Nematollah Nassiri

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General officer

Nematollah Nassiri
General Nasiri (3).jpg
BornAugust 1911
Semnan, Qajar Iran
Died15 February 1979(1979-02-15) (aged 67)
Refah School, Tehran, Iran
Allegiance State Flag of Iran (1964).svg Imperial State of Iran
Service/branch Imperial Guard
Years of service1950s–1978
Rank General
Spouse(s)1st Wife: Parvin Khadjavi 2nd Wife: Zoleikha Khalvati ( Spouse Nassiri)
Other workAmbassador of Iran in Pakistan

Nematollah Nassiri (Persian : نعمت‌الله نصیری; August 1911 in Semnan – 15 February 1979) [1] was the director of SAVAK, the Iranian intelligence agency during the rule of Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and later the Ambassador of Iran in Pakistan. He was one of the 438 individuals who were arrested and executed in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution. [2]

Persian language Western Iranian language

Persian, also known by its endonym Farsi, is a Western Iranian language belonging to the Iranian branch of the Indo-Iranian subdivision of the Indo-European languages. It is a pluricentric language predominantly spoken and used officially within Iran, Afghanistan and Tajikistan in three mutually intelligible standard varieties, namely Iranian Persian, Dari Persian and Tajiki Persian. It is also spoken natively in the Tajik variety by a significant population within Uzbekistan, as well as within other regions with a Persianate history in the cultural sphere of Greater Iran. It is written officially within Iran and Afghanistan in the Persian alphabet, a derivation of the Arabic script, and within Tajikistan in the Tajik alphabet, a derivation of Cyrillic.

SAVAK Secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty

SAVAK was the secret police, domestic security and intelligence service in Iran during the reign of the Pahlavi dynasty. It was established by Mohammad Reza Shah with the help of the U.S. Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) and the Israeli MOSSAD. SAVAK operated from 1957 until the Iranian Revolution of 1979, when the prime minister Shapour Bakhtiar ordered its dissolution during the outbreak of Iranian Revolution. SAVAK has been described as Iran's "most hated and feared institution" prior to the revolution of 1979 because of its practice of torturing and executing opponents of the Pahlavi regime. At its peak, the organization had as many as 60,000 agents serving in its ranks according to one source, and another source by Gholam Reza Afkhami estimates SAVAK staffing at between 4,000 and 6,000.

Pakistan federal parliamentary constitutional republic in South Asia

Pakistan, officially the Islamic Republic of Pakistan, is a country in South Asia. It is the world’s sixth-most populous country with a population exceeding 212,742,631 people. In area, it is the 33rd-largest country, spanning 881,913 square kilometres. Pakistan has a 1,046-kilometre (650-mile) coastline along the Arabian Sea and Gulf of Oman in the south and is bordered by India to the east, Afghanistan to the west, Iran to the southwest, and China in the northeast. It is separated narrowly from Tajikistan by Afghanistan's Wakhan Corridor in the northwest, and also shares a maritime border with Oman.

Contents

Career activities

Nassiri served as the commander of the Iranian Imperial Guards during the Pahlavi dynasty. [3] [4] He was arrested by the followers of Prime Minister Mohammad Mosaddegh when he delivered two decrees of the Shah to the prime minister. [3] A personal friend of the Shah, Nassiri participated in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état which removed Iranian prime minister Mosaddegh from power in 1953. He was appointed head of SAVAK following the failure of General Hassan Pakravan, the previous director, to prevent the assassination of Prime Minister Hassan-Ali Mansur on 21 January 1965. Nassiri was also made deputy prime minister. [5] He served in the post until 6 June 1978 when he was dismissed by the Shah. [6] Then Nassiri was appointed ambassador of Iran to Pakistan. [7]

Imperial Guard (Iran)

The Immortal Guard of the Iranian Empire was both the personal guard force of Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran, and an elite combat branch of the Imperial Iranian Army. It was created in 1942 and disbanded in 1979 following the Iranian Revolution. It was named after the Immortals, an elite unit of 10,000 Persian soldiers in the army of the Achaemenid Empire.

Pahlavi dynasty Dynasty that ruled Iran from 1925 until 1979

The Pahlavi dynasty was the last ruling house of the Imperial State of Iran from 1925 until 1979, when the Persian monarchy was overthrown and abolished as a result of the Iranian Revolution. The dynasty was founded by Reza Shah Pahlavi in 1925, a former brigadier-general of the Persian Cossack Brigade, whose reign lasted until 1941 when he was forced to abdicate by the Allies after the Anglo-Soviet invasion of Iran. He was succeeded by his son, Mohammad Reza Pahlavi, the last Shah of Iran.

Mohammad Mosaddegh Prime Minister of Iran in the 1950s

Mohammad Mosaddegh was the 35th prime minister of Iran, holding office from 1951 until 1953, when his government was overthrown in the 1953 Iranian coup d'état orchestrated by the United States' Central Intelligence Agency and the United Kingdom's MI6.

Arrest and execution

With the constant development of the Iranian Revolution, the Shah ordered the Dissolution of SAVAK and Nassiri was called back from Pakistan [7] and was arrested together with 60 other former officials on 7 or 8 of November 1978 [6] including high-ranking officials, such as former director of SAVAK Hassan Pakravan and former Prime Minister Amir-Abbas Hoveyda. When the Shah left Iran on 16 January 1979, Nassiri remained in prison until the fall of Shapour Bakhtiar's government on 11 February.

Iranian Revolution overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi

The Iranian Revolution, also known as the Islamic Revolution or the 1979 Revolution, was a series of events that involved the overthrow of the last monarch of Iran, Mohammad Reza Shah Pahlavi, and the replacement of his government with an Islamic republic under the Grand Ayatollah Ruhollah Khomeini, a leader of one of the factions in the revolt. The movement against the United States-backed monarchy was supported by various leftist and Islamist organizations and student movements.

Hassan Pakravan Iranian politician

Hassan Pakravan was a well-known diplomat and minister in the Pahlavi pre-revolutionary government of Iran. He is not only notable for his political involvement with the Mohammad Reza Pahlavi government and SAVAK, but also his relationship with Ruhollah Khomeini.

Amir-Abbas Hoveyda Iranian politician

Amir-Abbas Hoveyda was an Iranian economist and politician who served as Prime Minister of Iran from 27 January 1965 to 7 August 1977. He was prime minister for 13 years and is the longest serving prime minister in Iran's history. He also served as Deputy Prime Minister and Minister of Finance in Mansur's cabinet. After the Iranian Revolution, he was tried by the newly established Revolutionary Court for "waging war against God" and "spreading corruption on earth" and executed.

On 15 February, Nassiri was arrested by revolutionists and brought in the Refah School with other officials. He was tried in a Revolutionary Tribunal along 24 other individuals for a total of 10 hours and was charged -without any defence or concrete evidence of guilt- with corruption on earth, massacre of people, torture, and treason. He was sentenced to death and confiscation of property at 10 p.m. and after the sentence was confirmed by Ayatollah Khomeini, he was executed by firing squad at 11:45 p.m. on February 15th. [8]

Refah School

Cultural Foundation of Refah (formerly Refah School was an elementary school for girls in Tehran, Iran. It gained historical significance in the 1979 Iranian Revolution when it was the temporary headquarters of the revolutionists lead by Ruhollah Khomeini. It was also used for the Islamic Revolutionary Court and the execution of officials of the second Pahlavi Regime on its rooftop before being transformed into what is being currently used as, a cultural and educational institution.

Mofsed-e-filarz is the title of capital crimes in the Islamic Republic of Iran, that has been translated in English language sources variously as "spreading corruption on Earth", "spreading corruption that threatens social and political well-being", "corrupt of the earth; one who is charged with spreading corruption," "gross offenders of the moral order", and "enemies of God on Earth."

Torture intentional infliction of physical or mental suffering upon a person or an animal

Torture is the act of deliberately inflicting severe physical or psychological suffering on someone by another as a punishment or in order to fulfill some desire of the torturer or force some action from the victim. Torture, by definition, is a knowing and intentional act; deeds which unknowingly or negligently inflict suffering or pain, without a specific intent to do so, are not typically considered torture.

On his way to the Refah School, Nassiri was injured and had to be bandaged around his head and chin. 1Nasiri-arrested.interview.1979.png
On his way to the Refah School, Nassiri was injured and had to be bandaged around his head and chin.

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References

  1. http://iichs.org/index.asp?id=637&doc_cat=1
  2. "Nematollah Nasiri: One Person's Story". Human Rights & Democracy for Iran. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
  3. 1 2 Rubin, Barry (1980). Paved with Good Intentions (PDF). New York: Penguin Books. p. 83.
  4. Welles Hengen (22 December 1953). "Mossadegh Gets 3-Year Jail Term". The New York Times. Tehran. Retrieved 24 August 2013.
  5. Rubin, Barry (1980). Paved with Good Intentions (PDF). New York: Penguin Books. p. 179.
  6. 1 2 Nikazmerad, Nicholas M. (1980). "A Chronological Survey of the Iranian Revolution". Iranian Studies. 13 (1/4): 327–368. doi:10.1080/00210868008701575. JSTOR   4310346.
  7. 1 2 Ward, Steven R. (2009). Immortal: A Military History of Iran and Its Armed Forces. Washington DC: Georgetown University Press. p. 214.  via Questia (subscription required)
  8. "Nematollah Nasiri: One Person's Story". Human Rights & Democracy for Iran. Retrieved 15 September 2018.
Nassiri in his interview with Kayhan Newspaper 2Nasiri-arrested.interview.1979.png
Nassiri in his interview with Kayhan Newspaper

Further reading

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