New Cross

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New Cross
The New Cross Inn, New Cross (01).jpg
The New Cross Inn
Greater London UK location map 2.svg
Red pog.svg
New Cross
Location within Greater London
Population15,756 (2011 Census.Ward) [1]
OS grid reference TQ365765
London borough
Ceremonial county Greater London
Region
Country England
Sovereign state United Kingdom
Post town LONDON
Postcode district SE14,SE15
Dialling code 020
Police Metropolitan
Fire London
Ambulance London
UK Parliament
London Assembly
List of places
UK
England
London
51°28′15″N0°02′01″W / 51.4709°N 0.0337°W / 51.4709; -0.0337 Coordinates: 51°28′15″N0°02′01″W / 51.4709°N 0.0337°W / 51.4709; -0.0337

New Cross is an area in south east London, England, 4.5 miles (7.2 km) south-east of Charing Cross in the London Borough of Lewisham and the SE14 postcode district. New Cross is near St Johns, Telegraph Hill, Nunhead, Peckham, Brockley, Deptford and Greenwich, and home to Goldsmiths, University of London, Haberdashers' Hatcham College and Addey and Stanhope School.

Contents

New Cross Gate, on the west of New Cross, is named after the New Cross tollgate, established in 1718 by the New Cross Turnpike Trust. It is the location of New Cross station and New Cross Gate station. New Cross Gate corresponds to the manor and district formerly known as Hatcham. [2]

History

The electoral ward of New Cross (red) within the London Borough of Lewisham (orange) Ward of New Cross.GIF
The electoral ward of New Cross (red) within the London Borough of Lewisham (orange)

The area was originally known as Hatcham (the name persists in the title of the Anglican parishes of St. James, Hatcham along with its school, and All Saints, Hatcham Park). The earliest reference to Hatcham is the Domesday Book of 1086 as Hacheham. It was held by the Bishop of Lisieux from the Bishop of Bayeux. According to the entry in the Domesday Book Hatcham's assets were: 3 hides; 3 ploughs, 6 acres (24,000 m2) of meadow, woodland worth 3 hog and rendered £2. [3]

The Hatcham Liberal Club in New Cross, built circa 1880 and now Grade II listed Hatcham Liberal Club near New Cross (01).jpg
The Hatcham Liberal Club in New Cross, built circa 1880 and now Grade II listed

Hatcham tithes were paid to Bermondsey Abbey from 1173 until the dissolution of the monasteries. A series of individuals then held land locally before the manor was bought in the 17th century by the Haberdashers' Company, a wealthy livery company that was instrumental in the area's development in the 19th century. Telegraph Hill was for many years covered by market gardens also owned by the Worshipful Company of Haberdashers. Until the creation of the London County Council in 1889, the area was a part of the counties of Kent and Surrey.

New Cross is believed to have taken its name from a coaching house originally known as the Golden Cross, which stood close to the current New Cross House pub. The diarist John Evelyn, who lived in Deptford, wrote in 1675 that he met a friend at 'New Crosse' in his coach before travelling down through Kent and on to France.

The Ventilating Column in New Cross, erected in 1897 and now Grade II listed Ventilating Column in Clifton Rise, New Cross (01).jpg
The Ventilating Column in New Cross, erected in 1897 and now Grade II listed

In the later 19th century, the area became known as the New Cross Tangle on account of its numerous railway lines, workshops and two stations — both originally called New Cross (one was later renamed New Cross Gate).

Hatcham Iron Works in Pomeroy Street was an important steam locomotive factory, the scene of a bitter confrontation in 1865 between its manager, George England, and the workers. The Strike Committee met at the Crown and Anchor pub in New Cross Road, now the site of Hong Kong City Chinese restaurant. George England's house, Hatcham Lodge, is now 56 Kender Street. [4]

New Cross bus garage was formerly the largest tram depot in London, opening in 1906. During the 1926 General Strike in support of the miners, strikebreakers were brought in to drive trams from the depot. On 7 May, police baton charges were launched to clear a crowd of 2–3,000 pickets blockading the entrance (reported as "Rowdyism in New Cross" by the Kentish Mercury).

The last London tram, in July 1952, ran from Woolwich to New Cross. It was driven through enormous crowds, finally arriving at its destination in the early hours of 6 July. [5]

On 25 November 1944 a V-2 rocket exploded at the Woolworths store in New Cross Road (on the site later occupied by an Iceland supermarket), 168 people were killed, and 121 were seriously injured. It was London's most devastating V-bombing of the entire war. On 25 November 2009 a new commemorative plaque was unveiled on the site by the Mayor of Lewisham, marking the 65th anniversary of the explosion.

On 13 August 1977, the area saw the so-called Battle of Lewisham, during which the far-right British National Front were beaten back by militant anti-fascists and local people.

On 18 January 1981, 13 young black people were killed in a house fire at a party. Unfounded suspicions that the fire was caused by a racist attack, and claimed official indifference to the deaths, led to the largest ever political mobilisation of black people seen in the UK.

29 June 2008, two university students from France were stabbed to death in a house.

Culture

Music

329 to 331 New Cross Road, built in 1903 and now Grade II listed Numbers 329 to 331 New Cross Road, New Cross.jpg
329 to 331 New Cross Road, built in 1903 and now Grade II listed

During the 1980s, the Goldsmiths Tavern hosted alternative cabaret nights, organised by Nikky Smedley.[ citation needed ] Playing host to fledgling acts including The Cholmondeleys, Julian Clary and Vic Reeves.[ citation needed ] Goldsmiths' Students' Union also had a reputation for putting on established and up and coming bands of the era including The B-52's, The Pogues, The Monochrome Set, Simply Red, Wet Wet Wet and Wild Willy Barrett.[ citation needed ]. The Irish owners of the Harp Club let The Flim Flam run a regular Friday night club there.[ citation needed ] The Flim Flam, with their wide music interest, recruited two DJs from Goldsmiths (Allison Webster and Mimi Kerns) to put on a punk and indie night on Saturdays A Million Rubber Bands (later "Totally Wired"). This venue later became The Venue.

In the 1990s New Cross club, The Venue was central to the Indie Rock and Brit Pop scenes and played host to gigs by many of their finest purveyors including Oasis, Radiohead, Pulp, Squeeze, Suede, Levellers, Cast, Shed Seven, Sleeper, Cornershop, Bluetones, PJ Harvey, Catherine Wheel, Belly, Ocean Colour Scene, Lush, Chumbawamba, Ash, Mudhoney, and Hole.[ citation needed ] Urban music magazine, Touch, and The Platform Magazine, an Islamic Hip-Hop journal are based in New Cross.[ citation needed ]

New Cross was noted as the birthplace of New Rave [ citation needed ], and is fast gaining ground with London's fashion and music journalists,[ citation needed ] some even coming to regard it as South London's answer to Shoreditch in the wake of its commercialisation.[ citation needed ] The New Rave scene began with a tightly connected movement of artists, DJs, bands and squatters called !WOWOW! who have staged parties since 2003 in New Cross.[ citation needed ] New Rave champions Klaxons spent their formative years in New Cross and released their début single, Gravity's Rainbow , in April 2006 on Angular Recording Corporation, a label set up by two ex-Goldsmiths students.[ citation needed ] The area supports a fledgling student opera company, Opera Gold, run by Goldsmiths, University of London.

Sport

Millwall Football Club, founded by mainly Scottish workers at J.T. Morton, a cannery and food processing plant in Millwall on the Isle of Dogs in 1885, was based at The Den in Cold Blow Lane from 1910 to 1993. The ground attracted crowds of more than 45,000 at its peak, but by the 1980s was notorious for the club's repeated incidents of football hooliganism. Millwall moved a short distance to a new stadium, The New Den, situated off Ilderton Road and just within Bermondsey, at the start of the 1993–94 season. The club remains within the New Cross electoral ward. [6]

Speedway racing was staged at the New Cross Speedway and Greyhound Stadium, situated at the end of Hornshay Street, off Ilderton Road. The venue became home to the New Cross Rangers in 1934 when the Crystal Palace promotion moved en bloc. The track, reputed to be one of the shortest and known as "The Frying Pan Bowl", operated until 1939 and re-opened in 1946 running until the early 1950s. The track re-opened for a short spell 1959 - 1961 and closed its doors to the sport for the last time mid season 1963. The stadium was also the scene of the UK's first stock car race at Easter 1954, with 26,000 in the crowd and thousands more locked outside. The stadium site is now an open space, Bridge House Meadows. The 1949 speedway film Once a Jolly Swagman , starring Dirk Bogarde, was filmed at New Cross.

Dance

The Venue nightclub in New Cross Venue Nightclub, New Cross.jpg
The Venue nightclub in New Cross

For many years New Cross was home to the Laban Centre, now Trinity Laban Conservatoire of Music and Dance which was based at Laurie Grove producing choreographers such as Matthew Bourne and Lea Anderson. In 2002 Laban moved to new studios in Deptford. However, it still uses its New Cross campus, where studios have since been refurbished.

Literature

Its library, New Cross Learning, which was formerly known as the New Cross People's Library, was saved from permanent closure after government cuts. A series of protests in 2011, namely from the ‘Save New Cross Library Campaign’ and the subsequent media coverage, garnered enough support to see it re-open in 2013 as a community led library. It now offers learning activities and workshops, and has a lending catalogue of over 5,000 books.

Demography

The New Cross ward of Lewisham has the lowest female life expectancy of all the wards of Greater London: 77.6 years. For males the rate was 74.3 years, tied with Camberwell Green in Southwark and only higher than Selhurst ward in Croydon. [7]

Buildings

Ben Pimlott Building Pimlott Building1.jpg
Ben Pimlott Building
Goldsmith's Library RISB.JPG
Goldsmith's Library

The proximity of New Cross to Deptford and Greenwich, both of which have strong maritime connections, led to the establishment of the Royal Naval School in New Cross in 1843 (designed by architect John Shaw Jr, 1803–1870) to house "the sons of impecunious naval officers". The school relocated further south-east to Mottingham in 1889, and the former school building was bought by the Worshipful Company of Goldsmiths, who opened the Goldsmiths’ Company's Technical and Recreative Institute in 1891. This was in turn handed over to the University of London in 1904 and is now Goldsmiths, University of London.

The former Deptford Town Hall building in New Cross Road, now also used by Goldsmiths, was built in the Edwardian Baroque style by Lanchester and Rickards, 1903–5. Nautical references include carvings of Tritons, statues of admirals and a sailing ship weathervane on the clock turret. [8]

New Cross Fire Station is a Grade II listed building at 266 Queens Road, built in 1893–94 to a design by the architect Robert Pearsall. [9]

The Kingdom Hall of Jehovah's Witnesses was the South East London Synagogue. It was established in 1888 by Ashkenazi Jews who had emigrated to Britain from Eastern Europe. It was refused membership of the United Synagogue, [10] but was admitted to the Federation of Synagogues. [11] Immanuel Jakobovits was the rabbi just after the Second World War. The synagogue's first premises was a house at 452 New Cross Road. [12] The first purpose-built synagogue was consecrated in March 1905 and was destroyed by a German air raid on 27 December 1940. After this the congregation moved temporarily to 117 Lewisham Way, returning to its original site at New Cross Road in 1946 – first to a temporary hut and then to a new purpose-built synagogue in 1956. During the period from 1945 to 1947 Immanuel Jakobovits, who later became the Chief Rabbi of the United Hebrew Congregations of the Commonwealth, and was created a life peer in 1988, as Baron Jakobovits, was the rabbi. [13] [14] However, the congregation went into decline and the synagogue closed in 1985, by which time it only had 56 male members compared with 294 in 1939. [12]

The Venue nightclub in New Cross Road has a long history as a place of entertainment. It opened as the New Cross Super Kinema in 1925, with a cinema on the ground floor and the New Cross Palais de Danse above, as well as a cafe. The name was shortened to New Cross Kinema from 1927, the plain Kinema in 1948, and finally Gaumont in 1950. It closed in August 1960, and remained derelict for some time. Part of the building was demolished before the old dancehall became The Harp Club and then The Venue in the late 1980s. The Venue nightclub has since renamed itself 'One For The Road' and following the Covid-19 outbreak functions less as a nightclub and more as a bar.

Also, the Duke of Albany public house (converted to flats in 2008) was the facade for The Winchester pub in the film Shaun of the Dead .

Transport

Rail

New Cross Gate Railway Station New Cross Gate Railway Station.jpg
New Cross Gate Railway Station

The area is served by two railway stations, New Cross and New Cross Gate.

Both stations are served by London Overground. From New Cross Gate passengers can travel to Crystal Palace and West Croydon to the south and Highbury & Islington to the north. New Cross acts as the terminus for the service from Dalston Junction. Trains sometimes continue to Highbury & Islington but this is more common during engineering works. Passengers can easily make a brief interchange at Dalston Junction for trains to Highbury and Islington

New Cross also has mainline suburban services operated by Southeastern. Trains generally run north to Cannon Street or Charing Cross to the north and south-east to Lewisham, Bexleyheath, Hayes and Dartford in Kent.

New Cross Gate has mainline suburban services operated by Southern. Trains here generally run north to London Bridge and south to London Victoria, East Croydon, Gatwick Airport Surrey and Sussex.

Roads

Three major roads meet in New Cross: the A202 (Queen's Road) which runs from New Cross to Victoria, the A2 (New Cross Road) which runs from London to Canterbury and Dover, and the A20 (Lewisham Way) which runs from New Cross to Folkestone and Dover.

Notable residents

Music connections

Places nearby

In song

Related Research Articles

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References

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  4. Quine, Dan (2013). The George England locomotives of the Ffestiniog Railway. London: Flexiscale.
  5. "Greenwich Guide - Greenwich Day by Day - July". greenwich-guide.org.uk.
  6. "New Cross ward :: London Borough of Lewisham :: Openly Local". openlylocal.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2013.
  7. "Ward Profiles and Atlas – London Datastore".
  8. "Lewisham Council - Sports facilities". lewisham.gov.uk.
  9. Historic England. "New Cross Fire Station (1406834)". National Heritage List for England . Retrieved 23 December 2013.
  10. Newman, Aubrey (1976). The United Synagogue, 1870–1970. Routledge & K. Paul. p. 74. ISBN   978-0-7100-8456-9.
  11. Gutwein, Daniel (1992). The divided elite: economics, politics, and Anglo-Jewry, 1882–1917. Brill. p. 210. ISBN   978-90-04-09447-5.
  12. 1 2 Renton, Peter (2000). The lost synagogues of London. Tymsder Publishing. p. 108. ISBN   978-0-9531104-2-1.
  13. "Lord Jakobovits". The Guardian . London. 1 November 1999. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  14. "Immanuel Jakobovits". The Blade. Toledo, Ohio. 3 November 1999. Retrieved 4 January 2010.
  15. "Sir Barnes Wallis - Image". sirbarneswallis.com.

Further reading