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Ein Avdat in the Zin Valley in the Negev Israel-2013-Ein Avdat 02.jpg
Ein Avdat in the Zin Valley in the Negev
Israel's South District, which includes the Negev Southern District in Israel.svg
Israel's South District, which includes the Negev
Sunset in the Negev Desert near Yeruham, Israel Sunset in the Negev Desert near Yeruham, Israel.jpg
Sunset in the Negev Desert near Yeruham, Israel

The Negev (Hebrew : הַנֶּגֶב, Tiberian vocalization: han-Néḡeḇ; Arabic : النقبan-Naqab) is a desert and semidesert region of southern Israel. The region's largest city and administrative capital is Beersheba (pop. 207,551), in the north. At its southern end is the Gulf of Aqaba and the resort city of Eilat. It contains several development towns, including Dimona, Arad and Mitzpe Ramon, as well as a number of small Bedouin cities, including Rahat and Tel as-Sabi and Lakyah. There are also several kibbutzim, including Revivim and Sde Boker; the latter became the home of Israel's first Prime Minister, David Ben-Gurion, after his retirement from politics.

Hebrew language Semitic language native to Israel

Hebrew is a Northwest Semitic language native to Israel; the modern version of which is spoken by over 9 million people worldwide. Historically, it is regarded as the language of the Israelites and their ancestors, although the language was not referred to by the name Hebrew in the Tanakh. The earliest examples of written Paleo-Hebrew date from the 10th century BCE. Hebrew belongs to the West Semitic branch of the Afroasiatic language family. Hebrew is the only living Canaanite language left, and the only truly successful example of a revived dead language.

Tiberian vocalization system of diacritics developed by the Masoretes of Tiberias to specify the pronunciation of the Hebrew Bible, reflecting Hebrew pronunciation of 8th–10th century Judea

The Tiberian vocalization, Tiberian pointing, or Tiberian niqqud is a system of diacritics (niqqud) devised by the Masoretes of Tiberias to add to the consonantal text of the Hebrew Bible to produce the Masoretic Text. The system soon became used to vocalize other Hebrew texts, as well.

Desert Area of land where little precipitation occurs

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location.


The desert is home to the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev, whose faculties include the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research and the Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies, both located on the Midreshet Ben-Gurion campus adjacent to Sde Boker.

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev public university in Beer Sheba, Israel

Ben-Gurion University of the Negev (BGU), is a public research university in Beersheba, Israel. Ben-Gurion University of the Negev has five campuses: the Marcus Family Campus, Beer Sheva; the David Bergmann Campus, Beer Sheva; the David Tuviyahu Campus, Beer Sheva; the Sede Boqer Campus, and Eilat Campus.

Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research

The Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research is part of the Ben-Gurion University, and is located in the Midreshet Ben-Gurion campus in the centre of the Negev desert in Israel.

Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies

The Albert Katz International School for Desert Studies is a faculty within the Jacob Blaustein Institutes for Desert Research and part of the Ben-Gurion University of the Negev. It is located in Midreshet Ben-Gurion in the centre of the Negev desert in Israel and was established in 1999.

Although historically a separate region, the Negev was added to the proposed area of Mandatory Palestine, later to become Israel, on 10 July 1922, having been conceded by British representative St John Philby ”in Trans-Jordan’s name”. [lower-alpha 1]

Mandatory Palestine A former geopolitical entity in Palestine occupied from the Ottoman Empire in WW1 aiming to creat the conditions for the establishment of national home to the Jewish People. Ceased to exist with the establishment of the Jewish State -  Israel

Mandatory Palestine was a geopolitical entity established between 1920 and 1923 in the Middle East roughly corresponding to the region of Palestine, as part of the Partition of the Ottoman Empire under the terms of the British Mandate for Palestine.

Israel country in the Middle East

Israel, officially the State of Israel, is a country in Western Asia, located on the southeastern shore of the Mediterranean Sea and the northern shore of the Red Sea. It has land borders with Lebanon to the north, Syria to the northeast, Jordan on the east, the Palestinian territories of the West Bank and Gaza Strip to the east and west, respectively, and Egypt to the southwest. The country contains geographically diverse features within its relatively small area. Israel's economic and technological center is Tel Aviv, while its seat of government and proclaimed capital is Jerusalem, although the state's sovereignty over Jerusalem has only partial recognition.

St John Philby English Arabist, explorer, writer, and British colonial office intelligence officer

Harry St John Bridger Philby, CIE, also known as Jack Philby or Sheikh Abdullah, was a British Arabist, adviser, explorer, writer, and colonial office intelligence officer.

In October 2012, global travel guide publisher Lonely Planet rated the Negev second on a list of the world's top ten regional travel destinations for 2013, noting its current transformation through development. [2] [3]

Lonely Planet publisher of guidebooks and other media related to travel

Lonely Planet is a large travel guide book publisher. As of 2011, the company had sold 120 million books since inception and by early 2014, it had sold around 11 million units of its travel apps.

Etymology; other names

The origin of the word 'negev' is from the Hebrew root denoting 'dry'. In the Bible, the word Negev is also used for the direction 'south'; some English-language translations use the spelling "Negeb".

In Arabic, the Negev is known as al-Naqab or an-Naqb ("the [mountain] pass"), [4] [5] though it was not thought of as a distinct region until the demarcation of the Egypt-Ottoman frontier in the 1890s and has no traditional Arabic name. [6]

During the British Mandate, it was called Beersheba sub-district. [6]


Nahal Paran, Negev NachalParan1.jpg
Nahal Paran, Negev

The Negev covers more than half of Israel, over some 13,000 km² (4,700 sq mi) or at least 55% of the country's land area. It forms an inverted triangle shape whose western side is contiguous with the desert of the Sinai Peninsula, and whose eastern border is the Arabah valley. The Negev has a number of interesting cultural and geological features. Among the latter are three enormous, craterlike makhteshim (box canyons), which are unique to the region: Makhtesh Ramon, HaMakhtesh HaGadol, and HaMakhtesh HaKatan.

The Negev is a rocky desert. It is a melange of brown, rocky, dusty mountains interrupted by wadis (dry riverbeds that bloom briefly after rain) and deep craters. It can be split into five different ecological regions: northern, western and central Negev, the high plateau and the Arabah Valley. The northern Negev, or Mediterranean zone, receives 300 mm of rain annually and has fairly fertile soils. The western Negev receives 250 mm of rain per year, with light and partially sandy soils. Sand dunes can reach heights of up to 30 metres here. Home to the city of Beersheba, the central Negev has an annual precipitation of 200 mm and is characterized by impervious soil, known as loess, allowing minimum penetration of water with greater soil erosion and water runoff. The high plateau area of Negev Mountains/Ramat HaNegev (Hebrew : רמת הנגב, The Negev Heights) stands between 370 metres and 520 metres above sea level with extreme temperatures in summer and winter. The area gets 100 mm of rain per year, with inferior and partially salty soils. The Arabah Valley along the Jordanian border stretches 180 km from Eilat in the south to the tip of the Dead Sea in the north. The Arabah Valley is very arid with barely 50 mm of rain annually. It has inferior soils in which little can grow without irrigation and special soil additives.

Flora and fauna

Spring blooms in the Negev Tulipa systola 1.JPG
Spring blooms in the Negev

Vegetation in the Negev is sparse, but certain trees and plants thrive there, among them Acacia , Pistacia , Retama , Urginea maritima and Thymelaea . [7] A small population of Arabian leopards, an endangered animal in the Arabian peninsula, survives in the southern Negev. [8] The Negev Tortoise (Testudo werneri) is a critically endangered species that currently lives only in the sands of the western and central Negev Desert. [9] The Negev shrew (Crocidura ramona) is a species of mammal of the family Soricidae found only in Israel. [10] Hyphaene thebaica or doum palm can be found in the Southern Negev. Evrona is the most northerly point in the world where this palm can be found.


The Negev region is arid (Eilat receives on average only 24 mm of rainfall a year), receiving very little rain due to its location to the east of the Sahara (as opposed to the Mediterranean which lies to the west of Israel), and extreme temperatures due to its location 31 degrees north. However the northernmost areas of the Negev, including Beersheba, are semi-arid. The usual rainfall total from June through October is zero. Snow and frost are rare in the northern Negev, and snow and frost are unknown in the vicinity of Eilat in the southernmost Negev. [11]

Climate data for Beersheba
Record high °C (°F)28.4
Average high °C (°F)16.7
Average low °C (°F)7.5
Record low °C (°F)−5
Average precipitation mm (inches)49.6
Average precipitation days9.
Source: Israel Meteorological Service [12] [13]
Climate data for Eilat
Record high °C (°F)32.2
Average high °C (°F)21.3
Average low °C (°F)10.4
Record low °C (°F)1.2
Average rainfall mm (inches)4
Average rainy days (≥ 0.1 mm)
Source: Israel Meteorological Service [14] [15] [16] [17]


Of the three Acacia species growing in high plateau of the Negev, Acacia pachyceras is the most cold-resistant. Acacia Negev.JPG
Of the three Acacia species growing in high plateau of the Negev, Acacia pachyceras is the most cold-resistant.


Nomadic life in the Negev dates back at least 4,000 years [18] and perhaps as much as 7,000 years. [19]

The first urbanized settlements were established by a combination of Canaanite, Amalekite, Amorite, Nabataean and Edomite groups circa 2000 BC. [18] Pharaonic Egypt is credited with introducing copper mining and smelting in both the Negev and the Sinai between 1400 and 1300 BC. [18] [20]


In the Bible, the term Negev only relates to the northern, semiarid part of what we call Negev today, located in the general area of the Arad-Beersheba Valley.

According to the Book of Genesis chapter 13, Abraham lived for a while in the Negev after being banished from Egypt. [21] During the Exodus journey to the promised land, Moses sent twelve scouts into the Negev to assess the land and population. [22] Later the northern part of biblical Negev was inhabited by the Tribe of Judah and the southern part of biblical Negev by the Tribe of Simeon. The Negev was later part of the Kingdom of Solomon (in its entirety, all the way to the Red Sea), and then, with varied extension to the south, part of the Kingdom of Judah. [23]

In the 9th century BC, development and expansion of mining in both the Negev and Edom (modern Jordan) coincided with the rise of the Assyrian Empire. [18] Beersheba was the region's capital and a center for trade in the 8th century BC. [18] Small settlements of Israelites in the areas around the capital existed between 1020 and 928 BC. [18]

Nabateans and Romans

Archaeological ruins in the Negev Ruins in Negev desert Israe.jpg
Archaeological ruins in the Negev

The 4th century BC arrival of the Nabateans resulted in the development of irrigation systems that supported new urban centers located along the Negev incense route at Avdat, Mamshit, Shivta, Haluza (Elusa), and Nitzana. [18] The Nabateans controlled the trade on the spice route between their capital Petra and the Gazan seaports. Nabatean currency and the remains of red and orange potsherds, identified as a trademark of their civilization, have been found along the route, remnants of which are also still visible. [18] Nabatean control of the Negev ended when the Roman empire annexed their lands in 106 AD. [18] The population, largely made up of Arabian nomads, remained largely tribal and independent of Roman rule, with an animist belief system.[ dubious ] [18]


Byzantine rule in the 4th century AD introduced Christianity to the population. [18] Agricultural-based cities were established and the population grew exponentially. [18]

Islamic empires

The southern Negev saw a flourishing of economic activity during the 8th to 10th or 11th centuries. [24] Six Islamic settlements have been found in the vicinity of modern Eilat, along with copper and gold mines and stone quarries, and a sophisticated irrigation system and road network. [24] The economic center was the port of Ayla (Aqaba). [24]

Ottoman era

Tel Arad inhabited since 4000 BC Tel arad all.JPG
Tel Arad inhabited since 4000 BC

Nomadic tribes ruled the Negev largely independently and with a relative lack of interference for the next thousand years. [18] What is known of this time is largely derived from oral histories and folk tales of tribes from the Wadi Musa and Petra areas in present-day Jordan. [18] The Bedouins of the Negev historically survived chiefly on sheep and goat husbandry. Scarcity of water and of permanent pastoral land required them to move constantly. The Bedouin in years past established few permanent settlements, although some were built, leaving behind remnants of stone houses called 'baika.' [19] In 1900 the Ottoman Empire established an administrative center for southern Syria at Beersheba including schools and a railway station. [18] The authority of the tribal chiefs over the region was recognized by the Ottomans. [18] A railroad connected it to the port of Rafah. In 1914 the Turkish authorities estimated the nomadic population at 55,000. [25]

British rule

A map considered by the British Cabinet in 1918 suggested that the Negev could be included in either Palestine or Egypt. Possible Redistribution of Ottoman and Arabian Territory on the Principle of Self-Determination November 1918.png
A map considered by the British Cabinet in 1918 suggested that the Negev could be included in either Palestine or Egypt.

The 1916 Sykes-Picot Agreement between Britain and France placed the Negev in Area B, "Arab state or states" under British patronage. [27] The Negev was taken from the Ottoman army by British forces during 1917 and became part of Mandatory Palestine.

In 1922, the Bedouin component of the population was estimated at 72,898 out of a total of 75,254 for the Beersheba sub-district. [25] The 1931 census estimated that the population of the Beersheba sub-district was 51,082. [28] This large decrease was considered to be an artifact of incorrect enumeration methods used in 1922. [25] An Arabic history of tribes around Beersheba, published in 1934 records 23 tribal groups. [29]

Rahat, the largest Bedouin city in the Negev PikiWiki Israel 43466 Rahat.jpg
Rahat, the largest Bedouin city in the Negev

Israeli rule

In 1948 the Negev came under Israeli rule. In the early years of the state, it absorbed many of the Jewish refugees from Arab countries, with the Israeli government setting up many development towns, such as Arad, Sderot and Netivot. Since then, the Negev has also become home to many of the Israel Defense Forces major bases - a process accelerating in the past two decades.


As of 2010, the Negev was home to some 630,000 people (or 8.2% of Israel's population), even though it comprises over 55% of the country's area. 470,000 Negev residents or 75% of the population of the Negev are Jews, while 160,000 or 25% are Bedouin. [30] Of the Bedouin population (a demographic with a semi-nomadic tradition), half live in unrecognized villages, and half live in towns built for them by the Israeli government between the 1960s and 1980s; the largest of these is Rahat.

The population of the Negev is expected to reach 1.2 million by 2025.[ citation needed ] It has been projected that the Beersheba metropolitan area will reach a population of 1 million by 2020, and Arad, Yeruham, and Dimona will triple in size by 2025. [31] [32]

Economy and housing

Development plans

Blueprint Negev mobile homes, 2009 Blueprint Negev planned community.jpg
Blueprint Negev mobile homes, 2009

Blueprint Negev is a Jewish National Fund project introduced in 2005. The $600 million project hopes to continue Israel's past environmental successes in 'making the desert bloom' and attract 500,000 new Jewish residents to the Negev by improving transportation infrastructure, establishing businesses, developing water resources and introducing programs to protect the environment. [33] A planned artificial desert river, swimming pools and golf courses raised concerns among environmentalists. [34] [35] Critics oppose those plans, calling instead for an inclusive plan for the green vitalization of existing population centers, investment in Bedouin villages, clean-up of toxic industries and development of job options for the unemployed. [36] [37] [38] [39]

A major Israel Defense Forces training base is being constructed in the Negev to accommodate 10,000 army personnel and 2,500 civilian staff. Three more bases will be built by 2020 as part of a plan to vacate land and buildings in Tel Aviv and central Israel, and bring jobs and investment to the south. [40]

Solar power

Solar troughs in the Negev Solar troughs in the Negev desert of Israel.jpg
Solar troughs in the Negev

The Negev Desert and the surrounding area, including the Arava Valley, are the sunniest parts of Israel and little of this land is arable, which is why it has become the center of the Israeli solar industry. [41] David Faiman, an expert on solar energy, feels the energy needs of Israel's future could be met by building solar energy plants in the Negev. As director of Ben-Gurion National Solar Energy Center, he operates one of the largest solar dishes in the world. [42] Technically, however, the Arava is a separate desert with its own unique climate and ecology.

A 250 MW solar park in Ashalim, an area in the northern Negev, the Ashalim Power Station, produces 121 Megawatts of energy, using solar mirrors and thermal water heating. It is currently the largest in Israel.

The Rotem Industrial Complex outside of Dimona, Israel, has dozens of solar mirrors that focus the Sun's rays on a tower that in turn heats a water boiler to create steam, turning a turbine to create electricity. Luz II, Ltd., plans to use the solar array to test new technology for the three new solar plants to be built in California for Pacific Gas and Electric Company. [43] [44] [45]


Yatir Forest 2005, produced by Yatir Winery in the Negev Yatirwine.JPG
Yatir Forest 2005, produced by Yatir Winery in the Negev

Vines have been planted in the Negev since ancient times. In modern times, vineyards have been established in the northern Negev hills using innovative computerized watering methods for irrigation. Carmel Winery was the first of the major wineries to plant vineyards in the Negev and operates a boutique winery at Ramat Arad. Tishbi has vineyards at Sde Boker and Barkan grows its grapes in Mitzpe Ramon. [46] Yatir Winery is a boutique winery in Tel Arad. Its vineyards are on a hill 900 meters above sea level on the outskirts of Yatir Forest. [47] Carmey Avdat is Israel's first solar-powered winery. [48]

Environmental issues

The Negev is home to hazardous infrastructures that include Negev Nuclear Research Center nuclear reactor, 22 agrochemical and petrochemical factories, an oil terminal, closed military zones, quarries, a toxic waste incinerator at Ne'ot Hovav, cell towers, a power plant, several airports, a prison, and 2 rivers of open sewage. [49]

Campus of Midreshet Ben Gurion Midreshet Ben Gurion.jpg
Campus of Midreshet Ben Gurion

In 2005, the Tel Aviv municipality was accused of dumping waste in the Negev at the Dudaim dump. [50] The Manufacturers Association of Israel established an authority in 2005 to move 60 industrial enterprises active in the Tel Aviv region to the Negev. [51]

In 1979, the Ramat Hovav toxic waste facility was established in Wadi el-Na'am because the area was perceived as invulnerable to leakage. However, within a decade, cracks were found in the rock beneath Ramat Hovav. [49] In 2004, the Israeli Ministry of Health released Ben Gurion University research findings describing the health problems in a 20 km vicinity of Ramat Hovav. The study, funded in large part by Ramat Hovav, found higher rates of cancer and mortality for the 350,000 people in the area. Prematurely released to the media by an unknown source, the preliminary study was publicly discredited; [52] However, its final conclusions – that Bedouin and Jewish residents near Ramat Hovav are significantly more susceptible than the rest of the population to miscarriages, severe birth defects, and respiratory diseases – passed a peer review several months later. [53]

See also

Related Research Articles

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Yeruham Place in Israel

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  1. Biger described this meeting as follows: “Sovereignty over the Arava, from the south of the Dead Sea to Aqaba, was also discussed. Philby agreed, in Trans-Jordan’s name, to give up the western bank of Wadi Arava (and thus all of the Negev area). Nevertheless, a precise borderline was still not determined along the territories of Palestine and Trans-Jordan. Philby’s relinquishment of the Negev was necessary, because the future of this area was uncertain. In a discussion regarding the southern boundary, the Egyptian aspiration to acquire the Negev area was presented. On the other hand the southern part of Palestine belonged, according to one of the versions, to the sanjak (district) of Ma’an within the vilayet (province) of Hejaz. King Hussein of Hijaz demanded to receive this area after claiming that a transfer action, to add it to the vilayet of Syria (A-Sham) was supposed to be done in 1908. It is not clear whether this action was completed. Philby claimed that Emir Abdullah had his father’s permission to negotiate over the future of the sanjak of Ma’an, which was actually ruled by him, and that he could therefore ‘afford to concede’ the area west of the Arava in favour of Palestine. This concession was made following British pressure and against the background of the demands of the Zionist Organization for direct contact between Palestine and the Red Sea. It led to the inclusion of the Negev triangle in Palestine’s territory, although this area was not considered as part of the country in the many centuries that preceded the British occupation.” [1]


Coordinates: 30°30′00″N34°55′01″E / 30.500°N 34.917°E / 30.500; 34.917