Neferkare Neby

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Neferkare Neby (also Neferkare III) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighth Dynasty during the early First Intermediate Period (2181–2055 BC). [1] According to egyptologists Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker, he was the fourth king of the seventh dynasty, as he appears as the fourth king in the Abydos King List within the list of kings assigned to this dynasty. [2] [1]

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

The Eighth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is a poorly known and short-lived line of pharaohs reigning in rapid succession in the early 22nd century BC, likely with their seat of power in Memphis. The Eighth Dynasty held sway at a time referred to as the very end of the Old Kingdom or the beginning of the First Intermediate Period. The power of the pharaohs was waning while that of the provincial governors, known as nomarchs, was very important, the Egyptian state having by then effectively turned into a feudal system. In spite of close relations between the Memphite kings and powerful nomarchs, notably in Coptos, the Eighth Dynasty was eventually overthrown by the nomarchs of Heracleopolis Magna, who founded the Ninth Dynasty. The Eighth Dynasty is sometimes combined with the preceding Seventh Dynasty, owing to the lack of archeological evidence for the latter which may be fictitious.

Neferkare Neby's name is clearly readable on the Abydos King List (number 43), and unlike most kings of this period, is attested by a further two contemporary sources. Indeed, Neferkare Neby's name appears on the false door at Ankhesenpepi II's tomb, and is also inscribed on her sarcophagus. These attestations show that Neferkare Neby's mother was apparently Queen Ankhesenpepi II, which would presumably make his father Pepi II Neferkare, the last great pharaoh of the Old Kingdom of Egypt. [1] The stele of Ankhesenpepi II records that Neferkare Neby begun the construction of a pyramid, possibly at Saqqara and named him as Ḏd-ˁnḫ Nfr-k3-rˁ nbjj, that is Djedankh Neferkare Neby and which means “Neferkare Neby is Enduring of Life”. [2] The location of the pyramid is unknown and it most probably never significantly entered the building stage. [1]

Abydos King List

The Abydos King List, also known as the Abydos Table, is a list of the names of seventy-six kings of Ancient Egypt, found on a wall of the Temple of Seti I at Abydos, Egypt. It consists of three rows of thirty-eight cartouches in each row. The upper two rows contain names of the kings, while the third row merely repeats Seti I's throne name and praenomen.

Ankhesenpepi II Egyptian queen consort

Ankhesenpepi II or Ankhesenmeryre II was a queen consort during the sixth dynasty of Egypt. She was the wife of Kings Pepi I and Merenre Nemtyemsaf I, and the mother of Pepi II. She was buried in a pyramid in Saqqara.

Sarcophagus Box-like funeral receptacle

A sarcophagus is a box-like funeral receptacle for a corpse, most commonly carved in stone, and usually displayed above ground, though it may also be buried. The word "sarcophagus" comes from the Greek σάρξ sarx meaning "flesh", and φαγεῖν phagein meaning "to eat"; hence sarcophagus means "flesh-eating", from the phrase lithos sarkophagos, "flesh-eating stone". The word also came to refer to a particular kind of limestone that was thought to rapidly facilitate the decomposition of the flesh of corpses contained within it due to the chemical properties of the limestone itself.

Like many kings of the Eighth Dynasty, Neferkare Neby is absent from the Turin canon as a large lacuna affects the location where his name would have been listed. [3]

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 Darrell D. Baker, The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I – Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300-1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 267-268.
  2. 1 2 Jürgen von Beckerath, Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen (Münchner Ägyptologische Studien 20), 1984.
  3. Kim Ryholt, “The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris”, Zeitschrift for ägyptische Sprache 127, 2000, p. 99.