Newcastle upon Tyne to the Scotswood Bridge on the River Tyne in the record time of 21 minutes 2 seconds. [5] Ultimately he lost only six of his 300 races during his rowing career. He was the world sculling champion for five consecutive years from 1880-1884.

Philadelphia Largest city in Pennsylvania, United States

Philadelphia, known colloquially as Philly, is the largest city in the U.S. state and Commonwealth of Pennsylvania, and the sixth-most populous U.S. city, with a 2018 census-estimated population of 1,584,138. Since 1854, the city has been coterminous with Philadelphia County, the most populous county in Pennsylvania and the urban core of the eighth-largest U.S. metropolitan statistical area, with over 6 million residents as of 2017. Philadelphia is also the economic and cultural anchor of the greater Delaware Valley, located along the lower Delaware and Schuylkill Rivers, within the Northeast megalopolis. The Delaware Valley's population of 7.2 million ranks it as the eighth-largest combined statistical area in the United States.

The Dufferin Medal was a Canadian award instituted in 1873 by the Earl of Dufferin — Canada's third Governor-General who served in that role from 1872 to 1878. The Dufferin Medal was an official British commendation to Canadian students and athletes who had achieved high excellence in academics and athletics. Lord Dufferin and Lady Dufferin presented the medals to honorees, annually, through the end of their appointment in 1878. Dufferin Medals were the forerunner to Governor General's Awards. While gold, silver, and bronze denoted first, second, and third, acknowledgement in biographies often only reference the "Dufferin Medal." Gold medals in proficiency categories — where competition was not involved — were rarely awarded.

England Country in north-west Europe, part of the United Kingdom

England is a country that is part of the United Kingdom. It shares land borders with Wales to the west and Scotland to the north-northwest. The Irish Sea lies west of England and the Celtic Sea lies to the southwest. England is separated from continental Europe by the North Sea to the east and the English Channel to the south. The country covers five-eighths of the island of Great Britain, which lies in the North Atlantic, and includes over 100 smaller islands, such as the Isles of Scilly and the Isle of Wight.

Unlike his English professional rivals, he used the slide simultaneously with the swing, kept his body well back, and held his arms straight long past the perpendicular before bending them, added strength being given by the skilful use of his great leg power. [5]

Ned Hanlan 1878 Ned Hanlan 1878.jpg
Ned Hanlan 1878

World champion

With this triple crown the Hanlan Club disbanded, its mission accomplished. But the oarsman himself had one more goal, the World Championship, held by Australian Edward Trickett. On 15 November 1880 he raced him on the River Thames's historic Putney to Mortlake course and, with 100,000 spectators lining the banks, won easily. In doing so he became Canada's first world sporting champion in an individual or singles event. He rowed a boat built by George Warin of Toronto. [6] News of Hanlan's success, spread by telegraph and newspaper, touched off a rare moment of communion among English-speaking Canadians. His victory also enriched “hundreds” of Ontarians “from Judges to peanut vendors” (Toronto Globe) who had backed him with cabled wagers. [7]

Edward Trickett Australian rower

Edward "Ned" Trickett was an Australian rower. He was the first Australian to be recognised as a world champion in any sport, after winning the World Sculling Championship in 1876, a title he held until 1880, when he was beaten by Canadian Ned Hanlan.

River Thames river in southern England

The River Thames, known alternatively in parts as the Isis, is a river that flows through southern England including London. At 215 miles (346 km), it is the longest river entirely in England and the second longest in the United Kingdom, after the River Severn.

Defending the title

Hanlan was an active champion, accepting frequent challenges and racing often against the larger fields of non-title regattas. Defending his United States title against the latest American hope was particularly lucrative. In 1878 he had won an unprecedented $10,000 by defeating Charles Edward Courtney at Lachine, Que. Two years later Hanlan beat him again in Washington, D.C., winning $6,000. Although it was the champion's prerogative to veto the site of any match, he never insisted on home advantage. Three months after he trounced Trickett he defended his world title against another Australian, Elias C. Laycock, on the Thames.

Elias C. Laycock Australian rower

Elias Connell Laycock was an Australian competitive rower who three times tried to become the World Sculling Champion.

In 1882 he returned to beat Englishman R. W. Boyd and, a month later, Trickett again. The following year, (1883) after a bout with typhoid which had led to reports of his death, he turned back challenges in the United States from James Kennedy, an American, and Wallace Ross. There is some debate about these two races as they are not recorded in the list of Championship Races such as the one published in 1930 by the British Rowing Almanac nor in other publications. There is no doubt that the races took place. The Kennedy match was for $2500 a side and was rowed in Boston. Wallace Ross had beaten Hanlan in an earlier non-title match and thus claimed to be the unofficial World Champion. To try to make it official Ross challenged Hanlan and the match took place in New York. Hanlan won and made a record time in the process by taking fifty seconds off the previous best time for the four mile course. These two matches were the only World Championship matches ever held in the US, other than one in 1932. In 1884 Hanlan again beat Laycock, this time on the Nepean River, in New South Wales. Strangely enough, of the twelve Championship races that Hanlan rowed none of them was raced in Canada. For further details of his Championship races see World Sculling Championship.

Sculling style

Hanlan's genius was a superbly efficient stroke – he was the father of the modern technique. He took full advantage of the sliding seat, not only to obtain greater reach but to drive with the large muscles of the legs in a coordinated, fluid motion so that the power of his whole body was marshalled into every stroke. This movement was no easy task in a frail, tipsy shell. Novices were discouraged from employing the slider for many years, and many of his rivals who did use it pulled primarily with their arms. Hanlan, who was only 5 feet 8 3/4 inches tall, weighed a mere 150 pounds in most of his races, yet his powerful stroke enabled him to beat larger, stronger men. While he rarely rowed at more than 36 strokes per minute, compared with as many as 42 for his rivals, he usually led from the start, often toying with opponents. During his championship race against Morris he slowed down, and twice stopped altogether, to enable the American to make a race of it; he still won by three lengths. He competed with icy calm and, although the term had yet to be coined, was a master at "psyching out" opponents with timely taunts. He had no qualms about humiliating those he disliked. When racing the arrogant Trickett he chatted with spectators and blew them kisses, stopped and waited, faked a collapse, and rowed in zigzags while the Australian laboured in his wake. On one occasion Hanlan crossed the line so far in front that he leisurely rowed back to his opponent and then beat him to the finish line a second time.

Championship loss

Hanlan's main occupation for many years continued to be rowing. He held his world title until 16 Aug. 1884, when he was defeated by Australian Bill Beach on the Parramatta River near Sydney. Hanlan's friends put the blame for the loss on a second bout with typhoid, the debilitating effects of almost eight months of foreign travel, and a near collision during the race with a chartered steamer, but the muscular blacksmith was an exceptional opponent. Unlike Hanlan's other challengers, Beach had mastered the use of the sliding seat; he also outweighed the defending champion by 50 pounds. Hanlan stayed another seven months for a rematch but Beach beat him then, and again in 1887. Returning the following year to race Beach's successor, Peter Kemp, Hanlan was twice unsuccessful. The next Canadian to hold the world championship would be Jake Gaudaur Snr., in 1896.

Despite having lost his American title to John Teemer in 1885, Hanlan was far from finished. Although he chose opponents with increasing care, he raced with success and drew large crowds to his exhibitions for another decade. In 1891 he teamed up with fellow Torontonian (and new American champion) William Joseph O’Connor* to win the American doubles championship, only to lose it the following year to Gaudaur and an American, George Hosmer. After O’Connor died in 1892, Hanlan raced with other partners but never again took a major doubles title. During his career he won more than 300 races, including exhibitions, and suffered fewer than a dozen defeats. As befits a sporting hero Hanlan was affable, handsome, hard-working, and generally honest. (After a brief scrape with the law – he escaped arrest for bootlegging outside his father's hotel in 1876 by rowing out to a cross-lake ferry, only to return in glory following his victory in Philadelphia – he managed to avoid the scandals which plagued his rivals.) When newspapers in the United States claimed him as an American because of his successes there, he stressed his Canadian identity. His confident victories against the best rowers from the United States and Britain seemed to confirm the wisdom of the attempt to build a new northern nation, and the vitality of its rising cities and towns. The Globe called him Canada's best immigration agent.

Hanlan was involved in twelve championship races with seven wins and five losses. Strangely, none of these races were in Canada. For further details of the World Title races that Hanlan was involved in see World Sculling Championship.

Diminutive compared to his competition at the height of 5 feet 8.75 inches (1.7 m) and normal race weight of 150 pounds (68.0 kg) and familiar blue shirt, Hanlan was called "the boy in blue". Actor Nicolas Cage portrayed Hanlan in the 1986 film The Boy in Blue . He married on 19 December 1877 Margaret Gordon Sutherland of Pictou, Nova Scotia; they had two sons and six daughters. His elder son, Edward Gordon Hanlan, served as a lieutenant in the Royal Flying Corps and died in a flying accident in England in 1917. [8]

Later life

Following his career as an athlete, Hanlan became a hotelier like his father, and eventually became involved in municipal politics as an alderman of Toronto. He was the first head coach of the University of Toronto Rowing Club in 1897. In 1900, he decided to leave and coach the crew of Columbia University, New York for some years. [9] Hanlan died of pneumonia at age 52. Ten thousand Torontonians thronged to pay their final respects at the church where his body lay in state.

Legacy

On Humber River with O L Hicks (near boat) 1904 OLHicksNedHanlan1904.jpg
On Humber River with O L Hicks (near boat) 1904

Toronto, New South Wales, Australia was named after Toronto, Ontario, in honour of Edward Hanlan. [10] Hanlan's visit to Australia in 1884 coincided with the opening of the new subdivision. The area's subdividers, the Excelsior Company, named the land in honour of Hanlan's visit.

In 1926, a larger-than-life bronze statue of a mustachioed, muscular, shirtless Hanlan, shown clad in his rowing trunks, was unveiled on the grounds of the Canadian National Exhibition. This monument was relocated to a site near the ferry dock at Hanlan's Point in 2004. [11] In 1980, a postage stamp was issued in his honour commemorating the centenary of his first world championship. [12] In addition, the Ned Hanlan Steamboat is named after him.

A community in Mississauga along Britannia Road between Tomken and Dixie Roads was named for Hanlan, as well as Hanlan Public School (closed 1957), but all that remains of the area's name is Hanlan Reservoir and Pumping Station. [13]

Hanlan Road in Vaughan, Ontario is named after him. Gaudaur Road, named after a fellow World Champion, runs off Hanlan Road. A road in Surfer's Paradise, Australia is also named after Hanlan.

Ned Hanlan was inducted into the Ontario Sports Hall of Fame in 2002. [14]

Racing record

Single sculls

Double sculls

Although Hanlan mainly raced in the single sculls he sometimes partnered another person to race double sculls. At least twice Hanlan became the joint holder of the Double Sculls World Championship title. The following are some of his double sculls races.

Related Research Articles

Harry Kelley (1832–1914) was a famous professional oarsman on the Thames. He became the Tyne, Thames, English and World Sculling Champion, a title he won four times.

Bobby Pearce (rower) Australian rower

Henry Robert "Bobby" Pearce was an Australian three-time world champion sculler of the 1920s and 1930s. He won consecutive Olympic gold medals in the single sculls at the 1928 Summer Olympics in Amsterdam and the 1932 Summer Olympics in Los Angeles. He won the World Sculling Championship in 1933, and twice successfully defended that title in 1934 and 1938. He was a three-time Australian national champion and won the Diamond Sculls at the 1931 Henley Royal Regatta.

University of Toronto Rowing Club Canadian rowing club

The University of Toronto Rowing Club (UTRC) was founded on February 10, 1897 and represents the Varsity Blues at local and international regattas. It is the oldest university rowing club in Canada.

The World Sculling Championship (1863–1957), evolved from the Championship of the Thames for professional scullers.

Bill Beach Australian professional sculler

William "Bill" Beach was a professional Australian sculler. He was unbeaten as World Sculling Champion from 1884 to 1887.

Joseph Henry Sadler was a British professional rower who twice won the World Sculling Championship. Before 1876, the English Sculling Championship was considered to be the premier event in professional sculling. In 1876, the English Title gained the World status and earlier winners were retrospectively given the title of World Champion.

Peter Kemp was one of seven Australians who each won the World Sculling Championship (Professional) between 1876 and 1905.

Jacob Gaudaur Canadian rower

For the Canadian Footballer and Commissioner, see Jake Gaudaur.


Wallace Ross was a professional rower who was considered to be the greatest sculler to come out of Saint John, Canada. He was a champion who nearly won the World Champion single sculls title.

George Towns was the Australian Single Sculls World Champion from 1901 to 1905 and 1906 to 1907. He was the last of the seven Australian World Sculling Champion who between them held the title almost uninterrupted from 1876 to 1909.

Charles Amos Messenger, a professional sculler, was born ca. 1855 in London where his family was well known in aquatic circles. His father James was a noted sculler and boat builder who in 1854 won the World Sculling Championship from Tom Cole (rower). James held the title for four years until beaten by the well known sculler Harry Kelley.

Charles Stephenson was a New Zealand rower. He was born in Hobson Street, Auckland. He passed most of his boyhood at the Thames, and after leaving school went to the Northern Wairoa district, where he took to a bushman's life. His work in the kauri bushes was varied by an occasional spell as a boatman on the river, and so he got his first lessons in rowing. For three years he was in the service of the Hon. E. Mitchelson, at Dargaville, and during that time got a good deal of rough practice in rowing. His first race was rowed, with J. Wilson as a partner, in the pairs at the Wairoa Regatta in April 1887. Their principal opponents were the Brothers Brown, who were recognised at the time as the "bosses" of the river. To the surprise of everyone young Stephenson and his mate won easily. The Browns were not satisfied with their defeat, and a match was made with their conquerors for £50 a-side, to come off a month after the regatta. This had the same result, and Stephenson's reputation began to grow. In January 1888, he was one of the Northern Wairoa Whaleboat Crew which finished third at Auckland Anniversary Regatta. Waitemata winning and North Shore rowing second. After this he went back to the bush; but in November 1888, he and two friends left the Wairoa, intending to go to Tasmania. Stephenson, however, got no further than Sydney, where he determined to try his luck as a professional sculler.

Michael Rush (rower) Australian rower

Michael Rush was an Irish Australian sculler noted for his one-on-one competitions against champion opponents, which drew vast crowds of spectators. He attempted to win the World Sculling Championship.

William Elliott was born at Hay Farm, Northumberland, 28 November 1849 and was the Professional Sculling Champion of England. He stood five feet seven and one half inches in height and untrained he weighed 176 pounds; trained, 167 pounds.

The English Sculling Championship developed out of informal competitions between working watermen on rivers such as the Thames and the Tyne. Various matches were made on a casual basis but in time these were more formalised. The first recognised Champion was Charles Campbell (rower) who beat John Williams in September 1831 on the Thames. Various persons then held the Championship which was gained under the challenge system. In June 1876 Edward Trickett of Australia won the Championship and then the Title became the World Sculling Championship See this entry for a list of Champions and races, and other details, from 1831 to 1876.

The American Sculling Championship (Professional).

John Hawdon was a British sculler, recognised for winning a number of rowing races, most notably against Joseph Sadler ex-champion of the World. He was brought up in the River Tyne region.

William Joseph O'Connor was a professional oarsman who attempted to win the World Sculling Championship. He was also a tavern-keeper and long distance walker. He was born in Toronto, son of Michael O'Connor and his wife Ellen. He died, unmarried in Toronto.

References

"Edward Hanlan of Toronto - Champion Sculler of the World" (George Rees, 1880) Edward Hanlan of Toronto - Champion Sculler of the World.jpg
"Edward Hanlan of Toronto – Champion Sculler of the World" (George Rees, 1880)
Sign at Toronto Island Placatorontoisland.jpg
Sign at Toronto Island

Citations

  1. Kidd, Bruce (1994). "Hanlan, Edward". In Cook, Ramsay; Hamelin, Jean (eds.). Dictionary of Canadian Biography . XIII (1901–1910) (online ed.). University of Toronto Press.
  2. Sward, Robert (1983). The Toronto Islands. Dreadnaught. pp. 31–38. ISBN   0919567223.
  3. Gibson, Sally (1984). More Than an Island: A History of the Toronto Island. Irwin. pp. 82–84. ISBN   0772014469.
  4. History of the Administration of the Earl of Dufferin in Canada, by William Leggo, Toronto: Lovell Printing and Publishing Company (1878), pg. 889
  5. 1 2 The Times, June 17, 1879
  6. "The Boat Race!". Toronto Globe. Toronto. 15 November 1880. p. 1.
  7. Roberts S Hunter (1933). Rowing in Canada.
  8. Lieut. Edward Gordon Hanlan, RFC
  9. New International Encyclopedia
  10. "History of Toronto". Lake Macquarie City Library. Retrieved 25 July 2014.
  11. toronto.ca/culture/
  12. Collections Canada Archived 2004-12-23 at the Wayback Machine
  13. http://heritagemississauga.com/page/Hanlan
  14. "Ned Hanlan" . Retrieved 25 September 2014.

Further reading