New Flemish Alliance

Last updated

New Flemish Alliance
Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie
Leader Bart De Wever
Chairpersons Valerie Van Peel
Steven Vandeput
Founder Geert Bourgeois
Founded13 October 2001;21 years ago (2001-10-13)
Split from People's Union
HeadquartersKoningsstraat 47, bus 6
BE-1000 Brussels
Youth wing Jong N-VA
Membership (2018)Increase2.svg 45,000 [1]
Political position Centre-right [11] to right-wing [12]
Big tent [13]
European affiliation European Free Alliance
European Parliament group European Conservatives and Reformists
Colours  Gold
SloganDe verandering werkt. [14]
Change works.
Voor Vlaanderen. Voor Vooruitgang. [15] (2019)
For Flanders. For Progress.
Chamber of Representatives
25 / 87
(Flemish seats)
9 / 35
(Flemish seats)
Flemish Parliament
35 / 124
Brussels Parliament
3 / 17
(Flemish seats)
European Parliament
Flemish Provincial Councils
46 / 175
Party flag
FileLogo N-VA (Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie).png

The New Flemish Alliance (Dutch : Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie, N-VA) [16] is a Flemish nationalist [2] and conservative [17] [18] [19] [20] political party in Belgium. The party was founded in 2001 by the right-leaning fraction of the centrist-nationalist People's Union (VU). [21]


The N-VA is a regionalist [22] and separatist [23] [24] [25] [26] movement that self-identifies with the promotion of civic nationalism. [27] It is considered part of the Flemish Movement; the party strives for the peaceful [28] and gradual secession of Flanders from Belgium. [29] In recent years it has become the largest party of Flanders as well as of Belgium as a whole, and it participated in the 2014–18 Belgian Government until 9 December 2018. [30]

The N-VA was established as a centre-right party with the main objective of working towards furthering Flemish autonomy and redefining Belgium as a confederal country through gradually obtaining more powers for both Belgian communities separately with the belief that this will pave the way for eventual Flemish independence. [31] During its early years, the N-VA mostly followed the platform of the former People's Union by characterising itself as a big tent party combining policies from the left and right with Flemish nationalism as its central theme. Furthermore, it emphasized a pragmatic and non-revolutionary image (as opposed to the far-right character of the Vlaams Belang) in order to legitimise increased Flemish autonomy. The party also espoused non-interventionalist and pro-individual freedom messages in its original platform. [32]

In subsequent years, the N-VA moved to the right and has adopted a distinctly conservative identity under the leadership of Bart De Wever, who succeeded the founding leader Geert Bourgeois. The party is also known for its insistence on the exclusive use of Dutch, Flanders' sole official language, in dealings with government agencies, and for the promotion of the use of Dutch in Flanders. [27] The N-VA advocates free-market economics and immediate tax reductions to stimulate the economy. It also supports stricter law and order and controlled immigration policies. [33] [7] The party previously advocated deepening ties with the European Union, [34] but have since shifted to a more "Eurorealist" or "Eurocritical" stance. [10]

Since the 2014 European elections, the New Flemish Alliance has sat with the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) parliamentary group in the European Parliament.


Fall of the People's Union

The N-VA stems from the right-leaning faction of the People's Union (Dutch : Volksunie, VU), a Belgian political party and broad electoral alliance of Flemish nationalists from both sides of the political spectrum. Towards the end of the 20th century, with a steadily declining electorate and the majority of the party's federalist agenda implemented, friction between several wings of the People's Union emerged. In the beginning of the 1990s, Bert Anciaux became party president and led the party in an ever more progressive direction, combining the social-liberal and social democratic ideas of his iD21-movement with the regionalist course of the People's Union. These experiments were opposed by the more traditional right-wing party base. Many of the VU's more ardent national-conservative members defected to the Vlaams Blok after becoming disgruntled with direction of the party, prompting a further decline in support. Around this time, VU member Geert Bourgeois, de facto leader of the VU's traditionalist and centre-right nationalist wing, put together the so-called "Oranjehofgroep" (which would go on to become the bedrock of the N-VA) which included fellow VU members Frieda Brepoels, Eric Defoort, Ben Weyts and Bart De Wever. The Oranjehofgroep opposed the direction in which the party was being taken by Anciaux and wanted the VU to pursue a more conservative, Flemish nationalist and separatist direction, while the wing helmed by Anciaux was looking to merge the Volksunie with its progressive programme with another political party. [35]

Tension rose towards the end of the decade, as Geert Bourgeois was elected chairman by party members, in preference to the incumbent and progressive Patrik Vankrunkelsven who belonged to the iD21 wing. Factions subsequently clashed multiple times, over the future course of the party and possible support for current state reform negotiations. On 13 October 2001 the party openly split into three factions: the progressive wing around Bert Anciaux, which would later become the Spirit party; the conservative nationalist wing around Geert Bourgeois; and a centrist group opposing the imminent split. An internal referendum was held on the future course of the party. The right wing gained a substantial plurality of 47% and inherited the party infrastructure. [36] Since no faction got an absolute majority, however, the name Volksunie could no longer be used under Belgian constitutional law and the VU was dissolved. The centre-right orientated faction of the VU went on to found the N-VA while the remaining centre-left faction reorganized itself as Spirit and the centrist-liberal wing mostly folded into the Open VLD.

Foundation and the election threshold

In the autumn of 2001, the New Flemish Alliance (Dutch : Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie, N-VA) was officially registered. Seven members of parliament from the People's Union joined the new party. The new party council created a party manifesto and a statement of principles. The first party congress was held in May 2002, voting on a party program and permanent party structures. Geert Bourgeois was elected chairman. The N-VA initially continued some of the VU's former policies.

The party participated in elections for the first time in the 2003 federal elections, but struggled with the election threshold of 5%. This threshold was only reached in West Flanders, the constituency of Geert Bourgeois. With only one federal representative and no senator, the party lost government funding and faced irrelevance.

Cartel with CD&V

In February 2004, the N-VA entered into an electoral alliance, commonly known in Belgium as a cartel, with the Christian Democratic and Flemish (CD&V) party, the traditionally largest party, which was then in opposition. They joined forces in the regional elections in 2004 and won. Both parties joined the new Flemish government, led by CD&V leader Yves Leterme. Geert Bourgeois became a minister, and Bart De Wever became the new party leader in October 2004.

The cartel was briefly broken when the former right-wing liberal Jean-Marie Dedecker left the Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats (Open VLD) and entered the N-VA on behalf of the party executive. However, the party congress did not put Dedecker on the election list, instead preferring to continue the cartel with CD&V, who had strongly opposed placing him on a joint cartel list. Dedecker saw this as a vote of no confidence, and left the party after only 10 days, to form his own party, List Dedecker (LDD). Deputy leader Brepoels, who supported Dedecker, stepped down from the party board afterwards.

In the Belgian federal election of 2007 the CD&V/N-VA cartel won a major victory again, with a campaign focusing on good governance, state reform and the division of the electoral district Brussels-Halle-Vilvoorde. The N-VA won five seats in the Chamber of Representatives and two seats in the Senate. Yves Leterme initiated coalition talks, which repeatedly stalled (see 2007–2008 Belgian government formation). On 20 March 2008, a new federal government was finally assembled. N-VA did not join this government, but gave its support pending state reform.

The cartel ended definitively on 24 September 2008, due to lack of progression in state reform matters and a different strategy on future negotiations. N-VA left the Flemish Government and gave up its support of Leterme at the federal level.

Mainstream party

In the regional elections of June 2009, N-VA won an unexpected 13% of the votes, making them the winner of the elections, along with their old cartel partner CD&V. N-VA subsequently joined the government, led by Kris Peeters (CD&V). Bart De Wever chose to remain party leader and appointed Geert Bourgeois and Philippe Muyters as ministers in the Flemish Government and Jan Peumans as speaker of the Flemish Parliament.

In December 2018, a political crisis emerged over whether to sign the Global Compact for Migration; N-VA was against this, whereas the other three parties in the federal government supported it. On 4 December 2018, the Prime Minister of Belgium, Charles Michel, announced that the issue would be taken to parliament for a vote. [37] On 5 December, parliament voted 106 to 36 in favor of backing the agreement. [38] Michel stated that he would endorse the pact on behalf of parliament, not on behalf of the divided government. [39] Consequently, N-VA quit the federal government; the other three parties continue as a minority government (Michel II).

During the 2019 federal elections the party again polled in first place in the Flemish region but saw a decline in vote share for the first time, falling to 25.6% of the Flemish vote.

Foundation and ideology

The New Flemish Alliance is a relatively young political party, founded in the autumn of 2001. Being one of the successors of the Volksunie (1954–2001), it is, however, based on an established political tradition. The N-VA works towards the same goal as its predecessor: to redefine Flemish nationalism in a contemporary setting. Party leader De Wever calls himself a conservative and a nationalist. [40] The N-VA has previously argued for a Flemish Republic as a member state of a democratic European confederation. In its initial mission statement, the party stated that the challenges of the 21st century can best be answered by strong communities and by well-developed international co-operation, a position which reflected in their tagline: "Necessary in Flanders, useful in Europe." (Dutch : Nodig in Vlaanderen, nuttig in Europa.)

During the N-VA's early years a label for the political orientation for the party was difficult to find. Borrowing from its People's Union predecessor, the N-VA was initially considered a big tent or catch-all party and a socially liberal nationalist movement that combined left- and right-wing policies, and a focus on individual responsibility. The N-VA also summed up its initial platform with the slogan evolution, not revolution, arguing for a more pragmatic approach to Flemish nationalism by pursuing gradual independence for Flanders through reforms and increased autonomy for both the Flemish and Walloon regions of Belgium. This strategy assumed that through successive transfers of powers from the federal level to both regions on the one hand, and the European Union on the other, the Belgian state will gradually become obsolete. The party's early platform also supported pacifist politics and the non-aggression principle.

In its 2009 election programme, the N-VA described itself as economically liberal and ecologically green. The party supported public transport, open source software, renewable energy and taxing cars by the number of kilometres driven. It wanted more aid for developing countries and more compulsory measures to require that immigrants learn Dutch.

The party has generally been supportive of LGBT rights by backing same-sex marriage and relaxing laws for gay couples to adopt. It calls for measures to protect weaker members of society but also robust welfare reform to encourage people into work and reduce unemployment. [41] [7] The N-VA also supports abolishing the Belgian Senate. [42]

In recent years, the N-VA has shifted from a big tent to an avowedly conservative party by basing some of its socio-economic policies on that of the British Conservative Party. [43] Political scientist Glen Duerr has described the N-VA's current position as evolving to somewhere between that of Vlaams Belang and CD&V. [44]

Since 2014, the N-VA has been described as continuing to move ideologically further to the right under the influence of Bart De Wever and Theo Francken by adopting tougher stances on immigration, integration of minorities, requirements to obtain Belgian citizenship, law and order, national security and repatriation of foreign born criminals and illegal immigrants. [45] [9] In 2015, German weekly Die Zeit published a list of 39 successful radical political parties in Europe. The paper described N-VA as right-wing populist and separatist because it reduces complex political problems to territorial issues. [46] N-VA responded that "foreign media find the party difficult to place, so they just label us as extremists." In 2018, the party opposed the UN Global Compact for Migration and subsequently withdrew its participation in the Belgian government in protest of its passing. [37] Some commentators have attributed these shifts as a response to a revival in support for the Flemish nationalist Vlaams Belang, which also campaigned against the Migration Compact. [47] In contrast to other Belgian parties, the N-VA is more critical of the cordon sanitaire placed on Vlaams Belang and recently has been more open to negotiating with the party (although accepting former Vlaams Blok/Vlaams Belang members as defectors into the N-VA still remains controversial within some ranks of the party). [48] [49]

In terms of foreign policy, the N-VA's stance on the European Union began as strongly pro-European in character (which it regarded as an important means of gaining legitimacy for Flemish nationalism on an international stage) and in 2010 the party called for "an ever stronger and more united Europe." However, the party has since moved in a Eurocritical direction and takes a more critical stance on European integration by no longer endorsing a European confederation, calling for less EU interference at national decision making levels, more democratic reform of the EU and arguing that economically unstable nations should leave the Eurozone. [9] [10] [43] The party is critical of the EU's stance on illegal immigration (in particular its handling of the migrant crisis) and the role played by NGOs in picking up migrants. The N-VA argues that the EU should emulate the Australian model of border protection to reinforce its external border and work with nations outside of Europe to stem the flow of illegal migrants arriving by sea. [50]

At European level, the N-VA is part of the European Free Alliance (EFA), a European political party consisting of regionalist, pro-independence and minority interest political parties, of which the People's Union was a founder member. During the 7th European Parliament of 2009–2014, the N-VA was a member of The Greens–European Free Alliance (Greens/EFA) group in the European Parliament. However, following the 2014 European elections, the N-VA announced it was moving to a new group and chose the European Conservatives and Reformists (ECR) [51] over the Alliance of Liberals and Democrats for Europe. [43]

Party chairmen

1 Geert Bourgeois Geert Bourgeois.jpg 20012004
2 Bart De Wever BartDeWever.jpg 2004present

Faction leaders


In the federal elections in 2003 N-VA received 3.1% of the votes, but won only one seat in the federal parliament. In February 2004 they formed an electoral alliance (cartel) with the Christian Democratic and Flemish party (CD&V). The cartel won the elections for the Flemish Parliament. The N-VA received a total of 6 seats. However, on 21 September 2008 the N-VA lost its faith in the federal government and the following day minister Geert Bourgeois resigned. In a press conference he confirmed the end of the CD&V/N-VA cartel.

In the 2004 European elections, N-VA had 1 MEP elected as part of the cartel with CD&V.

In the 10 June 2007 federal elections, the cartel won 30 out of 150 seats in the Chamber of Representatives and 9 out of 40 seats in the Senate.

In the regional elections of 11 June 2009, N-VA (now on its own after the split of the cartel with CD&V) won an unexpected 13% of the votes, making them the winner of the elections along with their former cartel partner. In the 2009 European elections held on the same day, the N-VA had one MEP elected.

In the 2010 federal elections, N-VA became the largest party of Flanders and of Belgium altogether.

In the 2014 federal elections, N-VA increased their dominant position, taking votes and seats from the far-right Flemish Interest. In the simultaneous 2014 regional elections and 2014 European elections, the N-VA also became the largest party in the Flemish Parliament and in the Belgian delegation to the European Parliament.

In the 2019 federal elections the party remained in first place in the Chamber of Representatives, European Parliament and Flemish Parliament, but saw a decline of their vote share for the first time, obtaining 16.03% of the votes in the Federal Parliament. With a decline of 24.7 percent of their votes compared to 2014, the N-VA suffered the biggest election defeat of any Flemish government party in the last fifty years. [52] The decline in votes was in part due to a sudden upsurge in support for the Flemish Interest.

The six biggest Flemish political parties and their results for the House of Representatives (Kamer). From 1978 to 2014, in percentages of the total vote in Belgium. Kamer-1978-2014.png
The six biggest Flemish political parties and their results for the House of Representatives (Kamer). From 1978 to 2014, in percentages of the total vote in Belgium.

Electoral results

Chamber of Representatives

ElectionVotes %Seats+/-Government
2003 201,3993.1
1 / 150
2007 [lower-alpha 1] 1,234,95018.5
5 / 150
Increase2.svg 4Opposition
2010 1,135,61717.4
27 / 150
Increase2.svg 22Opposition
2014 1,366,07320.3
33 / 150
Increase2.svg 6Coalition (2014-2018)
Opposition (2018-2019)
2019 1,086,78716.0
25 / 150
Decrease2.svg 8Opposition
  1. In coalition with CD&V;30 seats won in total.


ElectionVotes %Seats+/-
2003 200,2733.1
0 / 71
2007 [lower-alpha 1] 1,287,38919.4
2 / 71
Increase2.svg 2
2010 1,268,78019.6
14 / 71
Increase2.svg 12
12 / 60
Decrease2.svg 2
9 / 60
Decrease2.svg 3
  1. In coalition with CD&V; 14 seats won in total.


Brussels Parliament

ElectionVotes %Seats+/-Government
2004 [lower-alpha 1] 10,48216.8 (#4)
0 / 89
2009 2,5865.0 (#6)
1 / 89
Increase2.svg 1Opposition
2014 9,08517.0 (#4)
3 / 89
Increase2.svg 2Opposition
2019 9.17718.0 (#4)
3 / 89
Steady2.svg 0Opposition
  1. In coalition with CD&V; 3 seats won in total.

Flemish Parliament

ElectionVotes %Seats+/-Government
2004 [lower-alpha 1] 1,060,58026.1 (#1)
6 / 124
2009 537,04013.1 (#5)
16 / 124
Increase2.svg 10Coalition
2014 1,339,94631.9 (#1)
43 / 124
Increase2.svg 27Coalition
2019 1,052,25224.8 (#1)
35 / 124
Decrease2.svg 8Coalition
  1. In coalition with CD&V; 35 seats won in total.

European Parliament

ElectionVotes %Seats+/-
2004 [lower-alpha 1] 1,131,11928.2 (#1)17.4
1 / 24
2009 402,5459.9 (#5)6.1
1 / 22
Steady2.svg 0
2014 1,123,36326.7 (#1)16.8
4 / 21
Increase2.svg 3
2019 1,123,35522.4 (#1)14.2
3 / 21
Decrease2.svg 1
  1. In coalition with CD&V; 4 seats won in total.


European politics

N-VA holds three seats in the ninth European Parliament (2019–2024) for the Dutch-speaking electoral college.

European Parliament
NameIn office Parliamentary group
Geert Bourgeois 2019–present European Conservatives and Reformists
Assita Kanko 2019–present
Johan Van Overtveldt 2019–present

Federal politics

Chamber of Representatives (2019–2024)
Antwerp Wim Van der Donckt Replaces Jan Jambon, who became Flemish Minister-President
Valerie Van Peel
Peter De Roover floor leader
Michael Freilich
Sophie De Wit
Koen Metsu
Yoleen Van Camp
Bert Wollants
East Flanders Anneleen Van Bossuyt
Peter Buysrogge
Tomas Roggeman
Christoph D'Haese
Kathleen Depoorter
West Flanders Sander Loones
Yngvild Ingels
Björn Anseeuw
Flemish Brabant Theo Francken
Darya Safai
Sigrid Goethals Replaces Jan Spooren, who became Governor of Flemish Brabant
Kristien Van Vaerenbergh
Katrien Houtmeyers
Limburg (Belgium) Joy Donné replaces Zuhal Demir, who became Minister in the Flemish government)
Frieda Gijbels
Wouter Raskin
Senate (2019–2024)
Community senator Andries Gryffroy
Community senator Freya Perdaens
Community senator Maaike De Vreese
Community senator Karolien Grosemans
Community senator Nadia Sminate
Community senator Karl Vanlouwe
Community senator Allessia Claes
Community senator Philippe Muyters
Co-opted senator Mark Demesmaeker

Regional politics

Flemish Government

Flemish Government Jambon (incumbent)
Jan Jambon Minister-President of the Flemish Government and Flemish Minister for Culture, Foreign Policy and Development Cooperation
Ben Weyts Vice minister-president of the Flemish Government and Flemish Minister for Education, Animal Welfare, Brussels Periphery and Sport
Zuhal Demir Flemish Minister for Justice, Planning, Environment, Energy, and Tourism
Matthias Diependaele Flemish Minister for Finance, Budget, Housing and Immovable Heritage
Former Flemish Ministers

Flemish Parliament

Flemish Parliament (2019–2024)
Antwerp Bart De Wever
Liesbeth Homans Speaker of Parliament
Annick De Ridder
Kris Van Dijck
Philippe Muyters
Sofie Joosen
Kathleen Krekels
Paul Van Miert
Freya Perdaens
Manuela Van Werde
Maarten De Veuster
Tine van der Vloet
East Flanders Joris Nachtergaele Replaces Matthias Diependaele, who became Minister
Sarah Smeyers
Koen Daniëls
Elke Sleurs
Marius Meremans
Andries Gryffroy
Flemish Brabant Arnout Coel Replaces Ben Weyts, who became Minister
Nadia Sminate
Lorin Parys
Piet De Bruyn
Inez De Coninck
Allessia Claes
West Flanders Bert Maertens
Maaike De Vreese
Axel Ronse
Cathy Coudyser
Wilfried Vandaele Floor Leader
Limburg (Belgium) Steven Vandeput
Katja Verheyen Replaces Jan Peumans
Karolien Grosemans
Rita Moors Replaces Jos Lantmeeters who resigned to become Governor of Limburg
Brussels-Capital Region Karl Vanlouwe
Annabel Tavernier

Parliament of the Brussels-Capital Region

Brussels Regional Parliament (2019–2024)
Cieltje Van Achter
Matthias Vanden Borre
Gilles Verstraeten

Related Research Articles

<span class="mw-page-title-main">People's Union (Belgium)</span> Political party in Belgium

People's Union was a Flemish nationalist political party in Belgium, formed in 1954 as a successor to the Christian Flemish People's Union.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flemish Movement</span> Regionalist movement in Flanders, Belgium

The Flemish Movement is an umbrella term which encompasses various political groups in the Belgian region of Flanders and, less commonly, in French Flanders. Ideologically, it encompasses groups which have sought to promote Flemish culture and Dutch language as well as those who have sought greater political autonomy for Flanders within Belgium. It also encompasses nationalists who have sought the secession of Flanders from Belgium, either through outright independence or unification with the Netherlands.

On 13 June 2004, regional elections were held in Belgium, to choose representatives in the regional councils of the Flemish Parliament, the Walloon Parliament, the Brussels Parliament and the German-speaking Community of Belgium. The elections were held on the same day as the European elections.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Politics of Flanders</span> Politics in a region of Belgium

Flanders is both a cultural community and an economic region within the Belgian state, and has significant autonomy.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Jean-Marie Dedecker</span> Belgian politician, judo coach

Jean-Marie Louis Dedecker is a Belgian politician.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Vlaams Belang</span> Flemish political party

Vlaams Belang is a Flemish nationalist, anti immigration, right-wing populist political party in the Flemish Region and Brussels Capital Region of Belgium.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Political parties in Flanders</span>

Flemish political parties operate in the whole Flemish Community, which covers the unilingual Flemish Region and the bilingual Brussels-Capital Region. In the latter, they compete with French-speaking parties that all also operate in Wallonia. There are very few parties that operate on a national level in Belgium. Flanders generally tends to vote for right-wing, conservative parties, whereas in French-speaking Belgium the socialist party is usually the most successful one.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Flemish Government</span>

The Flemish Government is the executive branch of the Flemish Community and the Flemish Region of Belgium. It consists of a government cabinet, headed by the Minister-President and accountable to the Flemish Parliament, and the public administration divided into 13 policy areas, each with an executive department and multiple agencies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2006 Belgian local elections</span>

The Belgian provincial, municipal and district elections of 2006 took place on Sunday 8 October 2006. The electors have elected the municipal councillors of 589 cities and towns as well as the ten provincial councils. The voters in the town of Antwerp have also been able to vote for the city's district councils. In seven Flemish municipalities with a special language statute and in the Walloon municipality of Comines-Warneton the aldermen and the members of the OCMW/CPAS council have also been directly elected.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Geert Bourgeois</span> Belgian politician for the N-VA

Geert Albert Bourgeois is a Belgian politician of the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA), which he founded in 2001, who is currently serving as a Member of the European Parliament since 2019. He previously served as the Minister-President of Flanders from 2014 to 2019. Prior to this, he was a member of the federal Chamber of Representatives for the People's Union from 1995 to 2001, and then for the N-VA from 2001 to 2004. He has been involved in local and regional politics in Flanders since 1976.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2007 Belgian federal election</span>

Federal elections were held in Belgium on 10 June 2007. Voters went to the polls in order to elect new members for the Chamber of Representatives and Senate.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Bart De Wever</span> Belgian politician

Bart Albert Liliane De Wever is a Belgian politician. Since 2004 De Wever has been the leader of the New Flemish Alliance (N-VA), a political party advocating for the independence of Flanders. He is also a member of the Chamber of Representatives. De Wever played a prominent role in the 2007 Belgian government formation and presided over his party's victory in the 2010 federal elections when N-VA became the largest party in both Flanders and in Belgium as a whole.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2010 Belgian federal election</span>

Federal elections were held in Belgium on 13 June 2010, during the midst of the 2007-11 Belgian political crisis. After the fall of the previous Leterme II Government over the withdrawal of Open Flemish Liberals and Democrats from the government the King dissolved the legislature and called new elections. The New Flemish Alliance, led by Bart De Wever, emerged as the plurality party with 27 seats, just one more than the francophone Socialist Party, led by Elio Di Rupo, which was the largest party in the Wallonia region and Brussels. It took a world record 541 days until a government was formed, resulting in a government led by Di Rupo.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2012 Belgian local elections</span>

The Belgian provincial, municipal and district elections of 2012 took place on 14 October. As with the previous 2006 elections, these are no longer organised by the Belgian federal state but instead by the respective regions:

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2014 Belgian federal election</span>

Federal elections were held in Belgium on 25 May 2014. All 150 members of the Chamber of Representatives were elected, whereas the Senate was no longer directly elected following the 2011–2012 state reform. These were the first elections held under King Philippe's reign.

Regional elections were held in Belgium on 25 May 2014 to choose representatives for the Flemish Parliament, Walloon Parliament, Brussels Parliament and the Parliament of the German-speaking Community. These elections were held on the same day as the 2014 European elections as well as the 2014 Belgian federal election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2019 Belgian federal election</span>

Federal elections were held in Belgium on 26 May 2019, alongside the country's European and regional elections. All 150 members of the Chamber of Representatives were elected from eleven multi-member constituencies.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">2019 Belgian regional elections</span>

The 2019 Belgian regional elections took place on Sunday 26 May, the same day as the 2019 European Parliament election as well as the Belgian federal election.

<span class="mw-page-title-main">Homans Government</span>

The Homans Government (Regering-Homans) was the interim Flemish Government formed and sworn in on 2 July 2019, following the departure of Flemish Minister-President Geert Bourgeois who took up his seat in the European Parliament following the 2019 European Parliament election in Belgium. It was replaced by the Jambon Government on 2 October 2019.


  1. "Open VLD heeft de meeste leden en steekt CD&V voorbij". 30 October 2014.
  2. 1 2 Sara Wallace Goodman; Marc Morjé Howard (2013). "Evaluating and explaining the restrictive backlash in citizenship policy in Europe". In Sarat, Austin (ed.). Special Issue: Immigration, Citizenship, and the Constitution of Legality. Emerald Group Publishing. p. 132. ISBN   978-1-78190-431-2.
  3. Dandoy, Régis (2013). "Belgium". In Dandoy, Régis; Schakel, Arjan (eds.). Regional and National Elections in Western Europe: Territoriality of the Vote in Thirteen Countries. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 54. ISBN   978-1-137-02544-9.
  4. 1 2 Nordsieck, Wolfram (2019). "Flanders/Belgium". Parties and Elections in Europe. Retrieved 30 May 2019.
  5. 1 2 Terry, Chris (6 February 2014). "New Flemish Alliance". The Democratic Society.
  6. "Belgium's Mr. Right". 3 December 2015.
  7. 1 2 3 "The N-VA's ideology and purpose". N-VA. 24 April 2015. Retrieved 19 May 2020.
  8. Brack, Nathalie; Startin, Nicholas (June 2015). "Introduction: Euroscepticism, from the margins to the mainstream". International Political Science Review . 36 (3): 239–249. doi: 10.1177/0192512115577231 .
  9. 1 2 3 "Belgians' pride in the EU quells Euroscepticism". euobserver. Retrieved 1 January 2019.
  10. 1 2 3 Leruth, Benjamin (23 June 2014). "The New Flemish Alliance's decision to join the ECR group says more about Belgian politics than it does about their attitude toward the EU". EUROPP. London School of Economics.
  11. Moufahim, Mona; Humphreys, Michael (2015). "Marketing an extremist ideology: the Vlaams Belang's nationalist discourse". In Pullen, Alison; Rhodes, Carl (eds.). The Routledge Companion to Ethics, Politics and Organisations. Routledge. p. 90. ISBN   978-1-136-74624-6.
  12. "Inside the far right's Flemish victory". 27 May 2019. Retrieved 14 June 2020.
  13. "The radicalisation of Flemish nationalism" . Retrieved 26 June 2020.
  14. "'De verandering werkt.' En dat zal N-VA bewijzen ook". Het Laatste Nieuws. 28 November 2016.
  15. De Zaeger, Piet (11 February 2019). "Voor Vlaanderen. Voor Vooruitgang". N-VA.
  16. Pronunciation: Loudspeaker.svg Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie
  17. Buelens, Jo; Deschouwer, Kris (2007). "Torn Between Two Levels: Political Parties and Incongruent Coalitions in Belgium". In Deschouwer, Kris; M. Theo Jans (eds.). Politics Beyond the State: Actors and Policies in Complex Institutional Settings. Asp / Vubpress / Upa. p. 75. ISBN   978-90-5487-436-2.
  18. Slomp, Hans (2011). Europe, a Political Profile: An American Companion to European Politics. ABC-CLIO. p. 465. ISBN   978-0-313-39181-1.
  19. Sorens, Jason (2013). "The Partisan Logic of Decentralisation in Europe". In Erk, Jan; Anderson, Lawrence M. (eds.). PARADOX FEDERALISM. Routledge. p. 73. ISBN   978-1-317-98772-7.
  20. Bale, Tim (2021). Riding the populist wave: Europe's mainstream right in crisis. Cristóbal Rovira Kaltwasser. Cambridge, United Kingdom: Cambridge University Press. p. 34. ISBN   978-1-009-00686-6. OCLC   1256593260.
  21. ", english information page". Archived from the original on 22 May 2010. Retrieved 22 May 2010.
  22. Starke, Peter; Kaasch, Alexandra; Franca Van Hooren (7 May 2013). The Welfare State as Crisis Manager: Explaining the Diversity of Policy Responses to Economic Crisis. Palgrave Macmillan. p. 192. ISBN   978-1-137-31484-0.
  23. Kataria, Anuradha (2011). Democracy on Trial, All Rise!. Algora Publishing. p. 119. ISBN   978-0-87586-811-0.
  24. Johnston, Larry (13 December 2011). Politics: An Introduction to the Modern Democratic State . University of Toronto Press. p.  256. ISBN   978-1-4426-0533-6.
  25. European Politics . Oxford University Press. 2007. p.  92. ISBN   978-0-19-928428-3.
  26. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. (1 March 2011). Britannica Book of the Year 2011. Encyclopædia Britannica, Inc. p. 29. ISBN   978-1-61535-500-6.
  27. 1 2 Manifesto of the New Flemish Alliance point 13: "Inclusion for newcomers" (in Dutch).
  28. Manifesto of the New Flemish Alliance point 6: "Pacifisme" (in Dutch).
  29. Manifesto of the New Flemish Alliance point 3: "Flanders member state of the European Union" (in Dutch).
  30. "Belgium's ruling coalition collapses over U.N. pact on migration". The Washington Post . 9 December 2018.
  31. "Beginselverklaring N-VA" (PDF). Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  32. Internationale persconferentie, Retrieved on 2010-06-14.
  33. Mouton, Alain (8 May 2014). "Knack Magazine election manifesto review 2014". Retrieved 16 January 2017.
  34. "FAQ - Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie (N-VA)". 26 April 2014. Archived from the original on 26 April 2014.
  35. "Kamerleden Oranjehofgroep keuren Lambermont niet goed" (in Dutch). De Tijd. 8 May 2001. Retrieved 13 March 2021.
  36. New Parties in Old Party Systems. Oxford University Press. September 2013. p. 26. ISBN   978-0-19-964606-7.
  37. 1 2 Casert, Raf (4 December 2018). "Dispute over UN migration pact fractures Belgian government". The Washington Post. Archived from the original on 4 December 2018.
  38. "Belgian PM wins backing for UN migration pact". France 24. 5 December 2018. Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  39. "Belgian PM Charles Michel wins backing for UN migration pact". Retrieved 6 December 2018.
  40. Trouw: "Laat Belgie maar rustig verdampen", last seen 8 April 2010.
  41. "High profile forum on LGBT rights in Brussels". N-VA. 30 May 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2020.
  42. José M. Magone (19 December 2016). The Statecraft of Consensus Democracies in a Turbulent World: A Comparative Study of Austria, Belgium, Luxembourg, the Netherlands and Switzerland. Taylor & Francis. pp. 213–. ISBN   978-1-315-40784-5.
  43. 1 2 3 John FitzGibbon; Benjamin Leruth; Nick Startin (19 August 2016). Euroscepticism as a Transnational and Pan-European Phenomenon: The Emergence of a New Sphere of Opposition. Taylor & Francis. pp. 56–. ISBN   978-1-317-42251-8.
  44. Glen M. E. Duerr (2015). Secessionism and the European Union: The Future of Flanders, Scotland, and Catalonia. Lexington Books. ISBN   978-0-7391-9084-5.
  45. "Belgian right wing party fends off racism accusations". Politico. Retrieved 1 January 2018.
  46. "ZEIT ONLINE | Lesen Sie mit Werbung oder imPUR-Abo. Sie haben die Wahl". Retrieved 15 July 2020.
  47. "Global Compact for Migration – A Missed Opportunity for". 19 December 2018. Retrieved 2 January 2019.
  48. "Belgium's 'Black Sunday' sees far-right surge, threatens new government crisis". Euractive. 27 May 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  49. "Belgium's far-right not ruled out of potential coalition". The Brussels Times. 27 May 2019. Retrieved 18 October 2019.
  50. "Francken wil naar Australisch asielmodel: 0 asielverzoeken in Brussel". 14 April 2018.
  51. Van Overtveldt, Johan (18 June 2014). "N-VA kiest voor ECR-fractie in Europees Parlement" [N-VA chooses ECR Group in the European Parliament]. (in Dutch). Retrieved 18 June 2014.
  52. Pauli, Walter (12 June 2019). "Hoe de N-VA wegkomt met de grootste verkiezingsnederlaag in vijftig jaar". Knack.

Commons-logo.svg Media related to Nieuw-Vlaamse Alliantie at Wikimedia Commons