Nevers

Last updated

Nevers
Nevers-Pont sur la Loire-Cathedrale Saint Cyr et Sainte Julitte-20160502.jpg
Panoramic view of Nevers, France.
Blason comte fr Nevers.svg
Coat of arms
Location of Nevers
Nevers
France location map-Regions and departements-2016.svg
Red pog.svg
Nevers
Bourgogne-Franche-Comte region location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Nevers
Coordinates: 46°59′36″N3°09′26″E / 46.9933°N 3.1572°E / 46.9933; 3.1572 Coordinates: 46°59′36″N3°09′26″E / 46.9933°N 3.1572°E / 46.9933; 3.1572
Country France
Region Bourgogne-Franche-Comté
Department Nièvre
Arrondissement Nevers
Canton Nevers-1, 2, 3 and 4
Intercommunality CA Nevers
Government
  Mayor (20202026) Denis Thuriot
Area
1
17.33 km2 (6.69 sq mi)
Population
 (Jan. 2018) [1]
33,279
  Density1,900/km2 (5,000/sq mi)
Time zone UTC+01:00 (CET)
  Summer (DST) UTC+02:00 (CEST)
INSEE/Postal code
58194 /58000
Elevation167–238 m (548–781 ft)
(avg. 180 m or 590 ft)
1 French Land Register data, which excludes lakes, ponds, glaciers > 1 km2 (0.386 sq mi or 247 acres) and river estuaries.

Nevers ( /nəˈvɛər/ nə-VAIR, French:  [nəvɛʁ] ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ); Latin : Noviodunum, later Nevirnum and Nebirnum) is the prefecture of the Nièvre department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region in central France. It was the principal city of the former province of Nivernais. It is 260 km (160 mi) south-southeast of Paris.

Contents

History

Nevers first enters written history as Noviodunum, a town held by the Aedui at Roman contact. The quantities of medals and other Roman antiquities found on the site indicate the importance of the place, [2] and in 52 BCE, Julius Caesar made Noviodunum, which he describes as in a convenient position on the banks of the Loire, a depot (B. G. vii. 55). There he had his hostages, corn, his military chest, with the money in it allowed him from home for the war, his own and his army's baggage and a great number of horses which had been bought for him in Spain and Italy. After his failure before Gergovia, the Aedui at Noviodunum massacred those who were there to look after stores, the negotiators, and the travelers who were in the place. They divided the money and the horses among themselves, carried off in boats all the corn that they could, and burned the rest or threw it into the river. Thinking they could not hold the town, they burned it. This was a great loss to Caesar; and it may seem that he was imprudent in leaving such great stores in the power of treacherous allies. But he was in straits during this year, and probably he could not have done other than he did. Dio Cassius (xl. 38) tells the story of Caesar out of the affair of Noviodunum. He states incorrectly what Caesar did on the occasion, and he shows that he neither understood his original nor knew what he was writing about.

The city was later called Nevirnum, as the name appears in the Antonine Itinerary. In the Tabula Peutingeriana, it is corrupted into Ebrinum. In still other sources the name appears as Nebirnum or Nivernum.

It became the seat of a bishopric at the end of the 5th century. The county dates at least from the beginning of the 10th century. The citizens of Nevers obtained charters in 1194 and in 1231. For a short time in the 14th century the town was the seat of a university, transferred from Orléans, to which it was restored. [2]

In 1565 the town became the seat of a branch of the Gonzaga family, who in 1627 succeeded to the Duchy of Mantua. This line of the Gonzaga Dukes of Nevers itself died out in 1708.

Geography

Nevers is situated on the slope of a hill on the right bank of the Loire River. [2]

Climate

Climate data for Nevers (1981–2010 averages)
MonthJanFebMarAprMayJunJulAugSepOctNovDecYear
Record high °C (°F)17.2
(63.0)
23.5
(74.3)
26.7
(80.1)
30.0
(86.0)
31.0
(87.8)
39.0
(102.2)
38.7
(101.7)
39.2
(102.6)
35.1
(95.2)
30.2
(86.4)
23.5
(74.3)
19.5
(67.1)
39.2
(102.6)
Average high °C (°F)6.7
(44.1)
8.3
(46.9)
12.4
(54.3)
15.4
(59.7)
19.4
(66.9)
22.8
(73.0)
25.5
(77.9)
25.2
(77.4)
21.4
(70.5)
16.7
(62.1)
10.5
(50.9)
7.1
(44.8)
16.0
(60.8)
Average low °C (°F)0.2
(32.4)
−0.1
(31.8)
1.8
(35.2)
3.9
(39.0)
7.9
(46.2)
10.9
(51.6)
12.8
(55.0)
12.3
(54.1)
9.1
(48.4)
7.0
(44.6)
2.8
(37.0)
0.8
(33.4)
5.8
(42.4)
Record low °C (°F)−25
(−13)
−21.8
(−7.2)
−13.8
(7.2)
−7.5
(18.5)
−4.8
(23.4)
0.2
(32.4)
3.4
(38.1)
0.3
(32.5)
−1.2
(29.8)
−8.9
(16.0)
−12.3
(9.9)
−16.8
(1.8)
−21.8
(−7.2)
Average precipitation mm (inches)62.0
(2.44)
57.8
(2.28)
54.3
(2.14)
68.7
(2.70)
80.1
(3.15)
70.1
(2.76)
61.8
(2.43)
60.9
(2.40)
67.5
(2.66)
77.6
(3.06)
70.1
(2.76)
73.2
(2.88)
804.1
(31.66)
Average precipitation days12.010.010.310.711.58.88.38.38.411.011.611.7122.7
Average relative humidity (%)87827874777674778085878780.3
Mean monthly sunshine hours 65.585.6147.7170.3197.9223.2235.0227.5180.0121.065.454.91,774
Source 1: Météo France [3] [4]
Source 2: Infoclimat.fr (humidity, 1961–1990) [5]

Main sights

The Ducal Palace of Nevers, in France. F06.Nevers.Palais Ducal.1161.JPG
The Ducal Palace of Nevers, in France.
The incorrupt body of Saint Bernadette, seer of Our Lady of Lourdes apparitions. Saint Bernadette's incorrupt body.jpg
The incorrupt body of Saint Bernadette, seer of Our Lady of Lourdes apparitions.

Narrow winding streets lead from the quay through the town where there are numerous old houses dating from the 14th to the 17th century. [2]

Among the ecclesiastical buildings the most important is the Cathédrale of Saint Cyr-Sainte Julitte, dedicated to Saint Quiricus and Saint Julietta, which is a combination of two buildings, and possesses two apses. The apse and transept at the west end are the remains of a Romanesque church, while the nave and eastern apse are in the Gothic style and belong to the 14th century. There is no transept at the eastern end. The lateral portal on the south side belongs to the late 15th century; the massive and elaborately decorated tower which rises beside it to the early 16th century. [2]

The church of Saint Etienne is a specimen of the Romanesque style of Auvergne of which the disposition of the apse with its three radiating chapels is characteristic. It was consecrated at the close of the 9th century, and belonged to a priory affiliated to Cluny. [2]

The Ducal Palace (now occupied by the courts of justice and an important ceramic museum) was built in the 15th and 16th centuries and is one of the principal feudal edifices in central France. The façade is flanked at each end by a turret and a round tower. A middle tower containing the great staircase has its windows adorned by sculptures relating to the history of the House of La Marck by the members of which the greater part of the palace was built. [2]

Behind the palace lies an open space with a fine view over the valley of the Loire. The Porte du Croux, a square tower, with corner turrets, dating from the end of the 14th century, is among the remnants of the old fortifications; it now contains a collection of sculptures and Roman antiquities. [2]

A triumphal arch from the 18th century, commemorating the victory of Fontenoy and the hotel de ville, a modern building which contains the library, are of some interest. The Loire is crossed by a modern stone bridge, and by an iron railway bridge. [2]

At the Chapel of Saint Bernadette at the mother house of the Sisters of Charity of Nevers, it is possible to view the incorrupt body of Saint Bernadette Soubirous, the famous seer of Our Lady of Lourdes apparitions, which are presented in a gold and crystal reliquary.

Economy

Nevers is the seat of a bishopric, of tribunals of first instance and of commerce and of a Cour d'assises and has a chamber of commerce and a branch of the Bank of France. Its educational institutions include several lycées, a training college for female teachers, ecclesiastical seminaries, a school of art of the automotive engineering college Institut supérieur de l'automobile et des transports. The town manufactures porcelain, agricultural implements, chemical manures, glue, boilers and iron goods, boots and shoes and fur garments, and has distilleries, tanneries and dye works. Its trade is in iron and steel, wood, wine, grain, livestock, etc. hydraulic lime, kaolin and clay for the manufacture of faience are worked in the vicinity. [2]

Transport

The Gare de Nevers railway station offers connections to Paris, Dijon, Lyon, Clermont-Ferrand and several regional destinations. The A77 motorway connects Nevers with Paris.

Population

Historical population
YearPop.±% p.a.
1793 11,846    
1800 11,200−0.80%
1806 12,077+1.26%
1821 12,280+0.11%
1831 15,085+2.08%
1836 16,967+2.38%
1841 15,007−2.43%
1846 16,721+2.19%
1851 17,045+0.38%
1856 18,182+1.30%
1861 18,971+0.85%
1866 20,700+1.76%
1872 22,276+1.23%
1876 22,704+0.48%
1881 23,846+0.99%
1886 25,006+0.95%
1891 26,436+1.12%
1896 27,108+0.50%
YearPop.±% p.a.
1901 27,673+0.41%
1906 27,030−0.47%
1911 27,706+0.50%
1921 29,754+0.72%
1926 29,306−0.30%
1931 31,879+1.70%
1936 33,699+1.12%
1946 34,036+0.10%
1954 35,183+0.42%
1962 39,085+1.32%
1968 42,422+1.37%
1975 45,480+1.00%
1982 43,013−0.79%
1990 41,968−0.31%
1999 40,932−0.28%
2007 38,007−0.92%
2012 35,327−1.45%
2017 32,990−1.36%
Source: EHESS [6] and INSEE (1968-2017) [7]

Notable people

Culture

Nevers has been known for several centuries for its Nevers faience.

The Formula One circuit of Magny-Cours is located near Nevers, as well as the museum Conservatoire de la monoplace française.

The anonymous French woman (played by Emmanuelle Riva) who is the main character in the film Hiroshima mon amour by Alain Resnais is from Nevers, and the film features many flashbacks to her youth there during World War II. In the final scene of the film, her Japanese lover tells her "You are Nevers". There is a lot of play on the English translation of the town's name throughout the film, with dialogue such as "Nevers ? Jamais !" ("Nevers? Never!")

Most of the scenes in the film Rosalie Blum were filmed in Nevers between March and April 2015, with the exception of the end scenes, which were filmed at Leffrinckoucke in the Nord.

Nevers is also the setting of most of the second half of Éric Rohmer's 1992 film, Conte d'Hiver .

International relations

Nevers is twinned with: [8]

See also

Related Research Articles

The Aedui or Haedui were a Gallic tribe dwelling in the modern Burgundy region during the Iron Age and the Roman period.

Orléans Prefecture and commune in France

Orléans is a prefecture and commune in north-central France, about 120 kilometres southwest of Paris. It is the capital of the Loiret department and of the Centre-Val de Loire region, and is located in the Orléanais province.

Burgundy Region of France

Burgundy is a historical territory and a former administrative region of east-central France. It is named for the Burgundians, an East Germanic people who moved westwards beyond the Rhine during the late Roman period.

Nièvre Department of France

Nièvre is a department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in the centre of France named after the River Nièvre.

Bernadette Soubirous French Roman Catholic saint

Bernadette Soubirous, also known as Saint Bernadette of Lourdes, was the firstborn daughter of a miller from Lourdes, in the department of Hautes-Pyrénées in France, and is best known for experiencing Marian apparitions of a "young lady" who asked for a chapel to be built at the nearby cave-grotto at Massabielle. These apparitions are said to have occurred between 11 February and 16 July 1858, and the woman who appeared to her identified herself as the "Immaculate Conception."

Autun Subprefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Autun is a subprefecture of the Saône-et-Loire department in the Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of central-eastern France. It was founded during the Principate era of the early Roman Empire by Emperor Augustus as Augustodunum to give a Roman capital to the Gallic people Aedui, who had Bibracte as their political centre. In Roman times the city may have been home to 30,000 to 100,000 people, according to different estimates. Nowadays, the commune has a population of about 15,000.

Mâcon Prefecture and commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Mâcon, historically anglicised as Mascon, is a city in east-central France. It is the prefecture of the department of Saône-et-Loire in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté. Mâcon is home to near 34,000 residents, who are referred to in French as Mâconnais. The city gave its name to the nearby vineyards and wine 'appellation'.

The Battle of Gergovia took place in 52 BC in Gaul at Gergovia, the chief oppidum of the Arverni. The battle was fought between a Roman Republican army, led by proconsul Julius Caesar, and Gallic forces led by Vercingetorix, who was also the Arverni chieftain. The Gauls won the battle.

Bibracte

Bibracte, a Gallic oppidum or fortified settlement, was the capital of the Aedui and one of the most important hillforts in Gaul. It was situated near modern Autun in Burgundy, France. The material culture of the Aedui corresponded to the Late Iron Age La Tène culture.

La Charité-sur-Loire Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

La Charité-sur-Loire is a commune in the Nièvre department and Bourgogne-Franche-Comté region of eastern France.

Imphy Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Imphy is a commune in the Nièvre department in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France.

Saisy Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Saisy is a commune in the Saône-et-Loire department in the region of Bourgogne-Franche-Comté in eastern France.

Decize Commune in Bourgogne-Franche-Comté, France

Decize is a commune in the Nièvre department in central France.

Our Lady of Lourdes Title of Mary, mother of Jesus, related to her alleged apparitions in Lourdes

Our Lady of Lourdes is a Roman Catholic title of the Blessed Virgin Mary venerated in honour of the Marian apparitions that are claimed to have occurred in 1858 in the vicinity of Lourdes in France. The first of these is the apparition of 11 February 1858, when 14-year old Bernadette Soubirous told her mother that a "lady" spoke to her in the cave of Massabielle while she was gathering firewood with her sister and a friend. Similar apparitions of the "Lady" were reported on eighteen occasions that year, until the climax revelation of Our Lady of the Immaculate Conception took place.

Nevers Cathedral Cathedral located in Nièvre, in France

Nevers Cathedral is a Roman Catholic church located in the town of Nevers, Nièvre, France, and dedicated to Saints Cyricus and Julitta. The cathedral is the seat of the Bishop of Nevers. It is a national monument.

A77 autoroute

The A77 autoroute is a motorway in central France. The road starts at the hamlet of Rosiers in Seine-et-Marne and finishes to the south of Nevers in Nièvre. It is also known as the l'Arbre - the motorway of the Tree.

Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers

Louis Gonzaga, Duke of Nevers was an Italian-French soldier, dignitary and diplomat in France.

Audigny Commune in Hauts-de-France, France

Audigny is a commune in the department of Aisne in the Hauts-de-France region of northern France.

Sisters of Charity of Nevers

The Sisters of Charity of Nevers, also known as Sisters of Charity and Christian Instruction, is a Catholic convent founded in 1680 in Nevers, Nièvre department, France, at the instigation of Jean-Baptiste Delaveyne. The motherhouse, the former convent at St. Gildard in Nevers, which is now a space for pilgrims to sleep and learn about Bernadette, and is called Espace Bernadette, is built on the ruins of the priory of Saint-Gildard, and was supervised by the bishop of the diocese of Nevers.

Espace Bernadette Soubirous Nevers

Espace Bernadette Soubirous Nevers is a former convent and the motherhouse of the Sisters of Charity of Nevers in Nevers, France, and is where the body of Saint Bernadette reposes. In 1970, it was converted into a sanctuary run by volunteers and a few sisters who administer to pilgrims and manage the building.

References

  1. "Populations légales 2018". INSEE. 28 December 2020.
  2. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Wikisource-logo.svg One or more of the preceding sentences incorporates text from a publication now in the public domain : Chisholm, Hugh, ed. (1911). "Nevers". Encyclopædia Britannica . 19 (11th ed.). Cambridge University Press. pp. 456–457.
  3. "Données climatiques de la station de Nevers" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  4. "Climat Bourgogne" (in French). Meteo France. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  5. "Normes et records 1961-1990: Nevers-Marzy (58) - altitude 175m" (in French). Infoclimat. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
  6. Des villages de Cassini aux communes d'aujourd'hui: Commune data sheet Nevers, EHESS. (in French)
  7. Population en historique depuis 1968, INSEE
  8. "Les villes jumelées". nevers.fr (in French). Nevers. Retrieved 16 November 2019.