A newspaper's circulation is the number of copies it distributes on an average day. Circulation is one of the principal factors used to set advertising rates. Circulation is not always the same as copies sold, often called paid circulation, since some newspapers are distributed without cost to the reader. Readership figures are usually higher than circulation figures because of the assumption that a typical copy of the newspaper is read by more than one person.
In many countries, circulations are audited by independent bodies such as the Audit Bureau of Circulations to assure advertisers that a given newspaper does reach the number of people claimed by the publisher. There are international open access directories such as Mondo Times,but these generally rely on numbers reported by newspapers themselves.
In many developed countries, newspaper circulation is falling due to social and technological changes such as the availability of news on the internet. On the other hand, in some developing countries circulation is increasing as these factors are more than cancelled out by rising incomes, population, and literacy.
The World Association of Newspapers and News Publishers (WAN-IFRA) publishes a list of newspapers with the largest circulation. In 2011, India led the world in terms of newspaper circulation with nearly 330 million newspapers circulated daily.In 2005, China topped the list in term of total newspaper circulation with 93.5 million a day, India came second with 78.8 million, followed by Japan, with 70.4 million; the United States, with 48.3 million; and Germany, with 22.1 million. Around 75 of the 100 best selling newspapers are in Asia and seven out of the top ten are Japanese newspapers.
The Japanese Yomiuri Shimbun (読売新聞), Asahi Shimbun (朝日新聞) and Mainichi Shimbun (毎日新聞) are still the largest circulated newspapers in the world. The Times of India is the largest circulated English-language daily newspaper in the world, across all formats (Broadsheet, Compact, Berliner and Online). Reference News (《参考消息》) is the most popular paper in China.
According to the Guinness Book of Records, the daily circulation of the Soviet newspaper Komsomolskaya Pravda exceeded 21,500,000 in 1990, while the Soviet weekly Argumenty i Fakty boasted a circulation of 33,500,000 in 1991.
The Herald Sun has the highest circulation in Australia. Based in one of the country's two major cities, Melbourne, it is the result of the amalgamation of the original Sun and Herald newspapers.
The Belgian institution CIM (Centre for Information about Media) publishes national circulation figures for all written, audiovisual and web-based media in Belgium. The top ten best selling papers according to their website are Het Laatste Nieuws, 317,715; Het Nieuwsblad, 245,209; SUD Presse (group of papers focused on community specific content), 147,749; Het Belang van Limburg, 121,428; Le Soir, 113,780; Vers l’avenir, 109,287 (group of papers focused on community specific content); La Dernière Heure, 107,583; De Standaard, 104,758.
The most widely read paper in the country is the Toronto Star , which, as of the six-month period ending on March 31, 2007, averaged 634,886 copies sold on Saturday, 436,694 Monday to Friday, and 442,265 on Sunday.The second most widely read paper is Toronto-based national newspaper The Globe and Mail , which averaged 374,000 copies on Saturdays, and 303,000 Monday to Friday. The most widely read French-language newspaper is Le Journal de Montréal, which averaged 319,899 copies on Saturday, 267,404 Monday to Friday, and 264,733 on Sunday. Unlike in the United States, newspapers in Canada published their biggest and mostly widely read editions on Saturdays.
The Audit Bureau of Circulationsshows that the largest read local language newspapers to be Dainik Bhaskar (with 4.320 million readers) and Dainik Jagran (with 3.410 million readers), both published in Hindi. The Times of India is the most widely read English language newspaper ( 3.029 million), followed by Malayala Manorama (2.370 million), Amar Ujala (2.067 million), Hindustan Times (1.132 million), Eenadu (1.732 million), Daily Thanthi is a Tamil daily (1.498 million), Anandabazar Patrika is Bengali language newspaper(1.075 million). The Hindu is another widely read English language newspaper (1.550 million). Malayala Manorama newspaper which is published in Malayalam from Kerala, currently has a readership of over 2.370 million (with a circulation base of over 2.4 million copies) has the most circulation in other languages.
The 2004 circulation figures for the morning and evening editions of Japan's largest newspapers: Yomiuri Shimbun, 14,067,000; The Asahi Shimbun, 12,121,000; Mainichi Shimbun, 5,587,000; Seikyo Shimbun, 5,500,000; Nihon Keizai Shimbun, 4,635,000; Chunichi Shimbun/Tokyo Shimbun,4,512,000; Tokyo Sports, 2,425,000; Sankei Shimbun, 2,757,000; Nikkan Sports, 1,965,000; Hokkaido Shimbun, 1,896,594; Sports Nippon, 1,711,000; The Nikkan Gendai, 1,686,000; Akahata, 1,683,000; Yukan Fuji, 1,559,000; Shizuoka Shimbun, 1,479,000; Sankei Sports, 1,368,000; Hochi Shimbun, 1,354,000; Daily Sports, 999,000.
The Norwegian Media Businesses' Association publishes national circulation figures for every newspaper in Norway every year. In 2011 the most read newspaper was the Oslo-based national newspaper Aftenposten, with a circulation of 235,795 followed by the tabloid Verdens Gang with 211,588. The local evening newspaper Aften averages 101,574 and the tabloid Dagbladet had 98,989 readers. The financial newspaper Dagens Næringsliv averaged 82,595. In the top ten list it is followed by five local newspapers: Bergens Tidende, 79,467; Adresseavisen, 71,657; Stavanger Aftenblad, 63,283; Fædrelandsvennen, 36,604 and Drammens Tidende, 33,352.
As of August 2016, the top 6 best selling papers are respectively: Hürriyet, 340,898; Sözcü, 322,829; Sabah, 313,989; Posta, 302,919; Habertürk, 253,256 and Milliyet, 143,577.
According to the Audit Bureau of Circulations the best-selling papers as of January 2017 are The Sun , 1.67 million, The Daily Mail , 1.51 million and the Daily Mirror , 725,000.
The heyday of the newspaper industry was the 1940s, but the percentage of Americans reading newspapers began to decline with the increased competition from radio, television and, more recently, the Internet. A growing population helped the absolute circulation numbers continue to increase until the 1970s, where it remained stable until the 1990s, when absolute circulation numbers began declining.
Newspaper circulation numbers are reported to the Alliance for Audited Media. The best-selling papers in America, measured by combined daily average circulation as of March 31, 2013, are the Wall Street Journal with 2,378,827 in circulation; The New York Times at 1,865,318; and USA Today with 1,674,306. Overall, for the 593 reporting newspapers, daily circulation declined 0.7 percent year-over-year between March 2012 and March 2013. Sunday circulation was down 1.4 percent over the same period.
A tabloid is a newspaper with a compact page size smaller than broadsheet. There is no standard size for this newspaper format.
Eenadu daily newspaper is the largest circulated Telugu newspaper in the State of Andhra Pradesh and the State of Telangana of India. According to the Indian Readership Survey (IRS) Q1 2019, Eenadu ranks at number fourth among the Indian language dailies with a total readership (TR) of 1,56,73,000. Eenadu was founded by the Indian media baron Ramoji Rao in 1974. Eenadu's rapid expansion enabled diversification of its portfolio by venturing into other markets such as finance and chit funds, foods, film production, film distribution, and a group of television channels (ETV). All the businesses are organized under the Ramoji Group.
The Yomiuri Shimbun (讀賣新聞/読売新聞) is a Japanese newspaper published in Tokyo, Osaka, Fukuoka, and other major Japanese cities. It is one of the five national newspapers in Japan; the other four are The Asahi Shimbun, the Mainichi Shimbun, Nihon Keizai Shimbun, and the Sankei Shimbun. The headquarters is in Otemachi, Chiyoda, Tokyo.
The Asahi Shimbun is one of the five national newspapers in Japan. Its circulation, which was 7.96 million for its morning edition and 3.1 million for its evening edition as of June 2010, was second behind that of Yomiuri Shimbun and subsequently is the second largest circulating newspaper in the world behind Yomiuri.
The mass media in Japan include numerous television and radio networks as well as newspapers and magazines in Japan. For the most part, television networks were established based on capital investments by existing radio networks. Variety shows, serial dramas, and news constitute a large percentage of Japanese evening shows.
Malayala Manorama is a morning newspaper in Malayalam published from Kottayam, Kerala, India by the Malayala Manorama Company Limited. Currently headed by Mammen Mathew; it was first published as a weekly on 22 March 1890, and currently has a readership of over 20 million. It is also the second oldest Malayalam newspaper in Kerala in circulation, after Deepika, which is also published from Kottayam. Manorama also publishes an online edition.
La Gazzetta dello Sport is an Italian daily newspaper dedicated to coverage of various sports. Founded in 1896, it is the most widely read daily newspaper of any kind in Italy. The Sunday edition is called La Gazzetta Sportiva.
Kleine Zeitung is an Austrian newspaper based in Graz and Klagenfurt. As the largest regional newspaper in Austria, covering the federal states Styria and Carinthia with East Tyrol, the paper has around 800,000 readers.
Kompas is an Indonesian national newspaper. Published by Kompas Gramedia, it has been in publication since 28 June 1965.
The Borneo Post, established in 1978, is the largest and widest read English newspaper daily in East Malaysia. In June 2018, Reuters Institute's Digital News Report 2018 ranked The Borneo Post third in terms of brand trust of users of the brand behind first placed Astro Awani and international news website Yahoo! News.
The mass media in Brunei are strictly controlled by the government under Sultan Hassanal Bolkiah, which has effectively imposed martial law in the country since the Brunei Revolt of 1962. News coverage consists of police-beat reporting, lifestyle features and community events, with little in the way of diverse viewpoints. Reporters Without Borders reports there is "virtually no criticism of the government". The liberal democracy watchdog Freedom House lists Brunei's media as "not free".
The smaller of the two main newspapers in Massachusetts' South Coast, The Herald News is a daily newspaper based in Fall River, Massachusetts. Its coverage area includes Fall River and the nearby towns of Dighton, Freetown, Somerset, Swansea and Westport, Massachusetts; and Little Compton and Tiverton, Rhode Island.
RISN Operations Inc., also called Rhode Island Suburban Newspapers, is a privately owned publisher of three daily newspapers and several weekly newspapers in the U.S. state of Rhode Island. The company was founded by Illinois-based newspaper executives in early 2007 to purchase the Rhode Island holdings of Journal Register Company, which it did for $8.3 million.
El Periódico de Catalunya is a morning daily newspaper based in Barcelona, Catalonia, Spain.
Lokmat is a Marathi language newspaper published in Maharashtra state. Founded in 1971 by Jawaharlal Darda, it is the largest read regional language newspaper in India with more than 18 million readers and the No. 1 Marathi newspaper in Maharashtra & Goa states. It is also available in E-Paper format.
A newspaper is a periodical publication containing written information about current events and is often typed in black ink with a white or gray background.
The Süddeutsche Zeitung, published in Munich, Bavaria, is one of the largest daily newspapers in Germany.