Newburyport, Massachusetts

Last updated

Newburyport, Massachusetts
Essex County Massachusetts incorporated and unincorporated areas Newburyport highlighted.svg
Location in Essex County and the state of Massachusetts
Usa edcp location map.svg
Red pog.svg
Newburyport, Massachusetts
Location in the United States
Coordinates: 42°48′45″N70°52′40″W / 42.81250°N 70.87778°W / 42.81250; -70.87778 Coordinates: 42°48′45″N70°52′40″W / 42.81250°N 70.87778°W / 42.81250; -70.87778
CountryUnited States
State Massachusetts
County Essex
Incorporated as a town1764
Incorporated as a city1851
  Type Mayor-council city
  MayorSean R. Reardon
  Total10.71 sq mi (27.74 km2)
  Land8.35 sq mi (21.63 km2)
  Water2.36 sq mi (6.11 km2)
37 ft (11 m)
  Density2,190.30/sq mi (845.66/km2)
Time zone UTC−5 (Eastern)
  Summer (DST) UTC−4 (Eastern)
ZIP Code
Area code(s) 351/978
FIPS code 25-45245
GNIS feature ID0614293

Newburyport is a coastal city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, 35 miles (56 km) northeast of Boston. The population was 18,289 at the 2020 census. [2] A historic seaport with vibrant tourism industry, Newburyport includes part of Plum Island. The mooring, winter storage, and maintenance of recreational boats, motor and sail, still contribute a large part of the city's income. A Coast Guard station oversees boating activity, especially in the sometimes dangerous tidal currents of the Merrimack River.


At the edge of the Newbury Marshes, delineating Newburyport to the south, an industrial park provides a wide range of jobs. Newburyport is on a major north-south highway, Interstate 95. The outer circumferential highway of Boston, Interstate 495, passes nearby in Amesbury. The Newburyport Turnpike (U.S. Route 1) still traverses Newburyport on its way north. The Newburyport/Rockport MBTA commuter rail from Boston's North Station terminates in Newburyport. The earlier Boston and Maine Railroad leading farther north was discontinued, but a portion of it has been converted into a recreation trail.


The Custom House Maritime Museum Custom House Maritime Museum.jpg
The Custom House Maritime Museum
The Mary L. Cushing, the last merchant ship built on the Merrimack, docked at the Cushing family pier in Newburyport Mary L. Cushing.jpg
The Mary L. Cushing, the last merchant ship built on the Merrimack, docked at the Cushing family pier in Newburyport

On January 28, 1764, the General Court of Massachusetts passed "An act for erecting part of the town of Newbury into a new town by the name of Newburyport." [3] The act begins:

Whereas the town of Newbury is very large, and the inhabitants of that part of it who dwell by the water-side there, as it is commonly called, are mostly merchants, traders and artificers, and the inhabitants of the other parts of the town are chiefly husbandmen; by means whereof many difficulties and disputes have arisen in managing their public affairs – Be it enacted ... That that part of the said town of Newbury ... be and hereby are constituted and made a separate and distinct town ....

The act was approved by Governor Francis Bernard on February 4, 1764. The new town was the smallest in Massachusetts, covering an area of 647 acres (2.62 km2), and had a population of 2,800 living in 357 homes. There were three shipyards, no bridges, and several ferries, one of which at the foot of Greenleaf Lane, now State Street, [4] carried the Portsmouth Flying Stage Coach, running between Portsmouth, New Hampshire, and Boston. [5]

The town prospered and became a city in 1851. Situated near the mouth of the Merrimack River, it was once a fishing, shipbuilding and shipping center, with an industry in silverware manufacture. In 1792, a bridge was built two miles above the town where the river contained an island. [6] Merrimack Arms and Brown Manufacturing Company made Southerner Derringer pistols in their Newburyport factory from 1867 to 1873. [7] The sea captains of old Newburyport (as elsewhere in Massachusetts) had participated vigorously in the triangular trade, importing West Indian molasses and exporting rum made from it. The distilleries were located around Market Square near the waterfront. Caldwell's Old Newburyport rum was manufactured locally until 1961.

Newburyport once had a fishing fleet that operated from Georges Bank to the mouth of the Merrimack River. It was a center for privateering during the Revolutionary War and War of 1812. Beginning about 1832, it added numerous ships to the whaling fleet. Later, clipper ships were built there. Today, the city gives little hint of its former maritime importance. Notably missing are the docks, which are shown on earlier maps extending into the channel of the Merrimack River, and the shipyards, where the waterfront parking lot is currently located.

George Whitefield, the well-known and influential English preacher who helped inspire the First Great Awakening in America, arrived in Newburyport in September 1740. The revival that followed his labors, brought into existence Old South Church, where he was buried after his death in 1770.

The city's historical highlights include:

Historic events:

The Newburyport Five Cents Savings Bank on State Street was founded in 1854, and is one of the oldest banks in the United States still in operation. [12]

Historic houses and museums:

Literary interests:


Timeline of Newburyport, Massachusetts
  • 1635: Newbury incorporated. [16]
  • 1761: Belleville Congregational Church founded. [17] [18]
  • 1764: Newburyport incorporated (formerly part of Newbury).
  • 1772: Marine Society of Newburyport established. [19]
  • 1773
  • 1790: Population: 4,837. [23]
  • 1793: Impartial Herald newspaper begins publication. [21] [22]
  • 1794
    • Morning Star newspaper begins publication. [22]
    • Newburyport Woolen Manufacturing Co. established. [24]
  • 1795
    • Political Gazette newspaper begins publication. [21] [22]
    • Merrimack Bank incorporated. [24]
  • 1797: Newburyport Herald newspaper begins publication. [22]
  • 1799: Newburyport Marine Insurance Co. incorporated. [24]
  • 1801: American Intelligencer newspaper published. [22]
  • 1802: Merrimac Humane Society established. [25]
  • 1803
    • Merrimack Gazette and New England Repertory newspapers begin publication. [22]
    • Newburyport Female Charitable Society organized. [24] [25]
    • Merrimack Fire and Marine Insurance Co. incorporated. [24]
  • 1804: Political Calendar newspaper begins publication. [22]
  • 1805: Merrimack Magazine begins publication. [22]
  • 1807: Newburyport Gazette newspaper begins publication. [22]
  • 1808: Statesman newspaper begins publication. [22]
  • 1810
    • Newburyport Mechanick Association and Newburyport Athenaeum incorporated. [24]
    • Independent Whig newspaper begins publication. [22]
    • Merrimack Bible Society organized. [24]
  • 1812: Washington Benevolent Society organized. [24]
  • 1818: Howard Benevolent Society instituted "for the relief of the sick and destitute." [25]
  • 1825: Newburyport Hosiery Co. established. [24]
  • 1829: Newburyport Lyceum organized. [24]
  • 1835
  • 1836
    • Newburyport Linnean Society and Newburyport Steam Cotton Co. incorporated. [24]
    • Newburyport Silk Co. [24] and Newburyport Ladies' Bethel Society [25] established.
  • 1837: Bartlet Steam Mills incorporated. [24]
  • 1840: Pleasant Street Christian Church organized. [25]
  • 1841: Essex North District Medical Society organized. [25]
  • 1842: James Steam Mills incorporated. [24]
  • 1844: Essex Steam Mills incorporated. [24]
  • 1845: Globe Steam Mills and Ocean Steam Mills incorporated. [24]
  • 1850
    • Ladies' General Charitable Society instituted. [25]
    • Newburyport Gas Co. incorporated. [24]
  • 1851: June 18: Essex North Musical convention held. [24]
  • 1852: Merrimack Library Association organized. [24]
  • 1854
  • 1855: Newburyport Library Association organized. [24]
  • 1857: Mechanic Library Association incorporated. [24]
  • 1865: Washington Street Methodist Episcopal Church organized. [25]
  • 1869: Merrimack Marine Railway Co. incorporated. [24]
  • 1874: Newburyport Mutual Benefit Association organized. [25]
  • 1877: Antiquarian and Historical Society of Old Newbury established. [24] [27] [28]
  • 1878: Newburyport Athenaeum organized. [24]
  • 1884: Newburyport YMCA incorporated. [24]
  • 1886: Newburyport Society for the Relief of Aged Men incorporated. [24]
  • 1887: Newburyport Electric Light & Power Co. incorporated. [24]
  • 1888: Daily News established.
  • 1890
    • YWCA of Newburyport incorporated. [24]
    • City Improvement society organized. [24]
  • 1896: Newburyport Choral Union organized. [24]
  • 1904: South End Reading Room Association formed. [24]
  • 1906: Newburyport Homeoepathic Hospital opens. [24]
  • 1917: Annunciation Greek Orthodox Church of Newburyport founded.
  • 1968: Newburyport Maritime Society established. [26]
  • 1971: Market Square Historic District added to National Register of Historic Places.
  • 1971-1979: Downtown undergoes major renewal and historic preservation effort.
  • 1991: Actors Studio of Newburyport founded. [29] [30]
  • 1994: Sister city relationship established with Bura, Taita-Taveta District, Kenya. [31] [32]

Historic preservation

Despite its former prosperity, in the 1950s and 1960s Newburyport's center fell into disrepair because of several factors, most notably strip malls taking away from local business and increased use of the automobile. At this time, construction of major highways brought larger cities such as Lawrence and Lowell into shopping range. Consequently, by 1970 Newburyport's historic downtown section was scheduled to be razed prior to reconstruction with federal money. Ideas to rebuild the city's downtown were numerous, ranging from hotels and new stores to, ironically, a strip mall, with few buildings left for historical reasons. At the last moment, however, the city changed its mind and signed a federal grant that allowed it to keep most of its historic architecture. Renovation and restorations began during the early 1970s, and continued throughout most of the decade, initially along State Street, and culminating with creation of a pedestrian mall along Inn Street. Newburyport is often cited as an example by preservationists of how to maintain a city's architecture and heritage, while still having it remain functional and liveable.


Hunter in the Meadows of Old Newburyport, Massachusetts, c. 1873, Alfred Thompson Bricher. The scene appears to be in the vicinity of the Little River. Route 1 offered the major overlook easily accessible to artists. In the far right can be seen the ridge of the right bank of the Merrimack over which High Street runs. Cattle have been turned into the marsh for pasture, a practice still allowed on some marsh farms of the area. Hunter in the Meadows of Old Newburyport Massachusetts.jpeg
Hunter in the Meadows of Old Newburyport, Massachusetts, c.1873, Alfred Thompson Bricher. The scene appears to be in the vicinity of the Little River. Route 1 offered the major overlook easily accessible to artists. In the far right can be seen the ridge of the right bank of the Merrimack over which High Street runs. Cattle have been turned into the marsh for pasture, a practice still allowed on some marsh farms of the area.

Newburyport is located at 42°48′45″N70°52′39″W / 42.81250°N 70.87750°W / 42.81250; -70.87750 (42.812391, −70.877440). [33] According to the United States Census Bureau, the city has a total area of 10.6 square miles (27 km2), of which 8.4 square miles (22 km2) is land and 2.2 square miles (5.7 km2) (20.77%) is water.

The city is part of Massachusetts' North Shore; Newburyport was laid out on the elevated south bank of the Merrimack River between the river and Newbury marshes. The shipyards, now boatyards (and still vigorously active), extended along the bank at the edge of the river. They were connected by Merrimac Street, which ends upriver where the bank merges into bluffs covered with pine forest. Colonial residences extend up the bank from Merrimac Street to High Street running parallel to it near the top of the ridge. The homes of the seafaring entrepreneurs line High Street. Many feature widow's walks, structures on the roof where the residents could watch for the return of sailing vessels. Nearly every home maintains a splendid flower garden, most dating to colonial times. Various cross streets, such as State Street, Green Street and Market Street, connect Merrimac Street and High Street. The top of the ridge proved an ideal location for later institutions, such as Newburyport High School and nearby Anna Jaques Hospital. The ridge drops more sharply to the marsh on the other side. Along its margin a third parallel street developed, Low Street.

The river bank gradually descends to marshes at Joppa Flats beyond downtown Newburyport. The Plum Island Turnpike was pushed out over the marsh on a causeway to a narrow part of the Plum Island River just to the south of where it connects to the mouth of the Merrimack. A drawbridge was built there, the only access to the island by road. On the Newburyport side a small airport, Plum Island Airport, was built at the edge of the marsh. The portion of Plum Island that is in the city has no direct access to the rest of the city; similarly, there is no access between the mainland and Woodbridge Island or Seal Island, west of Plum Island (the latter being shared between Newburyport and Newbury). Several parks and beaches dot the city, including Plum Island Point Beach, Simmons Beach, Joppa Park, Waterfront Park, Woodman Park, Cashman Park, Moseley Pines Park and Atkinson Common and March's Hill Park. Newburyport Forest is located in the southwest corner of the city, and Maudslay State Park lies along the northwest part of the city, along the banks of the Merrimack.

Newburyport is located 37 miles (60 km) north-northeast of Boston, 19 miles (31 km) east-northeast of Lawrence, and 21 miles (34 km) south-southeast of Portsmouth, New Hampshire. Situated 5 miles (8 km) south of the New Hampshire border, the city is bordered by the Gulf of Maine (Atlantic Ocean) to the east, Newbury to the south and southeast, West Newbury to the west and southwest, Amesbury to the north and northwest, and Salisbury to the northeast.


Joppa: Joppa is Bordered by Newbury,Massachusetts to the southeast, South End to the southwest, and Downtown to the Northwest. This is the closest Neighborhood to plum island airport, which is located in Newbury.

South End: South-End is bordered by Newbury,Massachusetts to the south, Joppa to the Northeast, and Downtown to the Northwest. The border between South-End and Joppa is just behind Hancock Street, Chestnut Street, and, Part of Prospect Street.


Climate data for Newburyport, Massachusetts (2000-2020 normals; rainfall/snowfall measures 1991-2020; extremes Mar 1, 1911-Sep 30, 2016)
Record high °F (°C)71
Mean maximum °F (°C)55
Average high °F (°C)33.2
Daily mean °F (°C)24.2
Average low °F (°C)15.2
Mean minimum °F (°C)−2
Record low °F (°C)−12
Average precipitation inches (mm)3.68
Average snowfall inches (cm)18.0
Average extreme snow depth inches (mm)11.0
Average precipitation days (≥ 0.01 in)129121112121099111012128
Average snowy days (≥ 0.1 in)75510000001523
Source: NOAA [34]


Historical population
1790 4,837    
1800 5,946+22.9%
1810 7,634+28.4%
1820 6,852−10.2%
1830 6,375−7.0%
1840 7,161+12.3%
1850 9,572+33.7%
1860 13,401+40.0%
1870 12,595−6.0%
1880 13,538+7.5%
1890 13,947+3.0%
1900 14,478+3.8%
1910 14,949+3.3%
1920 15,618+4.5%
1930 15,084−3.4%
1940 13,916−7.7%
1950 14,111+1.4%
1960 14,004−0.8%
1970 15,807+12.9%
1980 15,900+0.6%
1990 16,317+2.6%
2000 17,189+5.3%
2010 17,416+1.3%
2020 18,289+5.0%
* = population estimate.
Source: United States census records and Population Estimates Program data. [35] [36] [37] [38] [39] [40] [41] [42] [43] [44] [45]
U.S. Decennial Census [46]

As of the census [47] of 2010, there were 17,416 people, 8,264 households, and 4,428 families residing in the city. The population density was 2,086.2 people per square mile (792.0/km2). There were 7,897 housing units at an average density of 942.0 per square mile (363.8/km2). The racial makeup of the city was 90.2% White, 3.6% African American, 0.1% Native American, 0.61% Asian, 0.01% Pacific Islander, 0.16% from other races, and 1.2% from two or more races. Hispanic or Latino people of any race were 2.7% of the population. The top five ethnic groups are: [48] (United States 2010 Census quickfacts)

There were 7,519 households, out of which 25.9% had children under the age of 18 living with them, 47.7% were married couples living together, 8.5% had a female householder with no husband present, and 41.1% were non-families. Of all households 33.1% were made up of individuals, and 9.7% had someone living alone who was 65 years of age or older. The average household size was 2.24 and the average family size was 2.90.

In the city, the population was spread out, with 20.7% under the age of 18, 4.4% from 18 to 24, 32.7% from 25 to 44, 28.2% from 45 to 64, and 14.0% who were 65 years of age or older. The median age was 41 years. For every 100 females, there were 86.7 males. For every 100 females age 18 and over, there were 82.9 males.

The median income for a household in the city was $78,557, and the median income for a family was $103,306. Males had a median income of $51,831 versus $37,853 for females. The per capita income for the city was $34,187. About 2.8% of families and 5.2% of the population were below the poverty line, including 4.5% of those under age 18 and 6.9% of those age 65 or over.


Upon adopting a new charter in 2011 which took effect in 2013, Newburyport has been run by a mayor with a four-year term and an eleven-member City Council (prior to that, the mayor's term lasted for two years). During the mid-twentieth century, Newburyport enjoyed a typical "small community" approach, conducted, most notably, by city mayor and activist Ed Molin, who died in 2005. The current mayor of Newburyport is Sean Reardon, and the next election year for mayor is 2025.

Newburyport is part of the Massachusetts Senate's 1st Essex district. [49]

Voter registration and party enrollment as of October 15, 2008 [50]
PartyNumber of votersPercentage
Democratic 4,05831.42%
Republican 1,70013.16%
Libertarian 610.47%


Interstate 95 passes through the western side of town, with one exit at Route 113. Route 113 itself has its eastern terminus at U.S. Route 1 and Massachusetts Route 1A, with Route 1A continuing along the same right of way as 113 towards Newbury. Route 1 and 1A cross the river along the Newburyport Turnpike Bridge; it had originally followed State Street and ended at Merrimac and Water streets before crossing the river via ferry to Salisbury. The Turnpike Bridge is the easternmost crossing of the Merrimack; upstream the river is crossed by the Newburyport Railroad Bridge (just west of the Turnpike Bridge), the Chain Bridge, one of the oldest bridges along the river, and the Whittier Memorial Bridge, which brings Interstate 95 to Amesbury.

The Merrimack Valley Regional Transit Authority provides regular bus service between the city and Haverhill, which includes access to the commuter rail station in Newburyport. The bus costs $1.25 for adults paying cash and $1 for adults paying with CharlieCard. C&J [51] and Coach Company, [52] privately operated coach carriers, operate commuter bus services between Newburyport and Boston. Newburyport is the northern terminus of the Newburyport/Rockport Line of the MBTA Commuter Rail system, providing access through several North Shore cities to Boston's North Station. [53]

Plum Island Airport is a privately owned general aviation airport located within the city limits. It is open to the public and managed by Plum Island Aerodrome, Inc., a not-for-profit organization. [54] The nearest scheduled commercial air service can be found at Boston's Logan International Airport, Worcester's Worcester Regional Airport, Portsmouth's Pease International Tradeport or Manchester's Manchester-Boston Regional Airport.


Newburyport High School Newburyport High School.jpg
Newburyport High School

The current site of Newburyport High School was purchased from Harvard University early in the 20th century.[ citation needed ] Newburyport High School is one of the oldest public high schools in the United States.

Newburyport is served by several public schools, belonging to the Newburyport School District, and several private schools.

On Monday, November 4, 2019, the Newburyport School Committee unanimously (with one member absent) voted to implement a Start School Later policy, the first of the Cape Ann League to do so.

The times will be:

Newburyport is served by the Newburyport Public Library, part of the Merrimack Valley Library Consortium.

Newburyport High School competes in the Cape Ann League, an athletic conference in District A of the Massachusetts Interscholastic Athletic Association. The athletics program offers a variety of sports for girls and boys during the fall, winter, and spring seasons. The school colors are Crimson and Old Gold and the mascot is a Clipper Ship.

Field HockeyBasketballBaseball
FootballIndoor TrackSoftball
SoccerIce HockeyLacrosse
GolfSki Racing (Co-op with Georgetown High School)Spring Track
VolleyballSwim (Co-op with Triton Regional High School) Tennis
Cross CountryWrestling (Co-op with Pentucket High School)


Waterfront boardwalk on a winter night Newburyport boardwalk.jpg
Waterfront boardwalk on a winter night

Newburyport makes activities available for its residents, including a year-round ice skating rink and a beautiful waterfront and boardwalk. Many Newburyport residents love boating, fishing, swimming, and other water sports. The city's picturesque downtown shopping district also makes it a great location to enjoy boutique shopping. The city sponsors several youth sports leagues, including baseball, football, soccer, lacrosse, basketball, and hockey. The city's youth services program also provides classes, campouts, and activities in robotics, music, rock climbing, chess, fencing, sewing, dance, skateboarding, judo, academics, cooking, yoga, cheerleading, art, fashion design, photography, biking, and frisbee.

Annual events

Yankee Homecoming

Yankee Homecoming, run not by the city, but by the non-profit Yankee Homecoming, Inc., is the annual festival celebrating the natives coming home to Newburyport. The event was initiated in 1957 by native Newburyporter George Cashman, who sought to stimulate the economy and lift the spirit of the citizens.

It lasts one week. The first Sunday of the festival, known as "Olde Fashioned Sunday", is celebrated at the Bartlet Mall in Newburyport, and features many activities, including an art show, an appearance by the city's oldest fire engine, the "Neptune #8", and the participation of many local businesses. There is also an antique car parade. Each Yankee Homecoming features a grand marshal and numerous street vendors.

The festival includes eight days and over 200 events. There are concerts every night at Market Landing Park. Other popular events include the Newburyport Lions' 10-mile (16 km) and 5-kilometer road races, which run through the city's downtown streets and neighborhoods. There is also a 45-minute fireworks show on Saturday night, which is followed the concluding Sunday by the famous Yankee Homecoming parade.

First held in 1958, Newburyport's "Yankee Homecoming" is the second-oldest homecoming festival in the United States. Many charities raise their funds during this time.

Waterfront Concert Series

This was held Friday evenings in Waterfront Park in downtown Newburyport, these free concerts were intended for all ages. The concerts were presented by the Newburyport Chamber of Commerce and the Waterfront Trust and were sponsored by a local insurance agency, Arthur S Page Insurance.

Newburyport Literary Festival

Held during the last weekend of April, the Newburyport Literary Festival was started in 2006 as a new effort by the city to increase interest in reading and literary arts. Many local authors are invited to sign and chat about their books, and schoolchildren create projects to show to an author who visits their school. Among the authors who regularly visit are Andre Dubus III, Tess Gerritsen and Rhina Espaillat.

Points of interest

Atkinson Common in 1908 Atkinson Common, Newburyport, MA.jpg
Atkinson Common in 1908

Over the years, the town has cultivated a significant tourist population. The quaint downtown shopping center includes businesses that appeal to all ages. Local businesses and restaurants surround Market Square and along State Street. During festivals throughout the year, visitors are invited to enjoy concerts, food, and entertainment. An old mill building on Liberty Street is home to other small businesses and a local farmers' market during both the summer and winter seasons. The historic area has a charming feel and upbeat atmosphere.

High Street is a remarkable street of fine old Federal-style houses, linking the Atkinson Common (1893–1894) with the Bartlett Mall, site of the Charles Bulfinch-designed Essex County Superior Courthouse (1805). Laid out in 1801, the Bartlett Mall was redesigned in the 1880s by noted Boston landscape architect Charles Eliot, with later improvements by Arthur Shurcliff.

First Presbyterian Church dates from 1756. The clock tower bell was cast by Paul Revere. One of the most famous individuals in 18th-century America, evangelist George Whitefield, before dying in Newburyport in 1770, asked that his remains be buried under the pulpit of the "Old South" church, and they are there to this day.

Some other points of interest are the city's historic waterfront, Atwood Park located in the south end of Newburyport, Market Square & Inn Street, Cashman Park, and Brown Square, graced with a statue to "Garrison the Liberator", before the City Hall. The recently restored City Hall itself is a fine old building featuring in the first floor corridor a portrait gallery of some of those who have fallen in service of their country. Others are listed on the central monument in Atkinson Common.

Newburyport was the inspiration for the city of Innsmouth, the setting of the H. P. Lovecraft story The Shadow Over Innsmouth , part of the Cthulhu Mythos. The narrative also cameos the actual Newburyport in the first chapter. It is where the protagonist sets out from on his journey to Innsmouth. [55] It was also mentioned in Stephen King's, "Doctor Sleep," when it explains Dan's drinking. Also, the 2019 Goldsmiths Prize winner, "Ducks, Newburyport", featured the city.

Notable people

Meetinghouse of the First Religious Society (Unitarian), built 1801 Firstreligioussocietynbpt.jpg
Meetinghouse of the First Religious Society (Unitarian), built 1801

See also

Related Research Articles

Essex County, Massachusetts County in Massachusetts, United States

Essex County is a county in the northeastern part of the U.S. state of Massachusetts. At the 2020 census, the total population was 809,829, making it the third-most populous county in the state, and the eightieth-most populous in the country. It is part of the Greater Boston area. The largest city in Essex County is Lynn. The county was named after the English county of Essex. It has two traditional county seats: Salem and Lawrence. Prior to the dissolution of the county government in 1999, Salem had jurisdiction over the Southern Essex District, and Lawrence had jurisdiction over the Northern Essex District, but currently these cities do not function as seats of government. However, the county and the districts remain as administrative regions recognized by various governmental agencies, which gathered vital statistics or disposed of judicial case loads under these geographic subdivisions, and are required to keep the records based on them. The county has been designated the Essex National Heritage Area by the National Park Service.

Georgetown, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Georgetown is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 8,470 at the 2020 census. It was incorporated in 1838 from part of Rowley.

Groveland, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Groveland is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. It is thirty-four miles north of Boston. At the 2020 census, it had a population of 6,752. The town is divided into two precincts, Groveland and South Groveland.

Haverhill, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Haverhill is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. Haverhill is located 35 miles north of Boston on the New Hampshire border and about 17 miles from the Atlantic Ocean. The population was 67,787 at the 2020 United States Census.

Lawrence, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Lawrence is a smaller sized city of just under 7 square miles located in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, on the Merrimack River. As of the 2020 census, the city had a population of 89,143. Surrounding communities include Methuen to the north, Andover to the southwest, and North Andover to the east. Lawrence and Salem were the county seats of Essex County, until the Commonwealth abolished county government in 1999. Lawrence is part of the Merrimack Valley.

Newbury, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Newbury is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, USA. The population was 6,716 at the 2020 census. Newbury includes the villages of Old Town, Plum Island and Byfield. Each village is a precinct with its own voting district, various town offices, and business center.

West Newbury, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

West Newbury is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. Situated on the Merrimack River, its population was 4,500 at the 2020 census.

Lowell, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Lowell is a city in Massachusetts, in the United States. With Cambridge, Lowell is one of two traditional seats of Middlesex County. With an estimated population of 115,554 in 2020, it was the fifth most populous city in Massachusetts as of the last census, and the third most populous in the Boston metropolitan statistical area. The city also is part of a smaller Massachusetts statistical area, called Greater Lowell, and of New England's Merrimack Valley region.

Nashua, New Hampshire City in New Hampshire, United States

Nashua is a city in southern New Hampshire, United States. As of the 2020 census, it had a population of 91,322, the second-largest in northern New England after nearby Manchester. Along with Manchester, it is a seat of New Hampshire's most populous county, Hillsborough.

Boscawen, New Hampshire Town in New Hampshire, United States

Boscawen is a town in Merrimack County, New Hampshire, United States. The population was 3,998 at the 2020 census.

Merrimack River River in New Hampshire and Massachusetts, United States

The Merrimack River is a 117-mile-long (188 km) river in the northeastern United States. It rises at the confluence of the Pemigewasset and Winnipesaukee rivers in Franklin, New Hampshire, flows southward into Massachusetts, and then flows northeast until it empties into the Gulf of Maine at Newburyport. From Pawtucket Falls in Lowell, Massachusetts, onward, the Massachusetts–New Hampshire border is roughly calculated as the line three miles north of the river.

Amesbury, Massachusetts City in Massachusetts, United States

Amesbury is a city in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States, located on the left bank of the Merrimack River near its mouth, upstream from Salisbury and across the river from Newburyport and West Newbury. The population was 17,366 at the 2020 United States Census. A former farming and mill town, Amesbury is today largely residential. It is one of the two northernmost towns in Massachusetts.

Ipswich, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Ipswich is a coastal town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 13,785 at the 2020 census. Home to Willowdale State Forest and Sandy Point State Reservation, Ipswich includes the southern part of Plum Island. A residential community with a vibrant tourism industry, the town is famous for its clams, celebrated annually at the Ipswich Chowderfest, and for Crane Beach, a barrier beach near the Crane estate. Ipswich was incorporated as a town in 1634.

Rowley, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Rowley is a town in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The population was 6,161 at the 2020 census.

Salisbury, Massachusetts Town in Massachusetts, United States

Salisbury is a small coastal beach town and summer tourist destination in Essex County, Massachusetts, United States. The community is a popular summer resort beach town situated on the Atlantic Ocean, north of Boston on the New Hampshire border. It is home to the new Salisbury Beach Boardwalk, full of souvenir shops, restaurants, cafes, arcades and panoramic views of the Atlantic Ocean. The population was 9,236 at the 2020 census. Parts of town comprise the census-designated place of Salisbury.

Greater Boston Metropolitan area in the United States

Greater Boston is the metropolitan region of New England encompassing the municipality of Boston and its surrounding areas. The region forms the northern arc of the Northeast megalopolis, so Greater Boston means both a metropolitan statistical area (MSA) and a combined statistical area (CSA), which is broader. The MSA consists of most of the eastern third of Massachusetts, excluding the South Coast and Cape Cod; the CSA additionally includes the municipalities of Providence, Manchester, Worcester, the South Coast region, and Cape Cod. While the city of Boston covers 48.4 square miles (125 km2) and has 675,647 residents as of the 2020 census, the urbanization has extended well into surrounding areas and the CSA has a more than 8.4 million people, making it one of the most populous such regions in the U.S. The CSA is one of two in Massachusetts, the other being Greater Springfield. Greater Boston is the only CSA in New England that lies in three states ; some definitions extend it into a fourth (Connecticut).

Plum Island (Massachusetts) Human settlement in Massachusetts, U.S.

Plum Island is a barrier island located off the northeast coast of Massachusetts, north of Cape Ann, in the United States. It is approximately 11 miles (18 km) in length. The island is named for the wild beach plum shrubs that grow on its dunes, but is also famous for the purple sands at high tide, which get their color from tiny crystals of pink pyrope garnet. It is located in parts of four municipalities in Essex County. From north to south they are the city of Newburyport, and the towns of Newbury, Rowley, and Ipswich.

Maudslay State Park

Maudslay State Park is a Massachusetts state park located in Newburyport. The park is managed by the Department of Conservation and Recreation. It is available for weddings and other programs.

Bay Circuit Trail Long-distance hiking trail in the United States

The Bay Circuit Trail and Greenway or Bay Circuit is a Massachusetts rail trail and greenway connecting the outlying suburbs of Boston from Plum Island in Newburyport to Kingston Bay in Duxbury, a distance of 200 miles (320 km).

Merrimack Valley Region in the U.S. states of New Hampshire and Massachusetts

The Merrimack Valley is a bi-state region along the Merrimack River in the U.S. states of New Hampshire and Massachusetts. The Merrimack is one of the larger waterways in New England and has helped to define the livelihood and culture of those living along it for millennia.


  1. "2020 U.S. Gazetteer Files". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved May 21, 2022.
  2. "Census - Geography Profile: Newburyport city, Massachusetts". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved September 25, 2021.
  3. Currier 1902 , p. 267.
  4. Currier, John (1902). History of Newbury, MA 1635–1902. Boston: Damrell & Upham. pp.  241–242.
  5. Currier (1906) pages 5, 27–29.
  6. Morse, Jedidiah. (1804). The American gazetteer : exhibiting a full account of the civil divisions, rivers, harbours, Indian tribes, &c. of the American continent, also of the West India and other appendant islands : with a particular description of Louisiana. 2nd edition. Charlestown, Massachusetts: Printed by and for Samuel Etheridge, and for Thomas and Andrews. p. 359. The Internet Archive website
  7. James, Garry American Rifleman (June 2012) p.88
  8. "Why Newburyport is called, 'Clipper City'". Brick and Tree. May 13, 2013. Retrieved December 5, 2015.
  9. Cutter, William Richard (January 1, 1921). American Biography: A New Cyclopedia. Pub. under the direction of the American historical society.
  10. Wright, John Hardy (November 1, 1999). Newburyport. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN   9780738563336.
  11. Crosby, Sylvester Sage (January 1, 1875). The Early Coins of America: And the Laws Governing Their Issue. Comprising Also Descriptions of the Washington Pieces, the Anglo-American Tokens, Many Pieces of Unknown Origin, of the Seventeenth and Eighteenth Centuries, and the First Patterns of the United States Mint. The author.
  12. "Company Overview of Newburyport Five Cents Savings Bank". Bloomberg News . Retrieved March 10, 2017.
  13. Cushing House Museum & Garden
  14. Newburyport Custom House Museum
  15. "Guide to Lovecraftian Sites in Massachusetts" . Retrieved January 14, 2014.
  16. Toppan 1885.
  17. "History". Newburyport: Belleville Congregational Church.
  18. Daniel Taggart Fiske. An historical discourse commemorative of the fiftieth anniversary of the organization of the Belleville Congregational Church, Newburyport, Mass., delivered on Thanksgiving Day, November 25, 1858. E.P. Dutton & Co., 1859
  19. Acts of incorporation and by-laws of the marine society of Newburyport, in Massachusetts, Newburyport, MA: Printed by Whitton & Hale, 1846
  20. Thomas, Isaiah (1874). History of printing in America (2nd ed.).
  21. 1 2 3 "Eighteenth-Century American Newspapers in the Library of Congress: Massachusetts". Library of Congress. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
  22. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 Brigham, Clarence S. (October 1915). "Bibliography of American newspapers, 1690-1820; part 4: Massachusetts (except Boston)". Proceedings of the American Antiquarian Society. 25 (2): 396–501.
  23. Population of the 100 Largest Cities and Other Urban Places in the United States: 1790 to 1990, US Census Bureau, 1998
  24. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 Currier 1909.
  25. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 Sampson 1874.
  26. 1 2 "About Us". Custom House Museum. Retrieved April 24, 2012.
  27. Andrew McFarland Davis (February 1893), "Historical work in Massachusetts", Transactions, Colonial Society of Massachusetts
  28. "Historical Society of Old Newbury" . Retrieved April 24, 2012.
  29. "About Us". Actors Studio of Newburyport. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  30. "Member Directory". Eastern Massachusetts Association of Community Theatres. Archived from the original on October 30, 2013. Retrieved October 26, 2013.
  31. "Newburyport Bura Alliance". Archived from the original on June 3, 2008. Retrieved May 1, 2008.
  32. "Out of Amesbury and Newburyport to Africa, and Back", Boston Globe, January 30, 2000
  33. "US Gazetteer files: 2010, 2000, and 1990". United States Census Bureau. February 12, 2011. Retrieved April 23, 2011.
  34. "NowData – NOAA Online Weather Data". National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration . Retrieved May 20, 2022.
  35. "Total Population (P1), 2010 Census Summary File 1". American FactFinder, All County Subdivisions within Massachusetts. United States Census Bureau. 2010.
  36. "Massachusetts by Place and County Subdivision - GCT-T1. Population Estimates". United States Census Bureau. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  37. "1990 Census of Population, General Population Characteristics: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1990. Table 76: General Characteristics of Persons, Households, and Families: 1990. 1990 CP-1-23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  38. "1980 Census of the Population, Number of Inhabitants: Massachusetts" (PDF). US Census Bureau. December 1981. Table 4. Populations of County Subdivisions: 1960 to 1980. PC80-1-A23. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  39. "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21-10 and 21-11, Massachusetts Table 6. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1930 to 1950. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  40. "1920 Census of Population" (PDF). Bureau of the Census. Number of Inhabitants, by Counties and Minor Civil Divisions. Pages 21-5 through 21-7. Massachusetts Table 2. Population of Counties by Minor Civil Divisions: 1920, 1910, and 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  41. "1890 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. Pages 179 through 182. Massachusetts Table 5. Population of States and Territories by Minor Civil Divisions: 1880 and 1890. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  42. "1870 Census of the Population" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1872. Pages 217 through 220. Table IX. Population of Minor Civil Divisions, &c. Massachusetts. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  43. "1860 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1864. Pages 220 through 226. State of Massachusetts Table No. 3. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  44. "1850 Census" (PDF). Department of the Interior, Census Office. 1854. Pages 338 through 393. Populations of Cities, Towns, &c. Retrieved July 12, 2011.
  45. "1950 Census of Population" (PDF). 1: Number of Inhabitants. Bureau of the Census. 1952. Section 6, Pages 21–7 through 21-09, Massachusetts Table 4. Population of Urban Places of 10,000 or more from Earliest Census to 1920. Retrieved July 12, 2011.{{cite journal}}: Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  46. "Census of Population and Housing". Retrieved June 4, 2015.
  47. "U.S. Census website". United States Census Bureau . Retrieved January 31, 2008.
  48. Newburyport - Newburyport - Ancestry & family history Archived April 7, 2014, at the Wayback Machine . ePodunk. Retrieved on August 2, 2013.
  49. Massachusetts General Court, "An Act Establishing Executive Councillor and Senatorial Districts", Session Laws: Acts (2011), retrieved April 15, 2020
  50. "Registration and Party Enrollment Statistics as of October 15, 2008" (PDF). Massachusetts Elections Division. Retrieved May 8, 2010.
  51. "Bus Tickets to NYC, NH, Boston and Logan Airport" . Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  52. "Boston Commuter Bus Schedule - Commuter Bus Service to Boston, Massachusetts MA and NH - Coach Company". Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  53. Authority, Massachusetts Bay Transportation. "Newburyport/Rockport Line - Commuter Rail - MBTA". Retrieved April 20, 2018.
  54. "Plum Island Aerodrome". Retrieved May 22, 2016.
  55. Lovecraft, H. P. (1936). The Shadow over Innsmouth. Visionary Publishing Company. p. 1.


Published in 18th–19th centuries
Published in 20th century
Published in 21st century