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Temporal range: Late Carboniferous–Present
Honeybee (order Hymenoptera)
Scientific classification Red Pencil Icon.png
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Arthropoda
Class: Insecta
Branch: Metapterygota
Infraclass: Neoptera

Neoptera is a classification group that includes most orders of the winged insects, specifically those that can flex their wings over their abdomens. This is in contrast with the more basal orders of winged insects (the "Palaeoptera" assemblage), which are unable to flex their wings in this way.



The taxon Neoptera was proposed by А.М. Martynov in 1923 and 1924, in the following classification: [1]


The order Thysanoptera originally had uncertain systematic position, and later was attributed to Paraneoptera.

Later, a number of other classifications had been proposed. According to various points of view, Neoptera is subordinated either directly to Pterygota (as in the Martynov's classification), or to Metapterygota:

1. Pterygota Gegenbaur 1878
1.1. Ephemeroptera Hyatt & Arms 1890
1.2. Metapterygota Börner 1909
1.2.1. Odonata Fabricius 1793
1.2.2. Neoptera Martynov 1923


The phylogeny of Neoptera is shown, not yet fully resolved, in the cladogram: [2]


Embioptera (webspinners)

Notoptera (grylloblattids, mantophasmatids)


Plecoptera (stoneflies)

Dictyoptera (cockroaches, termites, mantises)

Saltatoria (grasshoppers, crickets)

Phasmatodea (stick insects)

Dermaptera (earwigs)


Zoraptera (angel insects)


Thysanoptera (thrips)

Hemiptera (bugs)

Psocoptera (bark lice)

Phthiraptera (lice)

Metabola  (Oligoneoptera)

Coleoptera (beetles)

Strepsiptera (twisted-wing parasites)



Rhaphidioptera (snakeflies)



Hymenoptera (wasps and allies)

Enteracantha (scorpionflies, fleas)

Diptera (true flies)


Trichoptera (caddisflies)

Lepidoptera (butterflies and moths)

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