Neferkare Pepiseneb

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Neferkare Pepiseneb (also Neferkare Khered Seneb and Neferkare VI) was an ancient Egyptian pharaoh of the Eighth Dynasty during the early First Intermediate Period (2181–2055 BC). According to the egyptologists Kim Ryholt, Jürgen von Beckerath and Darrell Baker he was the twelfth king of the combined Eighth Dynasty. [1] [2] [3]

Ancient Egypt ancient civilization of Northeastern Africa

Ancient Egypt was a civilization of ancient North Africa, concentrated along the lower reaches of the Nile River in the place that is now the country Egypt. Ancient Egyptian civilization followed prehistoric Egypt and coalesced around 3100 BC with the political unification of Upper and Lower Egypt under Menes. The history of ancient Egypt occurred as a series of stable kingdoms, separated by periods of relative instability known as Intermediate Periods: the Old Kingdom of the Early Bronze Age, the Middle Kingdom of the Middle Bronze Age and the New Kingdom of the Late Bronze Age.

Pharaoh Title of Ancient Egyptian rulers

Pharaoh is the common title of the monarchs of ancient Egypt from the First Dynasty until the annexation of Egypt by the Roman Empire in 30 BCE, although the actual term "Pharaoh" was not used contemporaneously for a ruler until Merneptah, c. 1200 BCE. In the early dynasty, ancient Egyptian kings used to have up to three titles, the Horus, the Sedge and Bee (nswt-bjtj) name, and the Two Ladies (nbtj) name. The Golden Horus and nomen and prenomen titles were later added.

The Eighth Dynasty of ancient Egypt is a poorly known and short-lived line of pharaohs reigning in rapid succession in the early 22nd century BC, likely with their seat of power in Memphis. The Eighth Dynasty held sway at a time referred to as the very end of the Old Kingdom or the beginning of the First Intermediate Period. The power of the pharaohs was waning while that of the provincial governors, known as nomarchs, was very important, the Egyptian state having by then effectively turned into a feudal system. In spite of close relations between the Memphite kings and powerful nomarchs, notably in Coptos, the Eighth Dynasty was eventually overthrown by the nomarchs of Heracleopolis Magna, who founded the Ninth Dynasty. The Eighth Dynasty is sometimes combined with the preceding Seventh Dynasty, owing to the lack of archeological evidence for the latter which may be fictitious.

Contents

Attestations

The name Neferkare Pepiseneb is attested on the Abydos King List (number 51), but not elsewhere. However, Jürgen von Beckerath has proposed that Neferkare Pepiseneb is to be identified with a "Neferkare Khered Seneb" appearing on the Turin canon. [4] As such, Neferkare Pepiseneb would be the first king of the Eighth Dynasty, following Ntyiqrt (who might be Neitiqerty Siptah) whose name appears on the Turin canon, a large lacuna in the document affecting the intervening kings of the dynasty. [1] [2] Both of these sources are dated to long after the eighth dynasty, to the 19th dynasty and later and there are no contemporary attestations of this period.

Abydos King List

The Abydos King List, also known as the Abydos Table, is a list of the names of seventy-six kings of Ancient Egypt, found on a wall of the Temple of Seti I at Abydos, Egypt. It consists of three rows of thirty-eight cartouches in each row. The upper two rows contain names of the kings, while the third row merely repeats Seti I's throne name and praenomen.

Turin King List ancient Egyptian manuscript

The Turin King List, also known as the Turin Royal Canon, is an ancient Egyptian hieratic papyrus thought to date from the reign of Pharaoh Ramesses II, now in the Museo Egizio in Turin. The papyrus is the most extensive list available of kings compiled by the ancient Egyptians, and is the basis for most chronology before the reign of Ramesses II.

Name

The epithet Khered given to Neferkare Pepiseneb in the Turin canon means "child" or "young". Consequently, "Neferkare Khered Seneb" is variously translated as Neferkare The Child is Healthy, Neferkare the Younger is Healthy or Neferkare Junior is Healthy. [2]

Several hypotheses have been put forth by Egyptologists concerning this epiteth. Hratch Papazian proposes that the fact that the king was called Khered on the Turin canon hints at his youthful age upon ascending to the throne. [5] :415 Alternatively, Darell Baker and Kim Ryholt propose that the epithet "Khered" is the result of an error made by the copyist who wrote the Turin canon, confusing "Pepiseneb" with "Khered Seneb", as the hieratic forms of "pepi" and "khered" can resemble each other if damaged. [1] Thus this error might be due to some damage affecting the earlier document from which the canon was being copied in the Ramesside period. [2]

Kim Steven Bardrum Ryholt is a professor of Egyptology at the University of Copenhagen and a specialist on Egyptian history and literature. He is director of the research center Canon and Identity Formation in the Earliest Literate Societies under the University of Copenhagen Programme of Excellence and director of The Papyrus Carlsberg Collection & Project.

Hieratic cursive writing system used in the provenance of the pharaohs in Egypt and Nubia

Hieratic is a cursive writing system used for Ancient Egyptian, and the principal script used to write that language from its development in the 3rd millennium BCE until the rise of Demotic in the mid 1st millennium BCE. It was primarily written in ink with a reed pen on papyrus.

Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt Egyptian dynasty from -1295 to -1186

The Nineteenth Dynasty of Egypt is classified as the second Dynasty of the Ancient Egyptian New Kingdom period, lasting from 1292 BC to 1189 BC. The 19th Dynasty and the 20th Dynasty furthermore together constitute an era known as the Ramesside period. This Dynasty was founded by Vizier Ramesses I, whom Pharaoh Horemheb chose as his successor to the throne.

Another hypothesis explaining "Khered" which Ryholt deems more likely is that this epithet is in this context synonymous with "Pepi". Indeed, the "Pepi" of "Pepiseneb" could be Pepi II Neferkare, last great pharaoh of the Old Kingdom of Egypt and who may have had the longest reign of any monarch in history with 94 years on the throne (2278 – 2184 BC). Furthermore, this pharaoh, who must have been well remembered so close to his reign, accessed the throne as a child, when he was only around 6. Ryholt thus proposes that the "child" ("Khered") referred to in Neferkare Pepiseneb's name on the Turin canon is Pepi II. Since additionally, Pepi II's nomen was Neferkare, Neferkare Seneb, Khered Seneb and Pepiseneb all could refer to Pepi II and mean "Pepi II is healthy". This hypothesis is possibly vindicated by the divine determinative (Gardiner sign G7) attached to the epithet "Khered" on the Turin canon. This is normally reserved for the names of kings and gods and might indicate that the epithet "Khered" was understood as referring to a specific pharaoh. [1]

Old Kingdom of Egypt period of Ancient Egypt in the 3rd millennium BC

In ancient Egyptian history, the Old Kingdom is the period spanning c. 2686–2181 BC. It is also known as the "Age of the Pyramids" or the "Age of the Pyramid Builders", as it encompasses the reigns of the great pyramid builders of the Fourth Dynasty—King Sneferu perfected the art of pyramid-building and the pyramids of Giza were constructed under the kings Khufu, Khafre and Menkaure. Egypt attained its first sustained peak of civilization—the first of three so-called "Kingdom" periods which mark the high points of civilization in the lower Nile Valley.

Reign

According to Ryholt's latest reading of the Turin canon, Neferkare Pepiseneb reigned at least one year. [1] [2]

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References

  1. 1 2 3 4 5 6 Kim Ryholt: "The Late Old Kingdom in the Turin King-list and the Identity of Nitocris", Zeitschrift für ägyptische, 127, 2000, p. 91
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 Darrell D. Baker: The Encyclopedia of the Pharaohs: Volume I - Predynastic to the Twentieth Dynasty 3300–1069 BC, Stacey International, ISBN   978-1-905299-37-9, 2008, p. 268-269
  3. Jürgen von Beckerath: Handbuch der ägyptischen Königsnamen,Münchner ägyptologische Studien, Heft 49, Mainz : P. von Zabern, 1999, ISBN   3-8053-2591-6, available online
  4. Jürgen von Beckerath: The Date of the End of the Old Kingdom of Egypt, JNES 21 (1962) pp. 144-145
  5. Hratch Papazian (2015). "The State of Egypt in the Eighth Dynasty". In Peter Der Manuelian; Thomas Schneider. Towards a New History for the Egyptian Old Kingdom: Perspectives on the Pyramid Age. Harvard Egyptological Studies. BRILL.
Preceded by
Neferkahor
Pharaoh of Egypt
Eighth Dynasty
Succeeded by
Neferkamin Anu