New Braunfels, Texas

Last updated
New Braunfels, Texas
City of New Braunfels
New Braunfels Collage.png
Top, left to right: Guadalupe River, August Dietz Cottage, First Protestant Church, Comal River in Landa Park, Schlitterbahn, Hotel Faust
New Braunfels City Logo.png
Logo of New Braunfels
Comal County NewBraunfels.svg
Location of New Braunfels in Texas
Coordinates: 29°42′N98°7′W / 29.700°N 98.117°W / 29.700; -98.117 Coordinates: 29°42′N98°7′W / 29.700°N 98.117°W / 29.700; -98.117
CountryFlag of the United States.svg  United States
State Flag of Texas.svg  Texas
Counties Comal, Guadalupe
Founded1845 (1845)
  Type Council-Manager
   City Council Mayor Barron Casteel (2014)
George Green
Aja Edwards
Ron Reaves (Mayor Pro Tem)
Chris Monceballez
Wayne Peters
Leah A. Garcia
   City Manager Robert Camareno
  Total44.9 sq mi (116.4 km2)
  Land44.4 sq mi (115.1 km2)
  Water0.5 sq mi (1.3 km2)
630 ft (192 m)
  Density1,513/sq mi (584.3/km2)
Time zone UTC−6 (Central)
  Summer (DST) UTC−5 (CDT)
ZIP codes
Area code(s) 830
FIPS code 48-50820 [2]
GNIS feature ID1342440 [3]

New Braunfels ( /ˈbrɔːnfɛlz/ ( Loudspeaker.svg listen ) BRAWN-felz) is a city in Comal and Guadalupe counties in the U.S. state of Texas, located in the northeastern part of Greater San Antonio. It is the seat of Comal County [4] and 32 miles (51 km) from Downtown San Antonio. The city covers 44.9 square miles (116 km2) and has a 2017 estimated population of 79,152. [5]

Comal County, Texas County in the United States

Comal County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 108,472. Its county seat is New Braunfels.

Guadalupe County, Texas County in the United States

Guadalupe County is a county located in the U.S. state of Texas. As of the 2010 census, its population was 131,533. The county seat is Seguin. The county was founded in 1846 and is named after Guadalupe River.



German immigrants on the way to New Braunfels (1844) Bundesarchiv Bild 137-005007, Zeichnung, Deutscher Einwandererzug in Texas.jpg
German immigrants on the way to New Braunfels (1844)

New Braunfels was established in 1845 by Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels, Commissioner General of the Adelsverein, also known as the Noblemen's Society (in German: Mainzer Adelsverein). Prince Solms named the settlement in honor of his home of Solms-Braunfels, Germany.

Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels German royalty, Texas pioneer, New Braunfels, Texas named for him

Prince Carl (Karl) of Solms-Braunfels, was a German prince and military officer in both the Austrian army and in the cavalry of the Grand Duchy of Hesse. As Commissioner General of the Adelsverein, he spearheaded the establishment of colonies of German immigrants in Texas. Prince Solms named New Braunfels, Texas in honor of his homeland.


The Mainzer Adelsverein at Biebrich am Rhein, better known as the Mainzer Adelsverein, organized on April 20, 1842, was a colonial attempt to establish a new Germany within the borders of Texas.

German language West Germanic language

German is a West Germanic language that is mainly spoken in Central Europe. It is the most widely spoken and official or co-official language in Germany, Austria, Switzerland, South Tyrol in Italy, the German-speaking Community of Belgium, and Liechtenstein. It is also one of the three official languages of Luxembourg and a co-official language in the Opole Voivodeship in Poland. The languages which are most similar to German are the other members of the West Germanic language branch: Afrikaans, Dutch, English, the Frisian languages, Low German/Low Saxon, Luxembourgish, and Yiddish. There are also strong similarities in vocabulary with Danish, Norwegian and Swedish, although those belong to the North Germanic group. German is the second most widely spoken Germanic language, after English.

The Adelsverein organized hundreds of people in Germany to settle in Texas. Immigrants from Germany began arriving at Galveston in July 1844. Most then traveled by ship to Indianola in December 1844, and began the overland journey to the Fisher-Miller land grant purchased by Prince Solms. [6] At the urging of John Coffee Hays, who realized the settlers would not have time to build homes and plant crops further inland before winter, and as the German settlers were traveling inland along the Guadalupe River, they stopped near the Comal Springs. Prince Solms bought two leagues of land from Rafael Garza and Maria Antonio Veramendi Garza for $1,111.00. [7]

Galveston, Texas City in Texas

Galveston is a coastal resort city and port off the southeast coast on Galveston Island and Pelican Island in the American State of Texas. The community of 209.3 square miles (542 km2), with an estimated population of 50,180 in 2015, is the county seat of surrounding Galveston County and second-largest municipality in the county. It is also within the Houston–The Woodlands–Sugar Land metropolitan area at its southern end on the northwestern coast of the Gulf of Mexico.

Indianola, Texas ghost town

Indianola is a ghost town located on Matagorda Bay in Calhoun County, Texas, United States. The community, once the county seat of Calhoun County, is a part of the Victoria, Texas, Metropolitan Statistical Area. In 1875, the city had a population of 5,000, but on September 15 of that year, a powerful hurricane struck, killing between 150 and 300 and almost entirely destroying the town. Indianola was rebuilt, only to be wiped out on August 19, 1886, by another intense hurricane, which was followed by a fire. Indianola was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1963, marker number 2642.

John Coffee Hays Texas ranger and politician

John Coffee "Jack" Hays was a captain in the Texas Rangers and a military officer of the Republic of Texas. Hays served in several armed conflicts from 1836 to 1848, including against the Comanche people in Texas and during the Mexican–American War.

The land was located northeast of San Antonio on El Camino Real de los Tejas and had the strong freshwater Comal Springs, known as Las Fontanas, when the Germans arrived. [8] [9] [10] It was about halfway between Indianola and the lower portions of the Fisher-Miller land grant. The first settlers forded the Guadalupe River on Good Friday, March 21, 1845, near the present-day Faust Street bridge. [11] [12]

San Antonio City in Texas, United States

San Antonio, officially the City of San Antonio, is the seventh-most populous city in the United States, and the second-most populous city in both Texas and the Southern United States, with more than 1.5 million residents. Founded as a Spanish mission and colonial outpost in 1718, the city became the first chartered civil settlement in present-day Texas in 1731. The area was still part of the Spanish Empire, and later of the Mexican Republic. Today it is the state's oldest municipality.

El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail auto trail

The El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail is a National Historic Trail covering the U.S. section of the El Camino Real de Los Tejas, a thoroughfare from the 18th-century Spanish colonial era in Spanish Texas instrumental in the settlement, development and history of Texas. The National Park Service designated the El Camino Real de los Tejas National Historic Trail as a unit in the National Historic Trail system in 2004.

Guadalupe River (Texas) watercourse in the United States of America

The Guadalupe River runs from Kerr County, Texas, to San Antonio Bay on the Gulf of Mexico. It is a popular destination for rafting, fly fishing, and canoeing. Larger cities along it include Kerrville, New Braunfels, Seguin, Gonzales, Cuero, and Victoria. It has several dams along its length, the most notable of which, Canyon Dam, forms Canyon Lake northwest of New Braunfels.

As the spring of 1845 progressed, the settlers built the "Zinkenburg", a fort named for Adelsverein civil engineer Nicolaus Zink, divided the land, and began building homes and planting crops. [13] Prince Solms would also lay the cornerstone for the Sophienburg, a permanent fort and center for the immigrant association. [14]

Nicolaus Zink Adelsverein pioneer, founder Sisterdale, Texas, builder fort Zinkenburg, Texas

Nicolaus Zink (1812–1887) was the founder of Sisterdale, Texas, and builder of the fort Zinkenburg. Under the direction of Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels, Zink led a caravan of new settlers from Indianola to New Braunfels. He laid out the town and divided the original allotted farm acreage. In 1984, the Zink house in Welfare, Texas, was designed a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, marker 3595.

In 1844, Prince Solms was so disillusioned with the logistics of the colonization that he asked the Vereins to remove him as commissioner-general and appoint a successor. [15] When John O. Meusebach arrived, the finances were in disarray, due in part to Prince Solms' lack of business experience and his refusal to keep financial records. To a larger degree, the financial situation happened because the Adelsverein was an organization of noblemen with no practical backgrounds at running businesses. They were on the other side of the world and did not witness the situation with which both Prince Solms and Meusebach were dealing. Henry Francis Fisher had not supplied transport and supplies for which the Verein advanced money to him. Meusebach found Prince Solms in Galveston trying to return to Germany, detained by authorities for unpaid bills. Meusebach made good on the debts, so Prince Solms could depart. [16]

John O. Meusebach German pioneer, Texas state senator

John O. Meusebach, born Otfried Hans Freiherr von Meusebach, was at first a Prussian bureaucrat, later an American farmer and politician who served in the Texas Senate, District 22.

Henry Francis Fisher (1805–1867) was a notable German Texan. Born in Kassel, Hesse, in 1837 or early 1838 he came to Houston, Texas, where he served as Hanseatic (Bremen) consul to Texas. He became interested in the exploration and colonization of the San Saba, Texas area and in 1839 was acting treasurer of the San Saba Company, which was later reorganized as the San Saba Colonization Company. He was a key party in the Fisher–Miller Land Grant. He spoke German and additionally Spanish and English when Texas came under Mexican and U.S. rules.

Meusebach discovered that Prince Solms' choice of the inadequate Carlshafen (Indianola) as a port of entry, as well as the isolated route to New Braunfels, was deliberately chosen to keep the Germans from interacting with any Americans. According to Nicolaus Zink, [17] Prince Solms had planned to establish a German feudal state by secretly bringing in immigrants and placing them in military fortresses. Meusebach, who had renounced his own title of nobility, took a different approach and invited Americans to settle in the Vereins territory. [18]

Old map (1881) Old map-New Braunfels-1881.jpg
Old map (1881)

Prince Solms, being an officer of the Imperial Army of Austria, had kept a uniformed military unit at the ready in Indianola. Meusebach converted the military unit to a more needed work detail. [19] A finance and business structure for the colony was put in place by Meusebach. [20] He also provided for adequate food and shelter for the colonists. [21] On August 11, 1845, Hermann Friedrich Seele [22] became the first teacher for the German-English school in New Braunfels. [23] Meusebach established friendly relations with a local tribe of Waco Indians. Upon seeing his reddish-blonde hair, they called him Ma-be-quo-si-to-mu, "Chief with the burning hair of the head". [24]

In May 1846, Meusebach received a letter from Count Castell informing him 4,304 emigrants were on their way to Texas. With no funds and no new settlements, the mass of emigrants was stalled at Carlshafen. Meusebach's requests to the Verein for more money, and his warnings of pending bankruptcy for the Verein, brought no results. As a last resort, Meusebach instructed D.H. Klaener to publish the plight in the German news media. Embarrassed by the publicity, the Verein established a $60,000 letter of credit. [25] The amount was not adequate for sustaining the total number of German emigrants in Texas, but Castell also sent Philip Cappes as special commissioner to observe the situation. Cappes had also been instructed by Castell to observe Meusebach and to secretly report back every detail. [26] By the time Cappes departed in March 1847, he recommended another $200,000 be advanced. [27]

Front page of the Neu-Braunfelser Zeitung on September 16, 1853 Zeitung 1853.jpg
Front page of the Neu-Braunfelser Zeitung on September 16, 1853

Cappes invited Henry Francis Fisher to New Braunfels, in spite of Fisher not being entirely trustworthy to the Verein. As of February 11, 1845, Fisher had been involved in coercing newly arrived immigrants to sign documents stating their intent to depart from the Verein and align with Fisher's friend Dr. Friedrich Schubbert, also known as Friedrich Strubberg.

Cappes was not in town when Meusebach was breakfast host to Fisher on December 31, 1846. Posters had mysteriously appeared about town maligning Meusebach, saying "Curses upon Meusebach the slave driver", and inciting colonists to free themselves from his "tyranny". A group led by Rudolph Iwonski [28] pushed their way into Meusebach's home, and colonist C. Herber brandished a whip. Herber was an alleged counterfeiter to whom Count Castell had awarded asylum. Meusebach and Herber shared a dislike of one another. [29]

The colonists' list of demands included Meusebach resigning as commissioner-general and turning the colonization over to Fisher. [30] Meusebach kept his composure, but the group became so heated, they yelled, "Hang him!" When the estimated 120 men dispersed, Fisher was nowhere to be found. The same evening, a different group of individuals assembled and pledged to stand by Meusebach, the next day passing resolutions condemning the actions of the mob. [31] Meusebach himself had considered leaving Texas as early as November 1845, when he wrote to Count Castell and announced his intention to resign and return to Germany. Meusebach did not feel the Adelsverein was organized enough to achieve its goals. After the mob visit in New Braunfels, he again submitted his resignation to accompany a financial report to Castell on January 23, 1847. [32]

Meusebach had arranged with the Torrey Brothers for transporting the emigrants inland, but the United States hired the Torrey Brothers for use in the Mexican–American War. [33]

Meusebach stabilized the community's finances, and encouraged the settlers to establish additional neighboring communities. The largest of these secondary settlements was Fredericksburg, 80 miles (130 km) to the northwest of New Braunfels.

New Braunfels thrived, and by 1850, it was the fourth-largest city in Texas, [12] with 1,723 people, following only Galveston, San Antonio, and Houston in population. [34] In 1852, the Zeitung newspaper was established, edited by German Texan botanist Ferdinand Lindheimer. The newspaper continues to publish under its current name, the Herald-Zeitung .


New Braunfels is located in southeastern Comal County. The city is 32 miles (51 km) northeast of Downtown San Antonio, 19 miles (31 km) southwest of San Marcos, and 48 miles (77 km) southwest of Austin.

According to the United States Census Bureau, New Braunfels has a total area of 44.9 square miles (116.4 km2), of which 44.4 square miles (115.1 km2) is land and 0.5 square miles (1.3 km2), or 0.91%, is covered by water. [1] The city is situated along the Balcones Fault, where the Texas Hill Country meets rolling prairie land. Along the fault in the city, a string of artesian springs known as Comal Springs gives rise to the Comal River, which is known as one of the shortest rivers in the world, as it winds 3 miles (5 km) through the city before meeting the Guadalupe River.


New Braunfels experiences a humid subtropical climate, with hot summers and generally mild winters. Temperatures range from 83 °F (27.8 °C) in the summer to 49 °F (9.4 °C) during winter.

Climate data for New Braunfels, Texas
Record high °F (°C)89
Average high °F (°C)62
Daily mean °F (°C)49
Average low °F (°C)37
Record low °F (°C)2
Average precipitation inches (mm)1.88
Source: The Weather Channel [35]


New Braunfels High School New braunfels high school 2014.jpg
New Braunfels High School
Canyon High School Canyon High School (Comal County, TX) IMG 6716.JPG
Canyon High School

The city is served by the New Braunfels Independent School District and the Comal Independent School District. [36]

Five high schools are located within city limits, as well as a freshmen center. The public high schools are New Braunfels High School, Canyon High School, and Alamo Colleges-Memorial Early College High School. New Braunfels Christian Academy, a K-12 institution, and the Calvary Baptist Academy are private schools in the city. John Paul II Catholic High School is in nearby Schertz.

NBISD operates several schools in New Braunfels.

CISD schools serving New Braunfels are:


Gruene Historical District is located within the city limits of New Braunfels. Founded by the sons of settlers Ernst and Antoinette Gruene, the community had a bank, post office, school, general store, lumberyard, gristmill, dance hall, and cotton gin. It also had access to two railways for shipping cotton bales. Its most famous attribute was the dance hall, a family activity in those days. Due to the failure of the cotton crop from boll weevils, and the failure of the banks after 1929, commercial activity slowed to a crawl. This village is now a Nationally Registered Historic District where one can dine in the ruins of the original gristmill or enjoy live music at Gruene Hall. The community may also be researched through the Sophienburg Museum and Archives.


Historical population
1850 1,298
1860 1,74034.1%
1870 2,26129.9%
1880 1,938−14.3%
1890 1,608−17.0%
1900 2,09730.4%
1910 3,16550.9%
1920 3,59013.4%
1930 6,24273.9%
1940 6,97611.8%
1950 12,21075.0%
1960 15,63128.0%
1970 17,85914.3%
1980 22,40225.4%
1990 27,33422.0%
2000 36,49433.5%
2010 57,74058.2%
Est. 201779,152 [40] 37.1%
U.S. Decennial Census [41]

As of the census [2] of 2000, 36,494 people, 13,558 households, and 9,599 families resided in the city. The population density was 1,247.7 people per square mile (481.7/km2). The 14,896 housing units averaged 509.3 per square mile (196.6/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 84.30% White, 1.37% African American, 0.55% Native American, 0.58% Asian, 0.03% Pacific Islander, 10.93% from other races, and 2.24% from two or more races. Hispanics or Latinos of any race were 34.52% of the population.

For the year 2015, New Braunfels was named the U.S.’s second-fastest growing city with a population of 50,000 or more, according to estimates by the U.S. Census Bureau. [42]

Of the 13,558 households, 33.4% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 55.4% were married couples living together, 11.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 29.2% were not families. About 24.8% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.0% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.60 and the average family size was 3.11.

In the city, the population was distributed as 25.7% under the age of 18, 8.5% from 18 to 24, 28.4% from 25 to 44, 20.6% from 45 to 64, and 16.9% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 36 years. For every 100 females, there were 91.9 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 88.3 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $40,078, and for a family was $46,726. Males had a median income of $31,140 versus $23,235 for females. The per capita income for the city was $18,548. About 9.0% of families and 10.9% of the population were below the poverty line, including 14.9% of those under age 18 and 9.7% of those age 65 or over.


Companies based in New Braunfels include Rush Enterprises and Schlitterbahn.

Top employers

According to New Braunfels' 2014 Comprehensive Annual Financial Report, [43] the top employers in the area are:

#Employer# of Employees
1 Comal Independent School District 2,400
2 Schlitterbahn 1,863
3 Walmart Distribution Center1,035
4 New Braunfels Independent School District 1,050
5 Comal County 613
6Colorado Materials586
7City of New Braunfels538
8 Christus Santa Rosa Hospital-New Braunfels 534
9 HD Supply 520
10 Checks in the Mail 305

Recreation and tourism

The town holds "Wurstfest", a German-style sausage festival, every November, drawing on the city's strong German heritage. Every December, the town celebrates Wassailfest in the historic downtown.

New Braunfels draws a large number of tourists, particularly in the summer because of the cold-spring rivers that run through the city. Many generations of families and college students return every summer to tube for miles down the Guadalupe and Comal rivers. New Braunfels is the site of the original water park, the Schlitterbahn WaterPark Resort. The Ernest Eikel Skate Park attracts many skate board enthusiasts.

Media communications

The newspaper Herald Zeitung was originally two newspapers: The Herald (published in English) and The Zeitung, which means "newspaper", (published in German) until 1967.

The other newspaper publisher serving the city of New Braunfels is the TX Citizen, formerly the NB citizen.

In radio, two stations broadcast from New Braunfels, KGNB 1420 AM and KNBT 92.1 FM, notable for its Americana music format.

Notable people

See also

Related Research Articles

Kendall County, Texas County in the United States

Kendall County is a county located on the Edwards Plateau in the U.S. state of Texas. In 2010 census, its population was 33,410. Its county seat is Boerne. The county is named for George Wilkins Kendall, a journalist and Mexican–American War correspondent.

Ferdinand Lindheimer Botanist

Ferdinand Jacob Lindheimer was a German Texan botanist who spent his working life on the American frontier. In 1936, Recorded Texas Historic Landmark number 1590 was placed on Lindheimer's grave.

Spring Branch, Comal County, Texas City in Texas, United States

Spring Branch is a city located in Comal County, Texas, United States. It is part of the San Antonio–New Braunfels metropolitan area and has approximately 250 residents. The community voted to incorporate in an election held on November 3, 2015 and Spring Branch officially became a city on November 19, 2015.

Castell, Texas Place in Texas, United States

Castell is a small unincorporated riverside town in Llano County, Texas, United States. The population was 104 at the 2010 census. Located in the heart of the Texas Hill Country, its northern border is formed by the Llano River. It was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1964, marker number 9440.

Meusebach–Comanche Treaty

The Meusebach–Comanche Treaty was a treaty made on May 9,1847 between the private citizens of the Fisher–Miller Land Grant in Texas, who were predominantly German in nationality, and the Penateka Comanche Tribe. The treaty was officially recognized by the United States government. In 1936, a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, Marker number 991, was placed in San Saba County to commemorate the signing of the treaty.

Hermann, Prince of Wied 19th-century German nobleman

Hermann, Prince of Wied was a German nobleman, elder son of Johann August Karl, Prince of Wied. He was the father of Queen Elisabeth of Romania and grandfather of William, Prince of Albania.

Nassau Plantation (Texas)

Nassau Plantation was a 4,428 acres endeavor purchased by the Adelsverein on January 9, 1843, in Fayette County, Texas, near what is now Round Top. A Texas State Historical Marker was installed in 1968, Marker 3550.

Hermann Spiess was co-founder of the Bettina, Texas commune in 1847. He became Commissioner-General of the Adelsverein after the resignation of John O. Meusebach.

Fisher–Miller Land Grant

The Fisher–Miller Land Grant was part of an early colonization effort of the Republic of Texas. Its 3,878,000 acres covered 5,000 square miles (13,000 km2) between the Llano River and Colorado River. Originally granted to Henry Francis Fisher and Burchard Miller, the grant was sold to the German colonization company of Adelsverein. Very few colonizations resulted from the land grant, as most settlers preferred Fredericksburg and New Braunfels, which lay outside the land grant boundaries. A granite monument located near Lookout Mountain in Burnet County summarizes the history and importance of the Fisher-Miller Land Grant and was designated as a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark in 1964, Marker number 9438.

Homesite of John O. Meusebach Place in Texas, United States

The Homesite of John O. Meusebach is located at Loyal Valley in Mason County, Texas, 21 miles (34 km) north of Fredericksburg and 18 miles (29 km) southeast of the city of Mason, on U.S. Highway 87 to right-of-way at the intersection of US 87 and RM 2242. Meusebach moved to the property in 1869, after a tornado destroyed his family home in Comal County.

Emil Kriewitz (1822–1902) was a German immigrant and veteran of the Mexican–American War, who came to this country with the Adelsverein colonists. After John O. Meusebach successfully negotiated the Meusebach–Comanche Treaty, Kriewitz lived among the Penateka Comanche as an intermediary between the whites and Penateka. In 1993, his home in Castell, Texas, was designated a Recorded Texas Historic Landmark, Marker number 9444.

Betty Holekamp Texan colonist of German descent

Betty Holekamp (1826–1902) was a German colonist and pioneer in Texas. She is recognized for several "firsts" as a Texas pioneer, such as being the first to sew an American flag upon Texas's acceptance into the Union, and thus is known as the Betsy Ross of Texas. She was also among the first residents in four Texas Hill Country communities: New Braunfels, Fredericksburg, Sisterdale, and Comfort.

History of Fredericksburg, Texas

The History of Fredericksburg, Texas dates back to its founding in 1846. It was named after Prince Frederick of Prussia. Fredericksburg is also notable as the home of Texas German, a dialect spoken by the first generations of German settlers who initially refused to learn English. Fredericksburg shares many cultural characteristics with New Braunfels, which had been established by Prince Carl of Solms-Braunfels the previous year.

Friedrich Armand Strubberg Merchant, physician, author, Texas pioneer

Friedrich Armand Strubberg was a merchant, physician, and pioneer colonist. Born in Germany, Strubberg spent many decades in the United States. In Texas, he used the pseudonym Dr. Friedrich Schubbert. He designed the Vereins Kirche in Fredericksburg. Strubberg spent the last few decades of his life as an author in Germany.

Bettina is a vanished community founded in 1847 by German immigrants as part of the Adelsverein colonization of the Fisher–Miller Land Grant in the U.S. state of Texas. It was located on the banks of the Llano River in Llano County, and no trace of the settlement remains today. The community was named after German artist and social activist Bettina von Arnim and was one of five attempted by the Darmstadt Forty. It was also known as the Darmstaedter Kolonie. The community was sponsored by the Adelsverein, and founded on idealistic philosophies of European freethinkers of the day. It is notable for the community's camaraderie and mutually respectful relations with local indigenous tribes. Lack of a formal community framework caused Bettina to fail within a year of its founding.


  1. 1 2 "Geographic Identifiers: 2010 Census Summary File 1 (G001): New Braunfels city, Texas". U.S. Census Bureau, American Factfinder. Retrieved August 4, 2015.
  2. 1 2 "American FactFinder". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  3. "US Board on Geographic Names". United States Geological Survey. 2007-10-25. Retrieved 2008-01-31.
  4. "Find a County". National Association of Counties. Retrieved 2011-06-07.
  5. Bureau, U.S. Census. "American FactFinder - Results". Retrieved 2018-08-23.
  6. King (1967) p.53
  7. King (1967) p.37
  8. "Comal Springs". Edwards Aquifer. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  9. Brune, Gunnar. "Comal Springs". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  10. Brune, Gunnar; Besse, Helen C (2002). Springs of Texas: Volume I. TAMU Press. p. 129. ISBN   978-1-58544-196-9.
  11. "Faust Street Bridge". Texas Escapes. Texas Escapes – Blueprints For Travel, LLC. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  12. 1 2 Greene, Daniel P. "New Braunfels, Texas". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  13. Ragsdale, Crystal Sasse. "Zinkenburg". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  14. Blackman, Clyde T. "Sophienburg Museum and Archives". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  15. King (1967) pp.35–38
  16. King (1967) pp.52–58
  17. Ragsdale, Crystal Sasse. "Nicolaus Zink". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 3 January 2011.
  18. King (1967) pp.59–60
  19. King (1967) p.63
  20. King (1967) p.64
  21. King (1967) p.65
  22. Breitenkamp, Edward C. "Hermann Friedrich Seele". Handbook of Texas Online. Texas State Historical Association. Retrieved 27 December 2010.
  23. King (1967) p.66
  24. King (1967) p.67
  25. King (1967) pp.75–83
  26. Morgenthaler (2007) p.56
  27. King (1967) pp.96–101
  28. Johnson (2009) p.10
  29. King (1967) p.98
  30. Morgenthaler (2007) p.61
  31. King (1967) p.103
  32. King (1967) pp.110,125
  33. King (1967) pp.85,87
  35. "Monthly Averages for New Braunfels, Texas". The Weather Channel. Archived from the original on 2013-12-19.
  36. Council District Map. City of New Braunfels. Retrieved on August 27, 2016.
  37. "Elementary School Attendance Zones" (Archive). Comal Independent School District. Retrieved on August 28, 2016. Zones: Clear Spring (Archive); Freiheit (Archive), Morningside (Archive)
  38. "Middle School Attendance Zones" (Archive). Comal Independent School District. Retrieved on August 28, 2016. Zones: Canyon (Archive), Church Hill (Archive)
  39. "High School Attendance Zones" (Archive). Comal Independent School District. Retrieved on August 28, 2016. Canyon High School zone (Archive)
  40. "Population and Housing Unit Estimates" . Retrieved June 9, 2017.
  41. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  42. Bowen, Greg. Census estimate ranks New Braunfels second fastest growing city in US, New Braunfels Herald-Zeitung , May 19, 2016.
  43. City of New Braunfels CAFR
  44. "Carter Casteel's Biography". Retrieved February 22, 2014.
  45. Contact Us Charlie Duke Enterprises. Retrieved: 2012-09-03.

Further reading