Negau helmet

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A Negau helmet excavated at Hallstatt Archaeological Site in Vace, near Vace, Slovenia. Kept by Museum of Prehistory and Early History (Berlin) Museum fur Vor- und Fruhgeschichte Berlin 010.jpg
A Negau helmet excavated at Hallstatt Archaeological Site in Vače, near Vače, Slovenia. Kept by Museum of Prehistory and Early History (Berlin)

Negau helmet refers to one of 26 bronze helmets (23 of which are preserved) dating to c. 450 BC–350 BC, found in 1812 in a cache in Ženjak, near Negau, Duchy of Styria (now Negova, Slovenia). [1] The helmets are of typical Etruscan 'vetulonic' shape, sometimes described as of the Negau type. They were buried in c. 50 BC, shortly before the Roman invasion of the area. Helmets of the Negau type were typically worn by priests at the time of deposition of these helmets, so they seem to have been left at the Ženjak site for ceremonial reasons. The village of Ženjak was of great interest to German archaeologists during the Nazi period and was briefly renamed Harigast during World War II. The site has never been excavated properly.

Helmet any type of historical or modern armor worn to protect the head

A helmet is a form of protective gear worn to protect the head. More specifically, a helmet complements the skull in protecting the human brain. Ceremonial or symbolic helmets without protective function are sometimes worn. Soldiers wear helmets, often made from lightweight plastic materials.

Ženjak Place in Styria, Slovenia

Ženjak is a locality of the settlement Benedikt in the Municipality of Benedikt in northeastern Slovenia. Until 2003, it existed as an independent settlement. The area was part of the traditional region of Styria. The municipality is included in the Drava Statistical Region.

Duchy of Styria

The Duchy of Styria was a duchy located in modern-day southern Austria and northern Slovenia. It was a part of the Holy Roman Empire until its dissolution in 1806 and a Cisleithanian crown land of Austria–Hungary until its dissolution in 1918.



On one of the helmets ("Negau B"), there is an inscription in a northern Etruscan alphabet. The inscription need not date to c. 400 BC, but was possibly added by a later owner in c. 2nd century BC or later. It is read as:


Many interpretations of the inscription have been proffered in the past, but the most recent interpretation is by T.L. Markey (2001), who reads the inscription as 'Harigast the priest' (from * teiwaz "god"), as another inscribed helmet also found at the site bears several names (mostly Celtic) followed by religious titles.

In any case, the Germanic name Harigast is almost universally read. Formerly, some scholars have seen the inscription as an early incarnation of the runic alphabet, but it is now accepted that the script is North Etruscan proper, and precedes the formation of the Runic alphabet. Harigast constitutes an attestation of the Germanic sound shift, probably the earliest preserved, preceding Tacitus perhaps by some two centuries. [1]

Tacitus Roman senator and historian

PubliusCornelius Tacitus was a senator and a historian of the Roman Empire. Tacitus is considered to be one of the greatest Roman historians. He lived in what has been called the Silver Age of Latin literature, and is known for the brevity and compactness of his Latin prose, as well as for his penetrating insights into the psychology of power politics.

Must (1957) reads Hariχas Titieva as a Raetic personal name, the first element from the Indo-European (Venetic rather than Germanic), the second from the Etruscan.

Etruscan language Ancient Mediterranean language

The Etruscan language was the spoken and written language of the Etruscan civilization, in Italy, in the ancient region of Etruria and in parts of Corsica, Emilia-Romagna, Veneto, Lombardy and Campania. Etruscan influenced Latin, but eventually was completely superseded by it. The Etruscans left around 13,000 inscriptions which have been found so far, only a small minority of which are of significant length; some bilingual inscriptions with texts also in Latin, Greek, or Phoenician; and a few dozen loanwords, such as the name Roma, but Etruscan's influence was significant. Attested from 700 BC to AD 50, the relation of Etruscan to other languages has been a source of long-running speculation and study, with its being referred to at times as an isolate, one of the Tyrsenian languages, and a number of other less well-known theories.

The four discrete inscriptions on the helmet usually called "Negau A" are read by Markey as: Dubni banuabi 'of Dubnos the pig-slayer'; sirago turbi 'astral priest of the troop'; Iars'e esvii 'Iarsus the divine'; and Kerup, probably an abbreviation for a Celtic name like Cerubogios.

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  1. 1 2 Jeremy J. Smith (2 April 2009). Old English: A Linguistic Introduction. Cambridge University Press. pp. 125–. ISBN   978-0-521-86677-4.

The Journal of Indo-European Studies is a peer-reviewed academic journal of Indo-European studies, founded in 1973 by Roger Pearson, who had previously founded the National Socialist organization Northern League. It publishes papers in the fields of anthropology, archaeology, mythology and linguistics relating to the cultural history of the Indo-European speaking peoples. The journal is published every three months. The current editor-in-chief is J. P. Mallory.

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