Nevada

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State of Nevada
Flag of Nevada.svg Nevada-StateSeal.svg
Flag Seal
Nickname(s):
Silver State (official);
Sagebrush State; Battle Born State
Motto(s): All for Our Country
State song(s): " Home Means Nevada "
Map of the United States with Nevada highlighted Nevada in United States.svg
Map of the United States with Nevada highlighted
Official language None
Demonym Nevadan
Capital Carson City
Largest city Las Vegas
Largest metro Las Vegas Valley
Area Ranked 7th
  Total 110,577  sq mi
(286,382 km2)
  Width322 miles (519 km)
  Length492 miles (787 km)
  % water0.72
  Latitude35° N to 42° N
  Longitude114° 2′ W to 120° W
Population Ranked 32nd
  Total3,034,392 (2018)
   Density 26.8/sq mi  (10.3/km2)
Ranked 42nd
   Median household income $58,003 [1] (27th)
Elevation
  Highest point Boundary Peak [2] [3] [4] [lower-alpha 1]
13,147 ft(4007.1 m)
  Mean5,500 ft  (1680 m)
  Lowest point Colorado River at California border [3] [4]
481 ft(147 m)
Before statehood Nevada Territory, Utah Territory, Arizona Territory
Admitted to the Union October 31, 1864 (36th)
Governor Steve Sisolak (D)
Lieutenant Governor Kate Marshall (D)
Legislature Nevada Legislature
   Upper house Senate
   Lower house Assembly
U.S. Senators Catherine Cortez Masto (D)
Jacky Rosen (D)
U.S. House delegation 1: Dina Titus (D)
2: Mark Amodei (R)
3: Susie Lee (D)
4: Steven Horsford (D) (list)
Time zones  
 • state Pacific: UTC −8/−7
 West Wendover Mountain: UTC −7/−6
ISO 3166 US-NV
Abbreviations NV, Nev.
Website www.nv.gov
Nevada state symbols
Flag of Nevada.svg
Seal of Nevada.svg
Living insignia
Bird Mountain bluebird (Sialia currucoides)
Fish Lahontan cutthroat trout (Oncorhynchus clarkii henshawi)
Flower Sagebrush (Artemisia tridentata)
Mammal Desert bighorn sheep
Reptile Desert tortoise (Gopherus agassizii)
Tree Bristlecone pine (Pinus monophylla)
Inanimate insignia
Mineral Silver
Rock Sandstone
State route marker
Nevada 147.svg
State quarter
2006 NV Proof.png
Released in 2006
Lists of United States state symbols

Nevada ( /nɪˈvædə/ ) is a state in the Western United States. [5] It is bordered by Oregon to the northwest, Idaho to the northeast, California to the west, Arizona to the southeast, and Utah to the east. Nevada is the 7th most extensive, the 32nd most populous, but the 9th least densely populated of the U.S. states. Nearly three-quarters of Nevada's people live in Clark County, which contains the Las Vegas–Paradise metropolitan area [6] where three of the state's four largest incorporated cities are located. [7] Nevada's capital is Carson City.

U.S. state constituent political entity of the United States

In the United States, a state is a constituent political entity, of which there are currently 50. Bound together in a political union, each state holds governmental jurisdiction over a separate and defined geographic territory and shares its sovereignty with the federal government. Due to this shared sovereignty, Americans are citizens both of the federal republic and of the state in which they reside. State citizenship and residency are flexible, and no government approval is required to move between states, except for persons restricted by certain types of court orders. Four states use the term commonwealth rather than state in their full official names.

Western United States Region in the United States

The Western United States is the region comprising the westernmost states of the United States. As European settlement in the U.S. expanded westward through the centuries, the meaning of the term the West changed. Before about 1800, the crest of the Appalachian Mountains was seen as the western frontier. The frontier moved westward and eventually the lands west of the Mississippi River were considered the West.

United States Federal republic in North America

The United States of America (USA), commonly known as the United States or America, is a country comprising 50 states, a federal district, five major self-governing territories, and various possessions. At 3.8 million square miles, the United States is the world's third or fourth largest country by total area and is slightly smaller than the entire continent of Europe's 3.9 million square miles. With a population of over 327 million people, the U.S. is the third most populous country. The capital is Washington, D.C., and the largest city by population is New York City. Forty-eight states and the capital's federal district are contiguous in North America between Canada and Mexico. The State of Alaska is in the northwest corner of North America, bordered by Canada to the east and across the Bering Strait from Russia to the west. The State of Hawaii is an archipelago in the mid-Pacific Ocean. The U.S. territories are scattered about the Pacific Ocean and the Caribbean Sea, stretching across nine official time zones. The extremely diverse geography, climate, and wildlife of the United States make it one of the world's 17 megadiverse countries.

Contents

Nevada is officially known as the "Silver State" because of the importance of silver to its history and economy. It is also known as the "Battle Born State", because it achieved statehood during the Civil War (the words "Battle Born" also appear on the state flag); as the "Sagebrush State", for the native plant of the same name; and as the "Sage-hen State". [8]

American Civil War Civil war in the United States from 1861 to 1865

The American Civil War was a civil war fought in the United States from 1861 to 1865, between the North and the South. The most studied and written about episode in U.S. history, the Civil War began primarily as a result of the long-standing controversy over the enslavement of black people. War broke out in April 1861 when secessionist forces attacked Fort Sumter in South Carolina shortly after Abraham Lincoln had been inaugurated as the President of the United States. The loyalists of the Union in the North proclaimed support for the Constitution. They faced secessionists of the Confederate States in the South, who advocated for states' rights to uphold slavery.

Flag of Nevada flag

The flag of the U.S. state of Nevada consists of a cobalt blue field with a variant of the state's emblem in the upper left hand corner. The emblem contains a silver star, below which appears the state's name. Above the star is a golden-yellow scroll with the words "Battle Born", one of the state's mottos. Below the star and state name are two sprays of green sagebrush with yellow flowers.

Sagebrush

Sagebrush is the common name of several woody and herbaceus species of plants in the genus Artemisia. The best known sagebrush is the shrub Artemisia tridentata. Sagebrushes are native to the North American west.

Nevada is largely desert and semi-arid, much of it within the Great Basin. Areas south of the Great Basin are within the Mojave Desert, while Lake Tahoe and the Sierra Nevada lie on the western edge. About 86% of the state's land is managed by various jurisdictions of the U.S. federal government, both civilian and military. [9]

Desert Area of land where little precipitation occurs

A desert is a barren area of landscape where little precipitation occurs and, consequently, living conditions are hostile for plant and animal life. The lack of vegetation exposes the unprotected surface of the ground to the processes of denudation. About one-third of the land surface of the world is arid or semi-arid. This includes much of the polar regions where little precipitation occurs and which are sometimes called polar deserts or "cold deserts". Deserts can be classified by the amount of precipitation that falls, by the temperature that prevails, by the causes of desertification or by their geographical location.

Great Basin large depression in western North America

The Great Basin is the largest area of contiguous endorheic watersheds in North America. It spans nearly all of Nevada, much of Oregon and Utah, and portions of California, Idaho, and Wyoming. It is noted for both its arid climate and the basin and range topography that varies from the North American low point at Badwater Basin to the highest point of the contiguous United States, less than 100 miles (160 km) away at the summit of Mount Whitney. The region spans several physiographic divisions, biomes, ecoregions, and deserts.

Mojave Desert desert in southwestern United States

The Mojave Desert is an arid rain-shadow desert and the driest desert in North America. It is in the Southwestern United States, primarily within southeastern California and southern Nevada, and it occupies 47,877 sq mi (124,000 km2). Very small areas also extend into Utah and Arizona. Its boundaries are generally noted by the presence of Joshua trees, which are native only to the Mojave Desert and are considered an indicator species, and it is believed to support an additional 1,750 to 2,000 species of plants. The central part of the desert is sparsely populated, while its peripheries support large communities such as Las Vegas, Barstow, Lancaster, Palmdale, Victorville, and St. George.

Before European contact, Native Americans of the Paiute, Shoshone, and Washoe tribes inhabited the land that is now Nevada. The first Europeans to explore the region were Spanish. They called the region Nevada (snowy) because of the snow which covered the mountains in winter. The area formed part of the Viceroyalty of New Spain, and became part of Mexico when it gained independence in 1821. The United States annexed the area in 1848 after its victory in the Mexican–American War, and it was incorporated as part of Utah Territory in 1850. The discovery of silver at the Comstock Lode in 1859 led to a population boom that became an impetus to the creation of Nevada Territory out of western Utah Territory in 1861. Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, as the second of two states added to the Union during the Civil War (the first being West Virginia). [10]

Paiute refers to three non-contiguous groups of indigenous peoples of the Great Basin. These three groups, although related within the Numic group of Uto-Aztecan languages, do not form a single node within that group. The term "Paiute" does not refer to a single, unique, unified group of Great Basin tribes, but is a historical label.

The Shoshone or Shoshoni are a Native American tribe with four large cultural/linguistic divisions:

Washoe people indigenous peoples

The Washoe or Wašišiw are a Great Basin tribe of Native Americans, living near Lake Tahoe at the border between California and Nevada. The name "Washoe" or "Washo" is derived from the autonym Waashiw in the Washo language or from Wašišiw (waší:šiw), the plural form of wašiw.

Nevada has a reputation for its libertarian laws. In 1940, with a population of just over 110,000 people, Nevada was by far the least-populated state, with less than half the population of the next least-populated state. [11] However, legalized gambling and lenient marriage and divorce laws transformed Nevada into a major tourist destination in the 20th century. [12] [13] Nevada is the only U.S. state where prostitution is legal, though it is illegal in Clark County (Las Vegas), Washoe County (Reno) and Carson City (which, as an independent city, is not within the boundaries of any county). The tourism industry remains Nevada's largest employer, [14] with mining continuing as a substantial sector of the economy: Nevada is the fourth-largest producer of gold in the world. [15]

Gambling wagering of money on a game of chance or event with an uncertain outcome

Gambling is the wagering of money or something of value on an event with an uncertain outcome, with the primary intent of winning money or material goods. Gambling thus requires three elements be present: consideration, risk (chance), and a prize. The outcome of the wager is often immediate, such as a single roll of dice, a spin of a roulette wheel, or a horse crossing the finish line, but longer time frames are also common, allowing wagers on the outcome of a future sports contest or even an entire sports season.

Marriage law refers to the legal requirements that determine the validity of a marriage, and which vary considerably among countries.

Prostitution in Nevada

Nevada is the only U.S. state where prostitution is legally permitted in some form. Strictly regulated brothels operate legally in mainly isolated rural areas, away from the majority of Nevada's population. However, prostitution is not legal in all of Nevada, and is illegal in the following counties: Clark, Douglas, Eureka County, Lincoln, Pershing County and Washoe. Prostitution is also illegal in Nevada's capital, Carson City, an independent city. The rest of Nevada's counties are permitted by state law to license brothels, but currently only seven counties have active brothels. As of December 2018, there are 21 brothels in Nevada.

Mountains west of Las Vegas in the Mojave Desert CCF12262007 00003.jpg
Mountains west of Las Vegas in the Mojave Desert

Etymology and pronunciation

The name "Nevada" comes from the Spanish nevada [neˈβaða] , meaning "snow-covered", [16] after the Sierra Nevada ("snow-covered mountains").

Sierra Nevada (U.S.) mountain range

The Sierra Nevada is a mountain range in the Western United States, between the Central Valley of California and the Great Basin. The vast majority of the range lies in the state of California, although the Carson Range spur lies primarily in Nevada. The Sierra Nevada is part of the American Cordillera, a chain of mountain ranges that consists of an almost continuous sequence of such ranges that form the western "backbone" of North America, Central America, South America and Antarctica.

Most Nevadans pronounce the second syllable of their state name using the TRAP vowel ( /nɪˈvædə/ ). Many from outside the Western United States pronounce it with the PALM vowel ( /nɪˈvɑːdə/ ). Although the latter pronunciation is closer to the Spanish pronunciation, it is not the pronunciation preferred by most Nevadans. State Assemblyman Harry Mortenson proposed a bill to recognize the alternate (quasi-Spanish) pronunciation of Nevada, [17] though the bill was not supported by most legislators and never received a vote. The Nevadan pronunciation is the de facto official one, since it is the one used by the state legislature. At one time, the state's official tourism organization, TravelNevada, stylized the name of the state as "Nevăda", with a breve mark over the a indicating the locally preferred pronunciation [18] which is also available as a license plate design.

Geography

A topographic map of Nevada Digital-elevation-map-nevada.gif
A topographic map of Nevada

Nevada is almost entirely within the Basin and Range Province, and is broken up by many north-south mountain ranges. Most of these ranges have endorheic valleys between them, which belies the image portrayed by the term Great Basin.

Much of the northern part of the state is within the Great Basin, a mild desert that experiences hot temperatures in the summer and cold temperatures in the winter. Occasionally, moisture from the Arizona Monsoon will cause summer thunderstorms; Pacific storms may blanket the area with snow. The state's highest recorded temperature was 125 °F (52 °C) in Laughlin (elevation of 605 feet or 184 meters) on June 29, 1994. [19] The coldest recorded temperature was −52  °F (−47  °C ) set in San Jacinto in 1972, in the northeastern portion of the state. [19]

The Humboldt River crosses the state from east to west across the northern part of the state, draining into the Humboldt Sink near Lovelock. Several rivers drain from the Sierra Nevada eastward, including the Walker, Truckee, and Carson rivers. All of these rivers are endorheic basins, ending in Walker Lake, Pyramid Lake, and the Carson Sink, respectively. However, not all of Nevada is within the Great Basin. Tributaries of the Snake River drain the far north, while the Colorado River, which also forms much of the boundary with Arizona, drains much of southern Nevada.

The mountain ranges, some of which have peaks above 13,000 feet (4,000 m), harbor lush forests high above desert plains, creating sky islands for endemic species. The valleys are often no lower in elevation than 3,000 feet (910 m), while some in central Nevada are above 6,000 feet (1,800 m).

The southern third of the state, where the Las Vegas area is situated, is within the Mojave Desert. The area receives less rain in the winter but is closer to the Arizona Monsoon in the summer. The terrain is also lower, mostly below 4,000 feet (1,200 m), creating conditions for hot summer days and cool to chilly winter nights.

Nevada and California have by far the longest diagonal line (in respect to the cardinal directions) as a state boundary at just over 400 miles (640 km). This line begins in Lake Tahoe nearly 4 miles (6.4 km) offshore (in the direction of the boundary), and continues to the Colorado River where the Nevada, California, and Arizona boundaries merge 12 miles (19 km) southwest of the Laughlin Bridge.

The largest mountain range in the southern portion of the state is the Spring Mountain Range, just west of Las Vegas. The state's lowest point is along the Colorado River, south of Laughlin.

Nevada has 172 mountain summits with 2,000 feet (610 m) of prominence. Nevada ranks second in the United States by number of mountains, behind Alaska, and ahead of California, Montana, and Washington. Nevada is the most mountainous state in the contiguous United States.

Climate

Koppen climate types in Nevada NV koppen.svg
Köppen climate types in Nevada

Nevada is the driest state in the United States. [20] It is made up of mostly desert and semi-arid climate regions, and, with the exception of the Las Vegas Valley, the average summer diurnal temperature range approaches 40 °F (22 °C) in much of the state. While winters in northern Nevada are long and fairly cold, the winter season in the southern part of the state tends to be of short duration and mild. Most parts of Nevada receive scarce precipitation during the year. Most rain that falls in the state falls on the lee side (east and northeast slopes) of the Sierra Nevada.

The average annual rainfall per year is about 7 inches (180 mm); the wettest parts get around 40 inches (1,000 mm). Nevada's highest recorded temperature is 125 °F (52 °C) at Laughlin on June 29, 1994 and the lowest recorded temperature is −50 °F (−46 °C) at San Jacinto on January 8, 1937. Nevada's 125 °F (52 °C) reading is the third highest statewide record high temperature of a U.S. state, just behind Arizona's 128 °F (53 °C) reading and California's 134 °F (57 °C) reading.

Average daily maximum and minimum temperatures for selected cities in Nevada [21]
LocationJuly (°F)July (°C)December (°F)December (°C)
MaxMinMaxMinMaxMinMaxMin
Las Vegas 1048140275638133
Reno 9257331445257–4
Carson City 8952321145227–5
Elko 9050321037142–9
Fallon 9254331245197–7
Winnemucca 9352341141175–8

Flora and fauna

The vegetation of Nevada is diverse and differs by state area. Nevada contains six biotic zones: alpine, sub-alpine, ponderosa pine, pinion-juniper, sagebrush and creosotebush. [22]

Counties

The Las Vegas Strip looking South. The Strip from Eiffel Tower (9176999807).jpg
The Las Vegas Strip looking South.
Carson City Mint in Carson City. Carson City is an independent city and the capital of Nevada. Nevada State Museum.jpg
Carson City Mint in Carson City. Carson City is an independent city and the capital of Nevada.

Nevada is divided into political jurisdictions designated as counties . Carson City is officially a consolidated municipality; however, for many purposes under state law it is considered to be a county. As of 1919 there were 17 counties in the state, ranging from 146 to 18,159 square miles (380 to 47,030 km2).

Lake County, one of the original nine counties formed in 1861, was renamed Roop County in 1862. Part of the county became Lassen County, California in 1864. In 1883, Washoe County annexed the portion that remained in Nevada. [23]

In 1969, Ormsby County was dissolved and the Consolidated Municipality of Carson City was created by the Legislature in its place co-terminous with the old boundaries of Ormsby County.

Bullfrog County was formed in 1987 from part of Nye County. After the creation was declared unconstitutional, the county was abolished in 1989. [23]

Humboldt county was designated as a county in 1856 by Utah Territorial Legislature and again in 1861 by the new Nevada Legislature.

Clark County is the most populous county in Nevada, accounting for nearly three-quarters of its residents. Las Vegas, Nevada's most populous city, has been the county seat since the county was created in 1909 from a portion of Lincoln County, Nevada. Before that, it was a part of Arizona Territory. Clark County attracts numerous tourists: An estimated 44 million people visited Clark County in 2014. [24]

Washoe County is the second most populous county of Nevada. Its county seat is Reno. Washoe County includes the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area.

Lyon County is the third most populous county. It was one of the nine original counties created in 1861. It was named after Nathaniel Lyon, the first Union General to be killed in the Civil War. Its current county seat is Yerington. Its first county seat was established at Dayton on November 29, 1861. [25]

Nevada counties
County nameCounty seatYear founded2010 population [26] Percent of totalArea (mi2)Percent of totalPopulation density (/mi2)
Carson City Carson City 186155,2742.63 %1460.13 %378.59
Churchill Fallon 186124,8770.92 %5,0234.54 %4.95
Clark Las Vegas 19081,951,26972.25 %8,0917.32 %241.17
Douglas Minden 186146,9971.74 %7380.67 %63.68
Elko Elko 186948,8181.81 %17,20315.56 %2.84
Esmeralda Goldfield 18617830.03 %3,5893.25 %0.22
Eureka Eureka 18691,9870.07 %4,1803.78 %0.48
Humboldt Winnemucca 1856/186116,5280.61 %9,6588.74 %1.71
Lander Battle Mountain 18615,7750.21 %5,5194.99 %1.05
Lincoln Pioche 18675,3450.20 %10,6379.62 %0.50
Lyon Yerington 186151,9801.92 %2,0161.82 %25.78
Mineral Hawthorne 19114,7720.18 %3,8133.45 %1.25
Nye Tonopah 186443,9461.63 %18,15916.43 %2.42
Pershing Lovelock 19196,7530.25 %6,0685.49 %1.11
Storey Virginia City 18614,0100.15 %2640.24 %15.19
Washoe Reno 1861421,40715.60 %6,5515.93 %64.32
White Pine Ely 186910,0300.37 %8,8978.05 %1.12
TotalsCounties: 172,700,551110,55224.43

History

Before 1861

Mexico in 1824. Alta California included today's Nevada. Mexico 1824 (equirectangular projection).png
Mexico in 1824. Alta California included today's Nevada.

Francisco Garcés was the first European in the area, [27] Nevada was annexed as a part of the Spanish Empire in the northwestern territory of New Spain. Administratively, the area of Nevada was part of the Commandancy General of the Provincias Internas in the Viceroyalty of New Spain. Nevada became a part of Alta California (Upper California) province in 1804 when the Californias were split. With the Mexican War of Independence won in 1821, the province of Alta California became a territory (state) of Mexico, with a small population. Jedediah Smith entered the Las Vegas Valley in 1827, and Peter Skene Ogden traveled the Humboldt River in 1828. When the Mormons created the State of Deseret in 1847, they laid claim to all of Nevada within the Great Basin and the Colorado watershed. They also founded the first white settlement in what is now Nevada, Mormon Station (modern day Genoa), in 1851. In June 1855, William Bringhurst and 29 fellow Mormon missionaries from Utah arrived at a site just northeast of downtown Las Vegas and built a 150-foot square adobe fort, the first permanent structure erected in the valley, which remained under the control of Salt Lake City until the winter of 1858–1859.

As a result of the Mexican–American War and the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, Mexico permanently lost Alta California in 1848. The new areas acquired by the United States continued to be administered as territories. As part of the Mexican Cession (1848) and the subsequent California Gold Rush that used Emigrant Trails through the area, the state's area evolved first as part of the Utah Territory, then the Nevada Territory (March 2, 1861; named for the Sierra Nevada). [28]

Sculpture representing a steam locomotive, in Ely, Nevada. Early locomotives played an important part in Nevada's mining industry Early 19th Century locomotive in Ely, Nevada.JPG
Sculpture representing a steam locomotive, in Ely, Nevada. Early locomotives played an important part in Nevada's mining industry

See History of Utah, History of Las Vegas, and the discovery of the first major U.S. deposit of silver ore in Comstock Lode under Virginia City, Nevada in 1859.

Separation from Utah Territory

Nevada territory in 1861 Nevada Territory in 1861.svg
Nevada territory in 1861

On March 2, 1861, the Nevada Territory separated from the Utah Territory and adopted its current name, shortened from Sierra Nevada (Spanish for "snow-covered mountain range").

The 1861 southern boundary is commemorated by Nevada Historical Markers 57 and 58 in Lincoln and Nye counties.

Statehood (1864)

Eight days before the presidential election of 1864, Nevada became the 36th state in the union. Rather than sending the Nevada State Constitution to Washington DC by Pony Express to save time the full text of the State Constitution was sent by Telegraph at a cost of $3,416.77—the most costly telegraph on file for a single dispatch. Finally the response from Washington DC on October 31, 1864 was "the pain is over, the child is born, Nevada this day was admitted into the Union". Statehood was rushed to the date of October 31 to help ensure Abraham Lincoln's reelection on November 8 and post-Civil War Republican dominance in Congress, [29] as Nevada's mining-based economy tied it to the more industrialized Union. As it turned out, however, Lincoln and the Republicans won the election handily, and did not need Nevada's help.

Nevada is one of only two states to significantly expand its borders after admission to the Union. (The other is Missouri, which acquired additional territory in 1837 due to the Platte Purchase.)

In 1866 another part of the western Utah Territory was added to Nevada in the eastern part of the state, setting the current eastern boundary.

Nevada achieved its current southern boundaries on January 18, 1867, when it absorbed the portion of Pah-Ute County in the Arizona Territory west of the Colorado River, essentially all of present-day Nevada south of the 37th parallel. The transfer was prompted by the discovery of gold in the area, and officials thought Nevada would be better able to oversee the expected population boom. This area includes most of what is now Clark County and the Las Vegas metropolitan area.

Mining shaped Nevada's economy for many years (see Silver mining in Nevada ). When Mark Twain lived in Nevada during the period described in Roughing It , mining had led to an industry of speculation and immense wealth. However, both mining and population declined in the late 19th century. However, the rich silver strike at Tonopah in 1900, followed by strikes in Goldfield and Rhyolite, again put Nevada's population on an upward trend.

Gambling and labor

Gambling erupted once more following a recession in the early 20th century, helping to build the city of Las Vegas Welcome to fabulous las vegas sign.jpg
Gambling erupted once more following a recession in the early 20th century, helping to build the city of Las Vegas

Unregulated gambling was commonplace in the early Nevada mining towns but was outlawed in 1909 as part of a nationwide anti-gambling crusade. Because of subsequent declines in mining output and the decline of the agricultural sector during the Great Depression, Nevada again legalized gambling on March 19, 1931, with approval from the legislature. Governor Fred B. Balzar's signature enacted the most liberal divorce laws in the country and open gambling. The reforms came just eight days after the federal government presented the $49 million construction contract for Boulder Dam (now Hoover Dam). [30]

Nuclear testing

The Nevada Test Site, 65 miles (105 km) northwest of the city of Las Vegas, was founded on January 11, 1951, for the testing of nuclear weapons. The site consists of about 1,350 square miles (3,500 km2) of desert and mountainous terrain. Nuclear testing at the Nevada Test Site began with a 1 kiloton of TNT (4.2 TJ) bomb dropped on Frenchman Flat on January 27, 1951. The last atmospheric test was conducted on July 17, 1962, and the underground testing of weapons continued until September 23, 1992. The location is known for having the highest concentration of nuclear-detonated weapons in the U.S.

Over 80% of the state's area is owned by the federal government. The primary reason for this is homesteads were not permitted in large enough sizes to be viable in the arid conditions that prevail throughout desert Nevada. Instead, early settlers would homestead land surrounding a water source, and then graze livestock on the adjacent public land, which is useless for agriculture without access to water (this pattern of ranching still prevails).

Demographics

Population

Population density map of Nevada Nevada population map.png
Population density map of Nevada
Historical population
CensusPop.
1860 6,857
1870 42,941526.2%
1880 62,26645.0%
1890 47,355−23.9%
1900 42,335−10.6%
1910 81,87593.4%
1920 77,407−5.5%
1930 91,05817.6%
1940 110,24721.1%
1950 160,08345.2%
1960 285,27878.2%
1970 488,73871.3%
1980 800,49363.8%
1990 1,201,83350.1%
2000 1,998,25766.3%
2010 2,700,55135.1%
Est. 20183,034,39212.4%
Source: 1910–2010 [31]
2018 estimate [32]

The United States Census Bureau estimates the population of Nevada on July 1, 2018 was 3,034,392, an increase of 61,987 residents (2.10%) since the 2017 US Census estimate and an increase of 333,841 residents (12.36%) since the 2010 United States Census. [32] Nevada had the first highest percentage growth in population from 2017 to 2018. At the 2010 Census, 6.9% of the state's population were reported as under 5, 24.6% were under 18, and 12.0% were 65 or older. Females made up about 49.5% of the population.

Since the 2010 census, the population of Nevada had a natural increase of 87,581 (the net difference between 222,508 births and 134,927 deaths); and an increase due to net migration of 146,626 (of which 104,032 was due to domestic and 42,594 was due to international migration). [33]

The center of population of Nevada is in southern Nye County. [34] In this county, the unincorporated town of Pahrump, 60 miles (97 km) west of Las Vegas on the California state line, has grown very rapidly from 1980 to 2010. At the 2010 census, the town had 36,441 residents. [35] Las Vegas grew from a gulch of 100 people in 1900 to 10,000 by 1950 to 100,000 by 1970, and was America's fastest-growing city and metropolitan area from 1960 to 2000.

From about the 1940s until 2003, Nevada was the fastest-growing state in the US percentage-wise. Between 1990 and 2000, Nevada's population increased 66%, while the US's population increased 13%. Over two thirds of the population of the state lives in Clark County, which is coextensive with the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Thus, in terms of population, Nevada is one of the most centralized states in the nation.

Henderson and North Las Vegas are among the top 20 fastest-growing U.S. cities with populations of over 100,000. The rural community of Mesquite 65 miles (105 km) northeast of Las Vegas was an example of micropolitan growth in the 1990s and 2000s. Other desert towns like Indian Springs and Searchlight on the outskirts of Las Vegas have seen some growth as well.

Since 1950, the rate of population born in Nevada has never peaked 27 percent, the lowest rate of all states. In 2012, only 25% of Nevadans were born in-state. [36]

Large numbers of new residents in the state originate from California, which led some locals to feel their state is being "Californicated". [37]

The table below shows the racial composition of Nevada's population as of 2016.

Nevada racial composition of population [38]
RacePopulation (2016 est.)Percentage
Total population2,839,172100%
White 1,933,05768.1%
   Non-Hispanic White 1,455,50851.3%
   White Hispanic 477,54916.8%
Black or African American 243,5528.6%
American Indian and Alaska Native 31,9271.1%
Asian 222,6127.8%
Native Hawaiian and Other Pacific Islander 18,3340.6%
Some other race 260,6549.2%
Two or more races 129,0364.5%

According to the 2016 American Community Survey, 27.8% of Nevada's population were of Hispanic or Latino origin (of any race): Mexican (21.3%), Puerto Rican (0.9%), Cuban (0.9%), and other Hispanic or Latino origin (4.7%). [38] The five largest non-Hispanic White ancestry groups were: German (11.3%), Irish (9.0%), English (6.9%), Italian (5.8%), and American (4.7%). [39]

In 1980, non-Hispanic whites made up 83.3% of the state's population. [40]

Nevada historical racial composition
Racial composition1970 [40] 1990 [40] 2000 [41] 2010 [42]
White 86.7%78.7%65.2%66.2%
Black 5.7%6.6%6.8%8.1%
Asian 0.7%3.2%4.5%7.2%
Native 1.6%1.6%1.3%1.2%
Other race 0.3%4.4%8.0%12.0%
Two or more races 3.8%4.7%
Hispanic or Latino (of any race)5.6%10.4%19.7%26.5%

As of 2011, 63.6% of Nevada's population younger than age 1 were minorities. [43] . Las Vegas is a minority majority city. According to the United States Census Bureau estimates, as of July 1, 2017, non-Hispanic Whites made up 49.1% of Nevada's population. [44] This would make Nevada a majority minority state joining California, Texas, New Mexico, Hawaii, and the District of Columbia. [45]

In Douglas, Mineral, and Pershing counties, a plurality of residents are of Mexican ancestry. In Nye County and Humboldt County, residents are mostly of German ancestry; Washoe County has many Irish Americans. Americans of English descent form pluralities in Lincoln County, Churchill County, Lyon County, White Pine County, and Eureka County.

Asian Americans lived in the state since the California Gold Rush of the 1850s brought thousands of Chinese miners to Washoe county. They were followed by a few hundred Japanese farm workers in the late 19th century. By the late 20th century, many immigrants from China, Japan, Korea, the Philippines, Bangladesh, India, and Vietnam came to the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The city now has one of America's most prolific Asian American communities, with a mostly Chinese and Taiwanese area known as "Chinatown" west of I-15 on Spring Mountain Road. Filipino Americans form the largest Asian American group in the state, with a population of more than 113,000. They comprise 56.5% of the Asian American population in Nevada and constitute about 4.3% of the entire state's population. [46] [ citation needed ]

Largely African American sections of Las Vegas and Reno can be found. Many current African-American Nevadans are newly transplanted residents from California.[ citation needed ]

Las Vegas was a major destination for immigrants from South Asia and Latin America seeking employment in the gaming and hospitality industries during the 1990s and first decade of the 21st century, but farming and construction are the biggest employers of immigrant labor.

The religious makeup of Nevadans includes large communities of members of The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints, Roman Catholics, and Evangelicals; each is known for higher birth rates and a younger than national average age. American Jews represent a large proportion of the active adult retirement community.[ citation needed ]

Birth data

Note: Births within the table do not add up, due to Hispanics being counted both by their ethnicity and by their race, giving a higher overall number.

Live Births by Single Race/Ethnicity of Mother
Race 2013 [47] 2014 [48] 2015 [49] 2016 [50] 2017 [51]
White:27,293 (77.9%)27,638 (77.1%)27,648 (76.2%)......
> Non-Hispanic White 14,951 (42.7%)15,151 (42.2%)14,937 (41.2%)13,918 (38.4%)13,171 (36.8%)
Black 4,215 (12.0%)4,603 (12.8%)4,803 (13.2%)4,205 (11.6%)4,471 (12.5%)
Asian 3,097 (8.8%)3,145 (8.8%)3,337 (9.2%)2,666 (7.3%)2,685 (7.5%)
Pacific Islander .........308 (0.8%)322 (0.9%)
American Indian 425 (1.2%)475 (1.3%)510 (1.4%)303 (0.8%)305 (0.9%)
Hispanic (of any race)12,718 (36.3%)13,006 (36.3%)13,225 (36.4%)13,391 (36.9%)13,176 (36.8%)
Total Nevada35,030 (100%)35,861 (100%)36,298 (100%)36,260 (100%)35,756 (100%)
  • Since 2016, data for births of White Hispanic origin are not collected, but included in one Hispanic group; persons of Hispanic origin may be of any race.

Settlements

The Winnemucca Sand Dunes, north of Winnemucca 2012-10-14 14 Winnemucca Sand Dunes, north of Winnemucca in Nevada.jpg
The Winnemucca Sand Dunes, north of Winnemucca
Downtown Reno Downtown Reno, Nevada (17573535294).jpg
Downtown Reno
East Las Vegas suburbs Las Vegas From Stratosphere 5 2013-06-25.jpg
East Las Vegas suburbs

A small percentage of Nevada's population lives in rural areas. The culture of these places differs significantly from the major metropolitan areas. People in these rural counties tend to be native Nevada residents, unlike in the Las Vegas and Reno areas, where the vast majority of the population was born in another state. The rural population is also less diverse in terms of race and ethnicity. Mining plays an important role in the economies of the rural counties, with tourism being less prominent. [53] Ranching also has a long tradition in rural Nevada. [54]

Locations by GDP per capita

Ranked by per capita income in 2000
RankPlaceGDP per capitaCounty
1 Incline Village-Crystal Bay $52,521 Washoe
2 Kingsbury $41,421 Douglas
3 Mount Charleston $38,821 Clark
4 Verdi-Mogul $38,233Washoe
5 Zephyr Cove-Round Hill Village $37,218Douglas
6 Summerlin South $33,017Clark
7 Blue Diamond $30,479Clark
8 Minden $30,405Douglas
9 Boulder City $29,770Clark
10 Spanish Springs $26,908Washoe

Religion

Religion in Nevada [55]
religionpercent
Protestant
35%
No religion
28%
Catholic
25%
Mormon
4%
Jewish
2%
Buddhist
0.5%
Hindu
0.1%
Muslim
0.1%

Church attendance in Nevada is among the lowest of all U.S. states. In a 2009 Gallup poll only 30% of Nevadans said they attended church weekly or almost weekly, compared to 42% of all Americans (only four states were found to have a lower attendance rate than Nevada). [56]

Major religious affiliations of the people of Nevada are: Protestant 35%, no religion 28%, Roman Catholic 25%, Latter-day Saint 4%, Jewish 2%, Hindu less than 1%, Buddhist 0.5% and Islam less than 0.1%. Parts of Nevada (in the eastern parts of the state) are situated in the Mormon Corridor.

The largest denominations by number of adherents in 2010 were the Roman Catholic Church with 451,070; The Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day Saints with 175,149; and the Southern Baptist Convention with 45,535; Buddhist congregations 14,727; Bahá'í 1,723; and Muslim 1,700. [57] The Jewish community is represented by The Rohr Jewish Learning Institute and Chabad. [58] [59]

Economy

Nevada quarter Nevada quarter, reverse side, 2006.jpg
Nevada quarter
MGM Grand, with sign promoting it as The City of Entertainment 20080404-Vegas-MGMGrand-Day.jpg
MGM Grand, with sign promoting it as The City of Entertainment
Lake Tahoe on the Nevada-California border Tahoe.JPG
Lake Tahoe on the Nevada-California border
Goldstrike (Post-Betze) Mine in the Carlin Trend, the largest Carlin-type deposit in the world, containing more than 35,000,000 troy ounces (1,100 t) gold. Goldstrike pit.jpg
Goldstrike (Post-Betze) Mine in the Carlin Trend, the largest Carlin-type deposit in the world, containing more than 35,000,000 troy ounces (1,100 t) gold.
Cattle near the Bruneau River in Elko County 2013-06-28 15 48 26 Cattle along Deeth-Charleston Road (Elko County Route 747) at the Bruneau River, about 38.6 miles north of Deeth in Elko County, Nevada.jpg
Cattle near the Bruneau River in Elko County
Ranching in Washoe County Washoe County.jpg
Ranching in Washoe County

The economy of Nevada is tied to tourism (especially entertainment and gambling related), mining, and cattle ranching. Nevada's industrial outputs are tourism, mining, machinery, printing and publishing, food processing, and electric equipment. The Bureau of Economic Analysis [61] [62] estimates Nevada's total state product in 2018 was $170 billion [63] . The state's per capita personal income in 2018 was $43,820, ranking 35th in the nation. [64] Nevada's state debt in 2012 was calculated to be $7.5 billion, or $3,100 per taxpayer. [65] As of December 2014, the state's unemployment rate was 6.8%. [66]

The economy of Nevada has long been tied to vice industries. "[Nevada was] founded on mining and refounded on sin—beginning with prizefighting and easy divorce a century ago and later extending to gaming and prostitution", said the August 21, 2010 issue of The Economist. [67]

Mining

In portions of the state outside of the Las Vegas and Reno metropolitan areas mining plays a major economic role. By value, gold is by far the most important mineral mined. In 2004, 6,800,000 ounces (190,000,000 g) of gold worth $2.84 billion were mined in Nevada, and the state accounted for 8.7% of world gold production (see Gold mining in Nevada ). Silver is a distant second, with 10,300,000 ounces (290,000,000 g) worth $69 million mined in 2004 (see Silver mining in Nevada ). [68] Other minerals mined in Nevada include construction aggregates, copper, gypsum, diatomite and lithium. Despite its rich deposits, the cost of mining in Nevada is generally high, and output is very sensitive to world commodity prices.

Cattle ranching

Cattle ranching is a major economic activity in rural Nevada. Nevada's agricultural outputs are cattle, hay, alfalfa, dairy products, onions, and potatoes. As of January 1, 2006, there were an estimated 500,000 head of cattle and 70,000 head of sheep in Nevada. [69] Most of these animals forage on rangeland in the summer, with supplemental feed in the winter. Calves are generally shipped to out-of-state feedlots in the fall to be fattened for market. Over 90% of Nevada's 484,000 acres (196,000 ha) of cropland is used to grow hay, mostly alfalfa, for livestock feed.

Largest employers

The largest employers in the state, as of the first fiscal quarter of 2011, are the following, according to the Nevada Department of Employment, Training and Rehabilitation: [70]

RankEmployer
1 Clark County School District
2 Washoe County School District
3 Clark County
4 Wynn Las Vegas
5 Bellagio LLC
6 MGM Grand Hotel/Casino
7 Aria Resort & Casino LLC
8 Mandalay Bay Resort and Casino
9 Las Vegas Metropolitan Police Department
10 Caesars Palace
11 University of Nevada, Las Vegas
12 The Venetian Casino Resort
13 The Cosmopolitan of Las Vegas
14 The Mirage Casino-Hotel
15 University of Nevada, Reno
16 University Medical Center of Southern Nevada
17 The Palazzo Casino Resort
18 Flamingo Las Vegas Operating Company LLC
19 Encore Las Vegas
20 Luxor Las Vegas

Infrastructure

Transportation

State route shield Nevada 28.svg
State route shield
U.S. Route 50, also known as "The Loneliest Road in America" U.S. Route 50 - Loneliest Road.jpg
U.S. Route 50, also known as "The Loneliest Road in America"
Road from Carrara, Nevada towards the marble quarry in the background. Road to Carrara, Nevada.jpg
Road from Carrara, Nevada towards the marble quarry in the background.

Amtrak's California Zephyr train uses the Union Pacific's original transcontinental railroad line in daily service from Chicago to Emeryville, California, serving Elko, Winnemucca, and Reno. Las Vegas has had no passenger train service since Amtrak's Desert Wind was discontinued in 1997. Amtrak Thruway Motorcoaches provide connecting service from Las Vegas to trains at Needles, California, Los Angeles, and Bakersfield, California; and from Stateline, Nevada, to Sacramento, California. There have been a number of proposals to re-introduce service to either Los Angeles or Southern California.

The Union Pacific Railroad has some railroads in the north and south of Nevada. Greyhound Lines provide some bus service to the state.

Interstate 15 passes through the southern tip of the state, serving Las Vegas and other communities. I-215 and spur route I-515 also serve the Las Vegas metropolitan area. Interstate 80 crosses through the northern part of Nevada, roughly following the path of the Humboldt River from Utah in the east and the Truckee River westward through Reno into California. It has a spur route, I-580. Nevada also is served by several U.S. highways: US 6, US 50, US 93, US 95 and US 395. There are also 189 Nevada state routes. Many of Nevada's counties have a system of county routes as well, though many are not signed or paved in rural areas. Nevada is one of a few states in the U.S. that does not have a continuous interstate highway linking its two major population centers—the road connection between the Las Vegas and Reno areas is a combination of several different Interstate and U.S. highways. The Interstate 11 proposed routing may eventually remedy this.

The state is one of just a few in the country to allow semi-trailer trucks with three trailers—what might be called a "road train" in Australia. But American versions are usually smaller, in part because they must ascend and descend some fairly steep mountain passes.

RTC Transit is the public transit system in the Las Vegas metropolitan area. The agency is the largest transit agency in the state and operates a network of bus service across the Las Vegas Valley, including the use of The Deuce, double-decker buses, on the Las Vegas Strip and several outlying routes. RTC RIDE operates a system of local transit bus service throughout the Reno-Sparks metropolitan area. Other transit systems in the state include Carson City's JAC. Most other counties in the state do not have public transportation at all.

Additionally, a 4-mile (6.4 km) monorail system provides public transportation in the Las Vegas area. The Las Vegas Monorail line services several casino properties and the Las Vegas Convention Center on the east side of the Las Vegas Strip, running near Paradise Road, with a possible future extension to McCarran International Airport. Several hotels also run their own monorail lines between each other, which are typically several blocks in length.

McCarran International Airport in Las Vegas is the busiest airport serving Nevada. The Reno-Tahoe International Airport (formerly known as the Reno Cannon International Airport) is the other major airport in the state.

Energy

Nevada has had a thriving solar energy sector. An independent study 2013 concluded that solar users created a $36m net benefit. However, in December 2015, the Public Utility Commission let the state's only power company, NV Energy, charge higher rates and fees to solar panel users, leading to an immediate collapse of rooftop solar panel use [71]

Law and government

Government

The Nevada State Legislative Building in Carson City Rotary-clock.jpg
The Nevada State Legislative Building in Carson City

Under the Constitution of the State of Nevada, the powers of the Nevada government are divided among three separate departments: the Executive consisting of the Governor of Nevada and their cabinet along with the other elected constitutional officers; the Legislative consisting of the Nevada Legislature, which includes the Assembly and the Senate; and the Judicial consisting of the Supreme Court of Nevada and lower courts.

The Governor of Nevada is the chief magistrate of Nevada, [72] the head of the executive department of the state's government, [72] and the commander-in-chief of the state's military forces. [73] The current Governor of Nevada is Steve Sisolak, a Democract.

The Nevada Legislature is a bicameral body divided into an Assembly and Senate. Members of the Assembly serve for 2 years, and members of the Senate serve for 4 years. Both houses of the Nevada Legislature will be impacted by term limits starting in 2010, as Senators and Assemblymen/women will be limited to a maximum of 12 years service in each house (by appointment or election which is a lifetime limit)—a provision of the constitution which was recently upheld by the Supreme Court of Nevada in a unanimous decision. Each session of the Legislature meets for a constitutionally mandated 120 days in every odd-numbered year, or longer if the Governor calls a special session.

On December 18, 2018, Nevada became the first in the United States with a female majority in its legislature. Women hold nine of the 21 seats in the Nevada Senate, and 23 of the 42 seats in the Nevada Assembly. [74]

The Supreme Court of Nevada is the state supreme court and the head of the Nevada Judiciary. Original jurisdiction is divided between the district courts (with general jurisdiction), and justice courts and municipal courts (both of limited jurisdiction). Appeals from District Courts are made directly to the Nevada Supreme Court, which under a deflective model of jurisdiction, has the discretion to send cases to the Court of Appeals for final resolution. [75]

Incorporated towns in Nevada, known as cities, are given the authority to legislate anything not prohibited by law. A recent movement has begun to permit home rule in incorporated Nevada cities to give them more flexibility and fewer restrictions from the Legislature. Town Boards for unincorporated towns are limited local governments created by either the local county commission, or by referendum, and form a purely advisory role and in no way diminish the responsibilities of the county commission that creates them.

State agencies

State departments and agencies:

Law

The courthouse of the Supreme Court of Nevada Supremecourtofnevada.jpg
The courthouse of the Supreme Court of Nevada

In 1900, Nevada's population was the smallest of all states and was shrinking, as the difficulties of living in a "barren desert" began to outweigh the lure of silver for many early settlers. Historian Lawrence Friedman has explained what happened next:

Nevada, in a burst of ingenuity, built an economy by exploiting its sovereignty. Its strategy was to legalize all sorts of things that were illegal in California ... after easy divorce came easy marriage and casino gaming. Even prostitution is legal in Nevada, in any county that decides to allow it. Quite a few of them do. [76]

With the advent of air conditioning for summertime use and Southern Nevada's mild winters, the fortunes of the state began to turn around, as it did for Arizona, making these two states the fastest growing in the Union.

Prostitution

Nevada is the only state where prostitution is legal (under the form of licensed brothels).

Prostitution is specifically illegal by state law in the state's larger jurisdictions, which include Clark County (which contains Las Vegas), Washoe County (which contains Reno), and the independent city of Carson City. Otherwise, it is legal in those counties which specifically vote to permit it. When permitted, brothels are only in rural or isolated parts of counties.

Divorce

Nevada's early reputation as a "divorce haven" arose from the fact that, before the no-fault divorce revolution in the 1970s, divorces were difficult to obtain in the United States. Already having legalized gambling and prostitution, Nevada continued the trend of boosting its profile by adopting one of the most liberal divorce statutes in the nation. This resulted in Williams v. North Carolina (1942) , 317 U.S. 287 (1942), in which the U.S. Supreme Court ruled North Carolina had to give "full faith and credit" to a Nevada divorce. The Court modified its decision in Williams v. North Carolina (1945), 325 U.S. 226 (1945), by holding a state need not recognize a Nevada divorce unless one of the parties was domiciled there at the time the divorce was granted and the forum state was entitled to make its own determination.

As of 2009, Nevada's divorce rate was above the national average. [77]

Taxes

Nevada's tax laws are intended to draw new residents and businesses to the state. Nevada has no personal income tax or corporate income tax. [78] Since Nevada does not collect income data it cannot share such information with the federal government, the IRS. [79]

The state sales tax (similar to VAT or GST) in Nevada is variable depending upon the county. The statewide tax rate is 6.85%, with five counties (Elko, Esmeralda, Eureka, Humboldt, and Mineral) charging this amount. Counties may impose additional rates via voter approval or through approval of the state legislature; therefore, the applicable sales tax will vary by county from 6.85% to 8.1% (Clark County). In Clark County, which includes Las Vegas, imposes four separate county option taxes in addition to the statewide rate – 0.25% for flood control, 0.50% for mass transit, 0.25% for infrastructure, and 0.25% for more cops. In Washoe County, which includes Reno, the sales tax rate is 7.725 percent, due to county option rates for flood control, the ReTRAC train trench project, mass transit, and an additional county rate approved under the Local Government Tax Act of 1991. [80] The minimum Nevada sales tax rate changed on July 1, 2009. [81]

The lodging tax rate in unincorporated Clark County, which includes the Las Vegas Strip, is 12%. Within the boundaries of the cities of Las Vegas and Henderson, the lodging tax rate is 13%.

Corporations such as Apple Inc. allegedly have set up investment companies and funds in Nevada to avoid paying taxes. [82]

Gay rights

In 2009, the Nevada Legislature passed a bill creating a domestic partnership registry that enables gay couples to enjoy the same rights as married couples. As of 2019, gay marriage is legal in Nevada.

Incorporation

Nevada provides friendly environment for the formation of corporations, and many (especially California) businesses have incorporated in Nevada to take advantage of the benefits of the Nevada statute. Nevada corporations offer great flexibility to the Board of Directors and simplify or avoid many of the rules that are cumbersome to business managers in some other states. In addition, Nevada has no franchise tax, although it does require businesses to have a license for which the business has to pay the state.

Financial institutions

Similarly, many U.S. states have usury laws limiting the amount of interest a lender can charge, but federal law allows corporations to 'import' these laws from their home state.

Alcohol and other drugs

Nevada has very liberal alcohol laws. Bars are permitted to remain open 24 hours, with no "last call". Liquor stores, convenience stores and supermarkets may also sell alcohol 24 hours per day, and may sell beer, wine and spirits.

In 2016, Nevada voters approved Question 2, which legalized the possession, transportation and cultivation of personal use amounts of marijuana for adults age 21 years and older, and authorized the creation of a regulated market for the sale of marijuana to adults age 21 years and older through state-licensed retail outlets. [83] Nevada voters had previously approved medical marijuana in 2000, but rejected marijuana legalization in a similar referendum in 2006. Marijuana in all forms remains illegal under federal law.

Aside from cannabis legalization, non-alcohol drug laws are a notable exception to Nevada's otherwise libertarian principles. It is notable for having the harshest penalties for drug offenders in the country. Nevada remains the only state to still use mandatory minimum sentencing guidelines for possession of drugs. [84]

Smoking

Nevada voters enacted a smoking ban ("The Nevada Clean Indoor Air Act") in November 2006 that became effective on December 8, 2006. It outlaws smoking in most workplaces and public places. Smoking is permitted in bars, but only if the bar serves no food, or the bar is inside a larger casino. Smoking is also permitted in casinos, certain hotel rooms, tobacco shops, and brothels. [85] However, some businesses do not obey this law and the government tends not to enforce it. [86] In 2011, smoking restrictions in Nevada were loosened for certain places which allow only people age 21 or older inside. [87]

Crime

In 2006, the crime rate in Nevada was about 24% higher than the national average rate, though crime has since decreased. Property crimes accounted for about 85% of the total crime rate in Nevada, which was 21% higher than the national rate. The remaining 20.3% were violent crimes. [88] A complete listing of crime data in the state for 2013 can be found here: [89]

Politics

Qualified political parties in Nevada [90]
PartyStatus
Democratic Major
Republican Major
Libertarian Minor
Green Minor
Independent American Minor
Transhumanist Minor
Nevada registered voters as of October 2017 [91]
PartyNumber of VotersPercentage
Democratic 636,93538.88%
Republican 537,50032.80%
Nonpartisan 355,67621.70%
Independent American 73,7354.49%
Libertarian 16,1200.98%
Other18,6511.13%
Total1,638,617100%

State politics

Party registration by county (November 2018):
Democrat >= 40%
Republican >= 30%
Republican >= 40%
Republican >= 50%
Republican >= 60% Nevada party registration by county.svg
Party registration by county (November 2018):
  Democrat >= 40%
  Republican >= 30%
  Republican >= 40%
  Republican >= 50%
  Republican >= 60%

Due to heavy growth in the southern portion of the state, there is a noticeable divide between politics of northern and southern Nevada. The north has long maintained control of key positions in state government, even while the population of southern Nevada is larger than the rest of the state combined. The north sees the high population south becoming more influential and perhaps commanding majority rule. The south sees the north as the "old guard" trying to rule as an oligarchy. This has fostered some resentment, however, due to a term limit amendment passed by Nevada voters in 1994, and again in 1996, some of the north's hold over key positions will soon be forfeited to the south, leaving northern Nevada with less power.

Historically, northern Nevada has been very Republican. The more rural counties of the north are among the most conservative regions of the country. Carson City, the state's capital, is a Republican-leaning swing city/county. Washoe County, home to Reno, has historically been strongly Republican, but now has become more of a Democratic-leaning swing county. Clark County, home to Las Vegas, has been a stronghold for the Democratic Party since it was founded in 1909, having voted Republican only six times and once for a third party candidate. Clark and Washoe counties have long dominated the state's politics. Between them, they cast 87 percent of Nevada's vote, and elect a substantial majority of the state legislature. The last Republican to carry Clark County was George H.W. Bush in 1988, and the last Republican to carry Washoe County was George W. Bush in 2004. The great majority of the state's elected officials are either from Las Vegas or Reno.

National politics

Nevada voted for the winner in every presidential election from 1912 to 2012, except in 1976 when it voted for Gerald Ford over Jimmy Carter. This includes Nevada supporting Democrats John F. Kennedy and Lyndon B. Johnson in 1960 and 1964, respectively. Republican Richard Nixon in 1968 and in 1972, Republican Ronald Reagan in 1980 and in 1984, Republican George H.W. Bush in 1988, Democrat Bill Clinton in 1992 and 1996, Republican George W. Bush in 2000 and 2004, and Democrat Barack Obama winning the state in both 2008 and 2012. This gives the state status as a political bellwether. From 1912 to 2012, Nevada has been carried by the presidential victor the most out of any state (26 of 27 elections). In 2016, Nevada lost its bellwether status when it narrowly cast its votes for Hillary Clinton. Nevada was one of only three states won by John F. Kennedy in the American West in the election of 1960, albeit narrowly. [92]

The state's U.S. Senators are Democrats Catherine Cortez Masto and Jacky Rosen. The Governorship is held by Steve Sisolak, a Democrat.

Elections

Nevada is the only U.S. state to have a none of the above option available on its ballots. Officially called None of These Candidates, the option was first added to the ballot in 1975 and is used in all statewide elections, including president, US Senate and all state constitutional positions. In the event "None of These Candidates" receives a plurality of votes in the election, the candidate with the next-highest total is elected. [93]

Education

Education in Nevada is achieved through public and private elementary, middle, and high schools, as well as colleges and universities.

A May 2015 educational reform law expanded school choice options to 450,000 Nevada students who are at up to 185% of the federal poverty level. Education savings accounts (ESAs) are enabled by the new law to help pay the tuition for private schools. Alternatively, families "can use funds in these accounts to also pay for textbooks and tutoring." [94] [95]

Public school districts

Public school districts in Nevada include:

Colleges and universities

Research institutes

The Nevada Aerospace Hall of Fame provides educational resources and promotes the aerospace and aviation history of the state. [96]

Parks and recreation areas

Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, Calico basin Calico basin red rock cumulus mediocris.jpg
Red Rock Canyon National Conservation Area, Calico basin
Great Basin National Park Stella Lake Great Basin.jpg
Great Basin National Park
The quartzite of Jeff Davis Peak in Great Basin National Park View of Jeff Davis Peak from Wheeler Peak.jpg
The quartzite of Jeff Davis Peak in Great Basin National Park
Valley of Fire State Park Valley of Fire State Park (6882627246).jpg
Valley of Fire State Park
Mount Charleston Charleston peak.JPG
Mount Charleston

Recreation areas maintained by the federal government

Northern Nevada

Southern Nevada

Wilderness

There are 68 designated wilderness areas in Nevada, protecting some 6,579,014 acres (2,662,433 ha) under the jurisdiction of the National Park Service, U.S. Forest Service, and Bureau of Land Management. [97]

State parks

The Nevada state parks comprise protected areas managed by the state of Nevada, including state parks, state historic sites, and state recreation areas. There are 24 state park units, including Van Sickle Bi-State Park which opened in July 2011 and is operated in partnership with the state of California. [98]

Culture

Entertainment and tourism

Resort areas like Las Vegas, Reno, Lake Tahoe, and Laughlin attract visitors from around the nation and world. In FY08 the total of 266 casinos with gaming revenue over $1m for the year, brought in revenue of $12 billion in gaming revenue, and $13 billion in non-gaming revenue. A review of gaming statistics can be found at Nevada gaming area.

Nevada has by far the most hotel rooms per capita in the United States. According to the American Hotel and Lodging Association, there were 187,301 rooms in 584 hotels (of 15 or more rooms). The state is ranked just below California, Texas, Florida, and New York in total number of rooms, but those states have much larger populations. Nevada has one hotel room for every 14 residents, far above the national average of one hotel room per 67 residents. [99]

Prostitution is legal in parts of Nevada in licensed brothels, but only counties with populations under 400,000 have the option to legalize it. Although prostitution is not a major part of the Nevada economy, employing roughly 300 women as independent contractors, it is a very visible endeavor. Of the 14 counties permitted to legalize prostitution under state law, 8 have chosen to legalize brothels. State law prohibits prostitution in Clark County (which contains Las Vegas), and Washoe County (which contains Reno). However, prostitution is legal in Storey County, which is part of the Reno–Sparks metropolitan area.

Sports

The Las Vegas Valley is home to the Vegas Golden Knights of the National Hockey League who began play in the 2017-18 NHL season at T-Mobile Arena on the Las Vegas Strip in Paradise, Nevada. The Golden Knights are the only major North American professional sports franchise in Nevada. They will be joined by the Oakland Raiders who at the start of the 2016 NFL season expressed interest in moving their team to Las Vegas, and announced in January 2017 they would do so in either 2019 or 2020.

Nevada takes pride in college sports, most notably its college football. College teams in the state include the Nevada Wolf Pack (representing the University of Nevada, Reno) and the UNLV Rebels (representing the University of Nevada, Las Vegas), both in the Mountain West Conference (MW).

UNLV is most remembered for its men's basketball program, which experienced its height of supremacy in the late 1980s and early 1990s. Coached by Jerry Tarkanian, the Runnin' Rebels became one of the most elite programs in the country. In 1990, UNLV won the Men's Division I Championship by defeating Duke 103–73, which set tournament records for most points scored by a team and largest margin of victory in the national title game.

In 1991, UNLV finished the regular season undefeated, a feat that would not be matched in Division I men's basketball for more than 20 years. Forward Larry Johnson won several awards, including the Naismith Award. UNLV reached the Final Four yet again, but lost their national semifinal against Duke 79–77. The Runnin' Rebels were the Associated Press pre-season No. 1 back to back (1989–90, 1990–91). North Carolina is the only other team to accomplish that (2007–08, 2008–09).

The state's involvement in major-college sports is not limited to its local schools. In the 21st century, the Las Vegas area has become a significant regional center for college basketball conference tournaments. The MW, West Coast Conference, and Western Athletic Conference all hold their men's and women's tournaments in the area, and the Pac-12 holds its men's tournament there as well. The Big Sky Conference, after decades of holding its men's and women's conference tournaments at campus sites, began holding both tournaments in Reno in 2016.

Las Vegas has hosted several professional boxing matches, most recently at the MGM Grand Garden Arena with bouts such as Mike Tyson vs. Evander Holyfield, Evander Holyfield vs. Mike Tyson II, Oscar De La Hoya vs. Floyd Mayweather and Oscar De La Hoya vs. Manny Pacquiao and at the newer T-Mobile Arena with Canelo Álvarez vs. Amir Khan.

Along with significant rises in popularity in mixed martial arts (MMA), a number of fight leagues such as the UFC have taken interest in Las Vegas as a primary event location due to the number of suitable host venues. The Mandalay Bay Events Center and MGM Grand Garden Arena are among some of the more popular venues for fighting events such as MMA and have hosted several UFC and other MMA title fights. The city has held the most UFC events with 86 events.

The state is also home to the Las Vegas Motor Speedway, which hosts the Kobalt Tools 400. Two venues in the immediate Las Vegas area host major annual events in rodeo. The Thomas & Mack Center, built for UNLV men's basketball, hosts the National Finals Rodeo. The PBR World Finals, operated by the bull riding-only Professional Bull Riders, was also held at the Thomas & Mack Center before moving to T-Mobile Arena in 2016. Finally, Sam Boyd Stadium, home to the UNLV football team, also hosts the country's biggest rugby event, the USA Sevens tournament in the World Rugby Sevens Series, as well as the AMA Supercross Championship.

The state is also home to one of the most famous tennis players of all time, Andre Agassi, and current baseball superstar Bryce Harper.

List of teams

Major professional teams
TeamSportLeagueVenue (capacity)EstablishedTitles
Las Vegas Raiders Football NFL Las Vegas Stadium (65,000)2020 (planned)0
Vegas Golden Knights Ice hockey NHL T-Mobile Arena (17,500)20170
Las Vegas Aces Basketball WNBA Mandalay Bay Events Center (12,000)20180
Minor professional teams
TeamSportLeagueVenue (capacity)EstablishedTitles
Las Vegas Aviators Baseball MiLB (AAA-PCL) Las Vegas Ballpark (10,000)19832
Reno Aces Greater Nevada Field (9,013)20092
Mesquite Desert Dogs Basketball TBL Virgin Valley High School (N/A)20180
Las Vegas Lights FC Soccer USLC Cashman Field (9,334)0
Reno 1868 FC Greater Nevada Field (9,013)20150
Nevada StormWomen's football WFA Damonte Ranch High School (N/A)
Fernley High School (N/A)
Galena High School (N/A)
20080
Sin City Trojans Desert Pines High School (N/A)0
Reno Express Indoor football AWFC Reno Events Center (7,000)20190
Las Vegas Knights SCIndoor soccer M2 Las Vegas SportsPark (N/A)20170
Amateur teams
TeamSportLeagueVenue (capacity)EstablishedTitles
Las Vegas JestersIce hockey MWHL City National Arena (600)20120
Nevada Coyotes FCSoccer UPSL Rio Vista Sports Complex (N/A)20160
College teams
SchoolTeamLeagueDivisionConference
University of Nevada, Las Vegas (UNLV) UNLV Rebels NCAA NCAA Division I Mountain West
University of Nevada, Reno (UNR) Nevada Wolf Pack
College of Southern Nevada (CSN) CSN Coyotes NJCAA NJCAA Division I Scenic West
Western Nevada College (WNC)WNC Wildcats

Military

Several United States Navy ships have been named USS Nevada in honor of the state. They include:

Area 51 is near Groom Lake, a dry salt lake bed. The much smaller Creech Air Force Base is in Indian Springs, Nevada; Hawthorne Army Depot in Hawthorne; the Tonopah Test Range near Tonopah; and Nellis AFB in the northeast part of the Las Vegas Valley. Naval Air Station Fallon in Fallon; NSAWC, (pronounced "EN-SOCK") in western Nevada. NSAWC consolidated three Command Centers into a single Command Structure under a flag officer on July 11, 1996. The Naval Strike Warfare Center (STRIKE "U") based at NAS Fallon since 1984, was joined with the Navy Fighter Weapons School (TOPGUN) and the Carrier Airborne Early Warning Weapons School (TOPDOME) which both moved from NAS Miramar as a result of a Base Realignment and Closure (BRAC) decision in 1993 which transferred that installation back to the Marine Corps as MCAS Miramar. The Seahawk Weapon School was added in 1998 to provide tactical training for Navy helicopters.

These bases host a number of activities including the Joint Unmanned Aerial Systems Center of Excellence, the Naval Strike and Air Warfare Center, Nevada Test and Training Range, Red Flag, the U.S. Air Force Thunderbirds, the United States Air Force Warfare Center, the United States Air Force Weapons School, and the United States Navy Fighter Weapons School.

Future issues

Nevada enjoys many economic advantages, and the southern portion of the state enjoys mild winter weather, but rapid growth has led to some overcrowded roads and schools. Nevada has the nation's 5th largest school district in the Clark County School District (projected fall 2007 enrollment is 314,000 students grades K-12). [100]

Coyote Springs is a proposed community for 240,000 inhabitants in Clark and Lincoln counties. It would be Nevada's largest planned city. The town is being developed by Harvey Whittemore and has generated some controversy because of environmental concerns and allegations of political favoritism. [101]

State symbols

Playa areas of Nevada Nevada playa USGS.png
Playa areas of Nevada

See also

Notes

  1. The distinction of highest point in Nevada goes to the summit of Boundary Peak, so named because it is very near the Nevada-California border, at the northern terminus of the White Mountains. However, Boundary Peak can be considered a subsidiary summit of Montgomery Peak, whose summit is in California, since the topographic prominence of Boundary Peak is only 253 feet (77 m), which falls under the often used 300-foot (91 m) cutoff for an independent peak. Also, Boundary Peak is less than 1 mile (1.6 km) away from its higher neighbor. Hence Boundary Peak can be described as not being wholly within Nevada. By contrast, the prominence of Wheeler Peak, 13,063 feet (3,982 m), is quite large and in fact it is the twelfth largest in the contiguous United States. Wheeler Peak is the highest point in a radius of more than 200 square miles (520 km2) and is entirely within the state of Nevada.

Related Research Articles

Reno, Nevada City in Nevada, United States

Reno is a city in the U.S. state of Nevada, located in the northwestern part of the state, approximately 22 miles (35 km) from Lake Tahoe. Known as "The Biggest Little City in the World", Reno is known for its casino industry. Reno is the county seat of Washoe County. The city sits in a high desert river valley at the foot of the Sierra Nevada and its downtown area occupies a valley informally known as the Truckee Meadows. The city is named after Union Major General Jesse L. Reno, who was killed in action during the American Civil War at the Battle of South Mountain on Fox's Gap.

Las Vegas City in Nevada, United States

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Clark County, Nevada County in the United States

Clark County is located in the U.S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 United States Census, the population was 1,951,269, with an estimated population of 2,204,079 in 2017. It is by far the most populous county in Nevada, accounting for nearly three-quarters of the state's residents – thus making Nevada one of the most centralized states in the nation.

Washoe County, Nevada County in the United States

Washoe County is a county in the U.S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 421,407, making it Nevada's second-most populous county. Its county seat is Reno.

Nye County, Nevada County in the United States

Nye County is a county in the U.S. state of Nevada. As of the 2010 census, the population was 43,946. Its county seat is Tonopah. At 18,159 square miles (47,030 km2), Nye is the largest county by area in the state and the third-largest county in the contiguous United States.

Paradise, Nevada Unincorporated town in Nevada, United States

Paradise is an unincorporated town and census-designated place (CDP) in Clark County, Nevada, United States, adjacent to the city of Las Vegas. The population was 223,167 at the 2010 census, making it the most populous unincorporated community in Nevada. As an unincorporated town, it is governed by the Clark County Commission with input from the Paradise Town Advisory Board. Paradise was formed on December 8, 1950.

Gerlach, Nevada Census-designated place in Nevada, United States

Gerlach, Nevada is a census-designated place (CDP) in Washoe County, Nevada, United States. The population was 206 at the 2010 census. It is part of the Reno–Sparks Metropolitan Statistical Area. Prior to 2010, Gerlach was part of the Gerlach–Empire census-designated place. The town of Empire is now a separate CDP. The next nearest town, Nixon, is 60 miles (100 km) to the south on a reservation owned by the Pyramid Lake Paiute Tribe. The Fly Geyser is located near Gerlach.

Brian Sandoval American judge and state Governor

Brian Edward Sandoval is an American businessman and former attorney and politician who served as the 29th Governor of Nevada from 2011 to 2019. A member of the Republican Party, Sandoval is a former United States District Judge of the United States District Court for the District of Nevada.

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Jill Talbot Derby served from 1988 to 2006 as an elected Regent for the Nevada System of Higher Education, serving three terms as Board Chair. She ran as the Democratic candidate for the open seat of Nevada's 2nd congressional district in the 2006 election, losing but gaining national attention by making a normally heavily Republican district competitive. Following that, she served as the chairwoman of the Nevada Democratic Party from March, 2007 until February, 2008 overseeing Nevada's first ever early presidential caucus. She ran for Congress again in 2008, but lost.

Walter S. Baring Jr. American politician

Walter Stephan Baring Jr. was a United States Representative from Nevada.

History of Nevada history of the US state of Nevada

Nevada became the 36th state on October 31, 1864, after telegraphing the Constitution of Nevada to the Congress days before the November 8 presidential election. Statehood was rushed to help ensure three electoral votes for Abraham Lincoln's reelection and add to the Republican congressional majorities.

Patrick T. "Pat" Hickey is an American politician and a Republican member of the Nevada Assembly representing Assembly District 25 in Washoe County. In 2009 his autobiography, Tahoe Boy: A Journey Back Home was published by Seven Locks Press of Cabin John, Maryland.

The Progressive Leadership Alliance of Nevada (PLAN) is a non-partisan, non-profit organization.

2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Nevada

The 2014 United States House of Representatives elections in Nevada were held on Tuesday, November 4, 2014 to elect the four U.S. Representatives from the state of Nevada, one from each of the state's four congressional districts. The elections coincided with the elections of other federal and state offices, including a gubernatorial election.

Hispanic and Latino Nevadans are residents of the state of Nevada who are of Hispanic or Latino ancestry. As of the 2010 U.S. Census, Hispanics and Latinos of any race were 27.3% of the state's population.

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Preceded by
West Virginia
List of U.S. states by date of statehood
Admitted on October 31, 1864 (36th)
Succeeded by
Nebraska

Coordinates: 39°N117°W / 39°N 117°W / 39; -117