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Català in October 2015
Neus Català i Pallejà
6 October 1915
|Died||13 April 2019 103) (aged|
Els Guiamets, Catalonia, Spain
|Known for||Only Catalan survivor of Ravensbrück concentration camp|
Neus Català i Pallejà (6 October 1915 – 13 April 2019)was a member of the Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia (Catalan: Partit Socialista Unificat de Catalunya, PSUC) during the Spanish Civil War and was the only Catalan survivor of the concentration camp of Ravensbrück.
The Unified Socialist Party of Catalonia was a communist political party active in Catalonia between 1936 and 1997. It was the Catalan referent of the Communist Party of Spain and the only party not from a sovereign state to be a full member of the Third International.
The Spanish Civil War took place from 1936 to 1939. Republicans loyal to the left-leaning Second Spanish Republic, in alliance with the Anarchists and Communists, fought against the Nationalists, an alliance of Falangists, Monarchists, and Catholics, led by General Francisco Franco. Due to the international political climate at the time, the war had many facets, and different views saw it as class struggle, a war of religion, a struggle between dictatorship and republican democracy, between revolution and counterrevolution, between fascism and communism. The Nationalists won the war in early 1939 and ruled Spain until Franco's death in November 1975.
Ravensbrück was a German concentration camp exclusively for women from 1939 to 1945, located in northern Germany, 90 km (56 mi) north of Berlin at a site near the village of Ravensbrück. The largest single national group consisted of 40,000 Polish women. Others included 26,000 Jewish women from various countries: 18,800 Russian, 8,000 French, and 1,000 Dutch. More than 80 percent were political prisoners. Many slave labor prisoners were employed by Siemens & Halske. From 1942 to 1945, medical experiments to test the effectiveness of sulfonamides were undertaken.
Neus Català was born on 6 October 1915 in Els Guiamets, Tarragona, Catalonia. [ citation needed ] Català obtained her nursing degree in 1937 and moved to Barcelona at the beginning of the Spanish Civil War.[ citation needed ]However, her godmother officially registered her birth on 15 June that year, because of the disappearance of the documentation of the Municipality of Barcelona after the Spanish Civil War.
Els Guiamets is a municipality in the comarca of the Priorat in Catalonia, Spain. It is situated in the south of the comarca. A local road links the village to the N-420 road between Falset and Móra la Nova. The Guiamets reservoir is on an affluent of the Siurana (Tarragona).
Tarragona, is a province of the southern part of Catalonia. It is bordered by the provinces of Castelló, Terol, Saragossa, Lleida and Barcelona and by the Mediterranean Sea.
Catalonia is an autonomous community in Spain on the northeastern corner of the Iberian Peninsula, designated as a nationality by its Statute of Autonomy. Catalonia consists of four provinces: Barcelona, Girona, Lleida, and Tarragona. The capital and largest city is Barcelona, the second-most populated municipality in Spain and the core of the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union. It comprises most of the territory of the former Principality of Catalonia. It is bordered by France (Occitanie) and Andorra to the north, the Mediterranean Sea to the east, and the Spanish autonomous communities of Aragon to the west and Valencia to the south. The official languages are Catalan, Spanish, and the Aranese dialect of Occitan.
In 1939, she crossed the French border, taking with her 182 orphaned children [ citation needed ] which she later repatriated or arranged to be adopted. While in exile in France, she collaborated with her husband, the Occitan, Albert Roger, in the activities of the French Resistance, centralizing (at her home) the reception and transmission of messages, documents, weapons, and sheltering political refugees.[ citation needed ] She was reported to the national socialist authorities by a pharmacist of Sarlat. She and her husband were later arrested by the Nazis in 1943.[ citation needed ] Català was imprisoned and mistreated in Limoges, and in 1944 she was deported to Ravensbrück, where she was forced to work in the armaments industry. There, she was part of the "Lazy Commandos" (Spanish: Comando de las gandulas),[ citation needed ] a group of women who boycotted the manufacture of weapons in Holleischen, a factory which depended on the concentration camp of Flossenburg. [ citation needed ] Thanks to sabotage, the facility produced about 10 million faulty bullets and marred numerous weapons making machines. After her release, she returned to France where she continued her clandestine struggle against Francoist Spain. She lived in Sarcelles, near the city of Paris, and chaired the Association of Victims of Ravensbrück. She continued her membership in the Communist Party of Catalonia (PCC), United and Alternative Left (EUiA), and the Pere Ardiaca Foundation, of which she was a member of honor at the time of her death.[ citation needed ]of the colony Las Acacias from Premià de Dalt, better known as the Children of Negrin,
Premià de Dalt is a municipality in the comarca of the Maresme in Catalonia, Spain. It has a population of 9,788.
The French Resistance was the collection of French movements that fought against the Nazi German occupation of France and the collaborationist Vichy régime during the Second World War. Resistance cells were small groups of armed men and women, who, in addition to their guerrilla warfare activities, were also publishers of underground newspapers, providers of first-hand intelligence information, and maintainers of escape networks that helped Allied soldiers and airmen trapped behind enemy lines. The men and women of the Resistance came from all economic levels and political leanings of French society, including émigrés, academics, students, aristocrats, conservative Roman Catholics, and also citizens from the ranks of liberals, anarchists and communists.
Neus Català's graphic material about Spanish Civil War, Germany Nazi, concentration camps, 1933-2006. [ citation needed ]It is located in the Pavelló de la República CRAI Library - University of Barcelona.
The Pavelló de la República Library joined what is now the UB's Learning and Research Resources Centre (CRAI) in 1996. It has since grown to become one of the world's leading archival libraries on subjects such as the Second Spanish Republic, the Spanish Civil War, exile, Francoist Spain and Spain's transition to democracy. In addition, the library has important materials on the Soviet Bloc and on the international political history of the twentieth history, particularly the World War II.
She died on 13 April 2019, at the age of 103.
The Generalitat of Catalonia awarded her the Cross of St. George in 2005, and later she was chosen Catalan Person of the Year in 2006 for her defense of the memory of the more than 92,000 women who died in Ravensbrück. In 2006 she also received the Award for Alternative granted by the United and Alternative Left. On 29 October 2014, at the age of 99, the Barcelona City Council awarded Català the Gold Medal of Civic Merit, in recognition for her work to preserve historical memory, the fight against fascism, and the defense of women. In 2015, she received the Gold Medal of the Generalitat of Catalonia, for her struggle for justice and democratic freedom, the memory of those deported to Nazi death camps, and the defense of human rights.
The Cross of Saint George is a state decoration of the Russian Federation. It was initially established by Imperial Russia where it was officially known as the Decoration of the Military Order of Saint George between 1807 and 1913. The Cross of Saint George was reinstated into the Russian awards system in 1992.
United and Alternative Left is a political party in Catalonia, Spain. EUiA has 4000 members and it is the Catalan correspondent of the Spain-wide United Left (IU).
Barcelona is a city in Spain. It is the capital and largest city of the autonomous community of Catalonia, as well as the second most populous municipality of Spain. With a population of 1.6 million within city limits, its urban area extends to numerous neighbouring municipalities within the Province of Barcelona and is home to around 4.8 million people, making it the sixth most populous urban area in the European Union after Paris, London, Madrid, the Ruhr area and Milan. It is one of the largest metropolises on the Mediterranean Sea, located on the coast between the mouths of the rivers Llobregat and Besòs, and bounded to the west by the Serra de Collserola mountain range, the tallest peak of which is 512 metres high.
Catalonia dedicated 2015 to the memory of Català, who, about one hundred years old, was the last living person in Spain who survived Ravensbrück. This commemoration paid tribute, by extension, to all those who suffered the consequences of war, the Third Reich, and internment in prison camps and death camps. During the presentation, the Minister of Welfare and Family said, "She is a strong and caring woman, an antifascist fighter, a survivor of the Nazi death camps, and the reference and testimony for all the women who fought in the Spanish Civil War and World War II."
World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 50 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.
Francesc Macià i Llussà was the 122nd President of Catalonia and formerly an officer in the Spanish Army.
Lluís Companys i Jover was a Catalan politician. He was the President of Catalonia (Spain), from 1934 and during the Spanish Civil War.
The Republican Left of Catalonia is a Catalan pro-independence and social democratic political party in the Spanish autonomous community of Catalonia. It is also the main sponsor of the independence movement from France and Spain in the territories known as Catalan Countries. Occitan Republican Left, formed in 2008, acts as the Aranese section of the party.
The Party of Labour of Catalonia was a communist party in Catalonia, Spain. PTC was formed in 1979 following a split from the Party of Labour of Spain (PTE). The leader of PTC was Joan Sánchez Carreté.
Eugenio Fernández Granell was an artist often described as the last Spanish Surrealist painter.
Estat Català is a pro-independence nationalist historical political party of Catalonia (Spain).
The Library of Catalonia is a Catalan library located in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain. The mission of the Library of Catalonia is to collect, preserve, and spread Catalan bibliographic production and that related to the Catalan linguistic area, to look after its conservation, and to spread its bibliographic heritage while maintaining the status of a center for research and consultation.
Jordi Arquer was a Spanish communist politician and writer from Catalonia.
The Catalan donkey is a breed of large domestic donkey from Catalonia, in north-eastern Spain and south-western France. Approximately 80% of the population is in Catalonia, and approximately 20% is in the historic Roussillon region of France.
The "Catalan of the Year" award is organized by El Periódico de Catalunya, which since 2000 recognizes the Catalan person that was the most prominent in the development of their social or professional activity during the previous year. The award is voted by readers of the newspaper, after a previous selection of different nominees by am jury composed of persons from different social environments.
Pere Puig Subinyà was a Catalan politician and businessman. He was a member of Unió de Rabassaires and Republican Left of Catalonia
Francesca Bonnemaison i Farriols was a Spanish Catalan educator and promoter of female education in Catalonia. She established Biblioteca Popular de la Dona, first library exclusively for women in Europe, in Barcelona in 1909.
Carme Monturiol i Puig was a Catalan writer, translator, storyteller, poet, and playwright.
Núria de Gispert i Català is a Spanish politician and lawyer. Between 2010 and 2015 she served as speaker of Parliament of Catalonia.
Bonaventura Gassol i Rovira, known as Ventura Gassol, was a Catalan poet, playwright and politician. A nationalist, he was prominent member of the Esquerra Republicana de Catalunya.
Jordi Guixé i Coromines is a historian, founder director of the European Observatory on Memories (EUROM) of the University of Barcelona Solidarity's Foundation and an associate professor. With a Ph.D. in Contemporary History from both the University of Barcelona and the University of Paris III, he is currently a member of several research groups, such as the Institut des Sciences Politique du Socials of the Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique (CNRS), Centre d'Estudis de les Èpoques Franquista i Democràtica of the Universitat Autónoma de Barcelona (CEFID-UAB), the Group of Research on Memory and Society at the Universitat de Barcelona and the Centre de Recherche sur les Sociétés et Environments en Méditerranée (CRESEM) of the Université de Perpignan Via Domitia (UPVD). In 2016 he was elected vicechair of the Board of the International Committee of Memorial Museums in Remembrance of the Victims of Public Crimes (IC-MEMO), one of the 31 committees of the International Council of Museums (ICOM). From 2007 to 2010, J. Guixé participated in the creation of the Memorial Democràtic de Catalunya and was responsible of the heritage area as well as international relations. Among other projects, he coordinated the Census of Francoist Symbols in Catalonia.
Maria Verger Ventayol (1892–1983) was a Spanish archivist, librarian, and poet in Catalan and Spanish.
Joan Solà Cortassa was a Catalan linguist and philologist. He was professor of Catalan language and literature at the University of Barcelona from 1984 onwards, and vice president of the Institut d'Estudis Catalans (IEC) from 2009.