Land of Legend ⏤ Past and Future
|Coordinates: 40°3′47″N82°25′0″W / 40.06306°N 82.41667°W Coordinates: 40°3′47″N82°25′0″W / 40.06306°N 82.41667°W|
|• Mayor||Jeff Hall|
|• Total||21.37 sq mi (55.34 km2)|
|• Land||20.89 sq mi (54.09 km2)|
|• Water||0.48 sq mi (1.25 km2)|
|Elevation||833 ft (254 m)|
|• Density||2,390.90/sq mi (923.12/km2)|
|Time zone||UTC−5 (Eastern (EST))|
|• Summer (DST)||UTC−4 (EDT)|
43055, 43056, 43058, 43093
|Area code(s)||740, 220|
|FIPS code||39-54040 |
|GNIS feature ID||1065144 |
Newark ( /ˈnʊərk/ Noork) is a city serving as the county seat of Licking County, Ohio, United States,  40 miles (64 km) east of Columbus, at the junction of the forks of the Licking River. The population was 49,934 at the 2020 census, making it the 18th largest city in Ohio. It is part of the Columbus metropolitan area.
It is the site of much of the Newark Earthworks, a major ancient complex built by the Hopewell culture. The Great Circle portion and additional burial mounds are located in the neighboring city of Heath, Ohio. This complex has been designated as a National Historic Landmark and is operated as a state park by the Ohio History Connection.
Cultures of indigenous peoples lived along the river valleys for thousands of years before European contact. From more than two thousand years ago, 100 AD to 500 AD, people of the Hopewell culture transformed the area of Newark and Heath. They built many earthen mounds and enclosures, creating the single largest earthwork complex in the Ohio River Valley. The Newark Earthworks, designated a National Historic Landmark, have been preserved to document and interpret the area's significant ancient history. The earthworks cover several square miles and about 206 acres. This is operated as a state park by the Ohio History Connection. 
The Observatory Mound, Observatory Circle, and the interconnected Octagon earthworks span nearly 3,000 feet (910 m) in length. The Octagon alone is large enough to contain four Roman Coliseums. The Great Pyramid of Giza in Egypt would fit precisely within Observatory Circle. The even larger 1,180-foot (360 m)-diameter Newark Great Circle, located in Heath, is the largest circular earthwork in the Americas. The 8 feet (2.4 m)-high walls surround a 5 feet (1.5 m)-deep moat. At the entrance, the walls and moat are of greater and more impressive dimensions. [ citation needed ]
Contemporary archaeogeodesy and archaeoastronomy researchers have demonstrated that the Hopewell and other prehistoric cultures had advanced scientific understandings which they used to create their earthworks for astronomical observations, markings and celebrations. Researchers analyzed the placements, alignments, dimensions, and site-to-site interrelationships of the Hopewell earthworks to understand what had been done. Today, the Ohio Historical Society preserves the Great Circle Earthworks in a public park near downtown Newark, called Mound Builders Park (or the Newark Earthworks) located at 99 Cooper Ave, Newark, Ohio. The area of the Octagon Earthworks had been leased to a country club, but new arrangements in 1997 provide for more public access to it. Later American Indian tribes inhabiting the area at the time of European contact were distant descendants of the Hopewell peoples. [ citation needed ]
After exploration by traders and trappers in earlier centuries, the first European-American settlers arrived in 1802, led by Gen. William C. Schenck. He named the new village after his New Jersey hometown.
Nineteenth-century investment in infrastructure resulted in growth in the town after it was linked to major transportation and trade networks. On July 4, 1825, Governors Clinton of New York and Morrow of Ohio dug the first shovelfuls of dirt for the Ohio and Erie Canal project, at the Licking Summit near Newark, Ohio. On April 11, 1855, Newark became a stop along the Pittsburgh, Cincinnati, Chicago and St. Louis Railroad that was built to connect Pittsburgh to Chicago and St. Louis. On April 16, 1857, the Central Ohio Railroad connected Newark west to Columbus, and later Newark maintained a station on the Baltimore and Ohio Railroad.
The Heisey Glass Company started in Newark in 1895. The factory operated there for 62 years, until the company's demise in 1957 due to changing tastes. The National Heisey Glass Museum, operated by the Heisey Collectors of America, Inc., is located on Sixth Street in Newark.
In 1909, The Arcade was opened. Modeled after innovative European retail buildings, it became one of Newark's first successful retail emporiums. Later versions of buildings that contained a variety of shops indoors became known as shopping malls. At 60,000 square feet (5,600 m2), the Arcade is one-third the size of an average modern Wal-Mart.
According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 21.37 square miles (55.35 km2), of which 20.88 square miles (54.08 km2) is land and 0.49 square miles (1.27 km2) is water.  Newark is located at 40°3′47″N82°25′0″W / 40.06306°N 82.41667°W (40.063014, −82.416779). 
|Sources:   |
 In terms of population, Newark, Ohio is the second-largest Newark in the United States, after Newark, New Jersey. Newark, Ohio is part of the Columbus, Ohio metropolitan area. The median income for a household in the city was $52,570, with 16.8% of the population below the poverty line. 
As of the census  of 2010, there were 47,573 people, 19,840 households, and 12,057 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,278.4 inhabitants per square mile (879.7/km2). There were 21,976 housing units at an average density of 1,052.5 per square mile (406.4/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 92.8% White, 3.3% African American, 0.3% Native American, 0.6% Asian, 0.3% from other races, and 2.6% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino of any race were 1.2% of the population.
There were 19,840 households, of which 30.8% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 40.7% were married couples living together, 14.8% had a female householder with no husband present, 5.3% had a male householder with no wife present, and 39.2% were non-families. 31.9% of all households were made up of individuals, and 12.3% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.35 and the average family size was 2.94.
The median age in the city was 37.3 years. 24% of residents were under the age of 18; 9.9% were between the ages of 18 and 24; 25.6% were from 25 to 44; 26% were from 45 to 64; and 14.5% were 65 years of age or older. The gender makeup of the city was 47.8% male and 52.2% female.
Newark is the site of several major manufacturers. Holophane, founded in 1898, is one of the world's oldest manufacturers of lighting-related products. The main factory of Owens Corning Fiberglass is also located in Newark. State Farm Insurance has Regional Headquarters here. The Park National Bank Corporation is headquartered in downtown Newark.
Several industrial parks have been developed and house such major companies as Kaiser Aluminum, Dow Chemical Company, General Electric, Covestro, Boeing, THK, Harry & David, Communicolor, Diebold, Anomatic, International Paper, and Tamarack Farms Dairy. Longaberger, a major basket-maker, had their new corporate headquarters in Newark designed as a gigantic "medium market basket," their most popular model.
The main shopping center in the area is the Indian Mound Mall, located in nearby Heath. The mall is named for the internationally known, ancient complex called the Newark Earthworks, built 2,000 years ago by the Hopewell culture of central Ohio.  It is a National Historic Landmark and major elements of the earthworks are located less than a mile away from the shopping mall named for them.
Newark City School District serves the city of Newark. Newark High School consists of nearly 2,000 students and competes at the OHSAA D1 level. Newark High School has a storied tradition in Academics and Sports, as well as Performing Arts. Newark High School has won 4 OHSAA Basketball titles (36', 38', 43', 08') and 3 AP Football titles. The Pride of Newark Marching Band has made an unprecedented 42 consecutive years to the OMEA state finals. The Pride has earned a superior rating at State Marching Band finals 31 years, including 4 straight seasons (2015, ‘16, ‘17, ‘18). The Newark High School Sinfonia, under the direction of Susan Larson, tied for first runner-up at the National Orchestra Cup in New York City on April 5, 2009. The Sinfonia was featured in a front-page article of the April 14, 2009, edition of The New York Times, and received an invitation to the White House in the fall of 2009. Their Concert Choir recently sang in Italy and was sponsored by Disney. Under the direction of Kimberly & Michael Wigglesworth, the choir has qualified for OMEA Choir state Finals for the past 15 years. [ citation needed ]
A regional campus of Ohio State University is also located in the city. The Ohio State University at Newark, founded in 1957, schools over 2,800 students and is the most diverse campus in the Ohio State system. Today, under the leadership of Dean and Director William MacDonald, the campus features eleven buildings, including a recreation center and two residence halls. It offers Associate of Arts degrees, as well as Bachelor of Arts degrees in seven majors and master's degrees in education and social work. It also serves as a doorway to over 200 majors on the Ohio State University campus in Columbus. The Newark Campus shares its facilities with a two-year technical college, COTC (Central Ohio Technical College). Under the leadership of President Bonnie Coe, it serves some 3,000 other students in 45 certificate and associate degree programs.
Newark is also home to a number of private religious schools, including St. Francis de Sales School, Blessed Sacrament School and Newark Catholic High School. C-TEC (Career and Technology Education Centers of Licking County) offers high school and adult programs.
Newark has a public library, a branch of the Licking County Library System. 
Licking County provided demand-response public transportation under the name Licking County Transit.  GoBus' Columbus-Wooster route provides service to Newark.
|Climate data for Newark, Ohio (1991–2020 normals and extremes 1934–present)|
|Record high °F (°C)||76|
|Average high °F (°C)||36.4|
|Daily mean °F (°C)||27.3|
|Average low °F (°C)||18.2|
|Record low °F (°C)||−24|
|Average precipitation inches (mm)||3.21|
|Average snowfall inches (cm)||7.2|
|Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)||12.7||10.4||10.8||12.5||12.8||11.3||11.4||10.3||8.8||10.1||10.2||11.8||133.1|
|Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)||3.9||3.3||1.2||0.1||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.0||0.3||1.9||10.7|
|Source: NOAA  |
Lancaster is a city in Fairfield County, Ohio, in the south-central part of the state. As of the 2020 census, the city population was 40,552. The city is near the Hocking River, about 33 miles (53 km) southeast of Columbus and 38 miles (61 km) southwest of Zanesville. It is the county seat of Fairfield County.
Ross County is a county in the Appalachian region of the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2020 United States Census, the population was 77,093. Its county seat is Chillicothe, the first and third capital of Ohio. Established on August 20, 1798, the county is named for Federalist Senator James Ross of Pennsylvania. Ross County comprises the Chillicothe, OH Micropolitan Statistical Area, which is also included in the Columbus-Marion-Zanesville, OH Combined Statistical Area.
Muskingum County is a county located in the U.S. state of Ohio. As of the 2020 census, the population was 86,410. Its county seat is Zanesville. Nearly bisected by the Muskingum River, the county name is based on a Delaware American Indian word translated as "town by the river" or "elk's eye".
Licking County is a county located in the central portion of the U.S. state of Ohio. At the 2020 census, the population was 178,519. Its county seat is Newark. The county was formed on January 30, 1808, from portions of Fairfield County.
Beechwood Trails is a census-designated place (CDP) in Harrison Township, Licking County, Ohio, United States. The population was 3,020 at the 2010 census, up from 2,258 at the 2000 census.
Granville is a village in Licking County, Ohio, United States. The population was 5,646 at the 2010 census. The village is located in a rural area of rolling hills in central Ohio. It is 35 miles (56 km) east of Columbus, the state capital, and 7 miles (11 km) west of Newark, the county seat.
Granville South is a census-designated place (CDP) in Licking County, Ohio, United States. The population was 1,410 at the 2010 census, up from 1,194 at the 2000 census.
Harbor Hills is a census-designated place (CDP) in southern Licking County, Ohio, United States. The population was 1,509 at the 2010 census, up from 1,303 at the 2000 census.
Heath is a city in Licking County, Ohio, United States, and is located approximately 30 mi (48 km) east of Columbus. The population was 10,310 at the 2010 census. It is one of three cities in the county.
Pataskala is a city in Licking County, Ohio, United States, approximately 19 miles (31 km) east of Columbus. The population was 14,962 at the 2010 census. Pataskala was a small community until 1996, when what was then the village of Pataskala merged with Lima Township, vastly increasing its population and geographic area.
Circleville is a city in and the county seat of Pickaway County, Ohio, United States, set along the Scioto River, 25 miles (40 km) south of Columbus. The population was 13,927 at the 2020 census. The city is best-known today as the host of the Circleville Pumpkin Show, an annual festival held since 1903.
The Hopewell tradition, also called the Hopewell culture and Hopewellian exchange, describes a network of precontact Native American cultures that flourished in settlements along rivers in the northeastern and midwestern Eastern Woodlands from 100 BCE to 500 CE, in the Middle Woodland period. The Hopewell tradition was not a single culture or society but a widely dispersed set of populations connected by a common network of trade routes.
Fort Ancient is a Native American earthworks complex located in Washington Township, Warren County, Ohio, along the eastern shore of the Little Miami River about seven miles (11 km) southeast of Lebanon on State Route 350. The site is the largest prehistoric hilltop enclosure in the United States with three and one-half miles (18,000 ft) of walls in a 100-acre (0.40 km2) complex. Built by the Hopewell culture, who lived in the area from the 200 BC to AD 400, the site is situated on a wooded bluff 270 feet (82 m) above the Little Miami. It is the namesake of a culture known as Fort Ancient who lived near the complex long after it was constructed.
Hopewell Culture National Historical Park is a United States national historical park with earthworks and burial mounds from the Hopewell culture, indigenous peoples who flourished from about 200 BC to AD 500. The park is composed of six separate sites in Ross County, Ohio, including the former Mound City Group National Monument. The park includes archaeological resources of the Hopewell culture. It is administered by the United States Department of the Interior's National Park Service.
The Great Hopewell Road is thought to connect the Hopewell culture monumental earthwork centers located at Newark and Chillicothe, a distance of 60 miles (97 km) through the heart of Ohio, United States. The Newark complex was built 2,000 to 1800 years ago.
Brownsville is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in northeastern Bowling Green Township, Licking County, Ohio, United States. As of the 2010 census, it had a population of 220. It lies at the intersection of U.S. Route 40 with State Route 668.
The Newark Earthworks in Newark and Heath, Ohio, consist of three sections of preserved earthworks: the Great Circle Earthworks, the Octagon Earthworks, and the Wright Earthworks. This complex, built by the Hopewell culture between 100 BCE and 400 CE, contains the largest earthen enclosures in the world, and was about 3,000 acres in total extent. Less than 10 percent of the total site has been preserved since European-American settlement; this area contains a total of 206 acres (83 ha). Newark's Octagon and Great Circle Earthworks are managed by the Ohio History Connection. A designated National Historic Landmark, in 2006 the Newark Earthworks was also designated as the "official prehistoric monument of the State of Ohio."
Etna is an unincorporated community and census-designated place (CDP) in Licking County, Ohio, United States. As of the 2010 census it had a population of 1,215. It lies at an elevation of 1,069 feet (326 m) at the intersection of U.S. Route 40 and State Route 310. It was listed as a census-designated place in 2010.
Bradley Thomas Lepper is an American archaeologist best known for his work on ancient earthworks and ice age peoples in Ohio. Lepper is the Curator of Archaeology and Manager of Archaeology and Natural History at the Ohio History Connection.
The Shriver Circle Earthworks are an Ohio Hopewell culture archaeological site located in Chillicothe in Ross County, Ohio. At 1,200 feet (370 m) in diameter the site is one of the largest Hopewell circular enclosures in the state of Ohio.