Ngāti Porou

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Ngāti Porou
Iwi (tribe) in Māoridom
NgatiPorou.png
Rohe (region) East Cape and Gisborne region
Waka (canoe) Horouta
Population71,049 [1]
Website www.ngatiporou.iwi.nz

Ngāti Porou is a Māori iwi traditionally located in the East Cape and Gisborne regions of the North Island of New Zealand. Ngāti Porou is affiliated with the 28th Maori Battalion and has the second-largest affiliation of any iwi in New Zealand, with 71,910 registered members in 2006. [2] The traditional rohe or tribal area of Ngāti Porou extends from Pōtikirua and Lottin Point in the north to Te Toka-a-Taiau (a rock that used to sit in the mouth of Gisborne harbour) in the south. [3]

Contents

Mt Hikurangi features prominently in Ngāti Porou traditions as a symbol of endurance and strength, and holds tapu status. In these traditions, Hikurangi is often personified. Ngāti Porou traditions indicate that Hikurangi was the first point to surface when Māui fished up the North Island from beneath the ocean. His canoe, the Nuku-tai-memeha , is said to have been wrecked there. The Waiapu River also features in Ngāti Porou traditions. [4] [5]

History

Ngati Porou paepae pataka (threshold of a storehouse) in the Waiapu Valley Paepae.jpg
Ngāti Porou paepae pātaka (threshold of a storehouse) in the Waiapu Valley

Pre-European history

Ngāti Porou takes its name from the ancestor Porourangi, also known as Porou Ariki. [6] He was a direct descendant of Toi-kai-rākau. Other ancestors include Māui, accredited in oral tradition with raising the North Island from the sea, and Paikea, the whale rider. [4] [5]

Although Ngāti Porou claim the Nukutaimemeha as their foundation canoe, many Ngāti Porou ancestors arrived on different canoes, including Horouta , Tākitimu and Tereanini. The descendants of Porourangi and Toi formed groups that spread across the East Cape through conquest and through strategic marriage alliances. [4] [5]

Associations with other iwi also arise through direct descent from Ngāti Porou ancestors:

Colonial history

Wharenui (meeting house) in Waiomatatini, 1896, named Porourangi after the ancestor Ngati Porou derive their name from. Maori-rafters-in-house.jpg
Wharenui (meeting house) in Waiomatatini, 1896, named Porourangi after the ancestor Ngāti Porou derive their name from.

The early 19th century saw Ngāti Porou in conflict with Ngā Puhi during the latter's campaign of warfare throughout the North Island. This period also saw the introduction of Christianity to the region, which led to a period of relative calm and cultural development. Ngāti Porou chiefs were also signatories to the Treaty of Waitangi in 1840. Ngāti Porou experienced substantial economic growth during the 1850s. [4] [5]

During the 1860s, the Pai Mārire religious movement spread through the North Island, and eventually came into conflict with the New Zealand Government. From 1865–1870, a civil war emerged within Ngāti Porou, between Pai Mārire converts seeking the creation of an independent Māori state (supported by Pai Mārire from other regions) and other Ngāti Porou advocating tribal sovereignty and independence. This conflict is generally viewed as part of the East Cape War. [4] [5]

Modern history

Ngāti Porou once again enjoyed peace and economic prosperity during the late 19th century. The 1890s saw the emergence of Sir Āpirana Ngata, who contributed greatly to the revitalisation of the Māori people. During the early 20th century, the population of Ngāti Porou increased substantially. They were active in their participation in both World Wars. [4] [5]

After World War II, large numbers of Ngāti Porou began emigrating from traditional tribal lands and moving into larger urban areas, in a trend reflected throughout New Zealand. A large portion of the tribal population now lives in Auckland and Wellington. [4] [5]

Hapū and marae

Potikirua ki Waiapu

The Potikirua ki Waiapu rohe includes these hapū:

Waiapu ki Tawhiti

The Waiapu ki Tawhiti rohe includes these hapū:

Tawhiti ki Rototahe

The Tawhiti ki Rototahe rohe includes these hapū:

Rototahe ki Te Toka a Taiau

The Rototahe ki Te Toka a Taiau rohe includes these hapū:

Governance

Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou was established in 1987 to be the tribal authority of the iwi. It is organised into a whānau and hapū development branch, economic development branch, and a corporate services branch, and aims to maintain the financial, physical and spiritual assets of the tribe. [8] The common law trust is overseen by a board, with two representatives from each of the seven ancestral zones. As of 2018, the trust is based in Gisborne, and is chaired by Selwyn Parata, with Herewini Te Koha as both chief executive and general manager. [3]

The trust administers Treaty of Waitangi settlements under the Ngati Porou Claims Settlement Act, represents the iwi under the Māori Fisheries Act, and is the official iwi authority for resource consent consultation under the Resource Management Act. Its rohe is contained within the territory of Gisborne District Council, which is both a regional and district council. [3]

Media

Radio Ngāti Porou

Radio Ngāti Porou is the official station of Ngāti Porou. It is based in Ruatoria and broadcasts on 89.3FM in Tikitiki, 90.5FM at Tolaga Bay, 93.3FM in Gisborne, 98.1FM in Ruatoria, and 105.3FM at Hicks Bay. [9] [10]

Notable people

Georgina Beyer 2018 Georgina Beyer 2018 (cropped).jpg
Georgina Beyer 2018
George Nepia 1935 George Nepia 1935.jpg
George Nepia 1935
Iritana Tawhiwhirangi DNZM Iritana Tawhiwhirangi DNZM (cropped).jpg
Iritana Tawhiwhirangi DNZM

There are many notable people who are affiliated to Ngāti Porou. This is a list of some of them.

Related Research Articles

Tokomaru Bay Settlement in Gisborne District

Tokomaru Bay is a small beachside community located on the isolated East Coast of New Zealand's North Island. It is 91 km north of Gisborne, on State Highway 35, and close to Mount Hikurangi. The district was originally known as Toka-a-Namu, which refers to the abundance of sandflies. Over the years the name was altered to Tokomaru Bay.

Ruatoria is a town in the Waiapu Valley of the Gisborne Region in the northeastern corner of New Zealand's North Island. The town was originally known as Cross Roads, and was named Ruatorea in 1913, from the Māori Rua-a-Tōrea. In 1925 the name was changed to "Ruatoria", although some texts retain the original spelling.

Tolaga Bay Town in Gisborne District, New Zealand

Tolaga Bay is both a bay and small town on the East Coast of New Zealand's North Island located 45 kilometres northeast of Gisborne and 30 kilometres south of Tokomaru Bay.

The Waiapu River is a river in the Gisborne District of the North Island of New Zealand, with a total length of approximately 130 kilometres (81 mi). Found in the north-east of the Waiapu Valley, it flows north-east from the joining of the Mata River and the Tapuaeroa River, then passes by Ruatoria before reaching the Pacific Ocean at Rangitukia. Other tributaries of the Waiapu River include the Mangaoporo, Poroporo, Wairoa, Maraehara rivers, and the Paoaruku stream. It is the most well known river in the region, and lies within the rohe (territory) of Ngāti Porou, the largest iwi on the East Coast, and second largest in New Zealand. The area was the site of hostilities during the New Zealand Wars from June to October in 1865, both between Pākehā and Māori, and between factions of Ngāti Porou.

Ngāti Awa Māori iwi (tribe) in New Zealand

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Te Whānau-ā-Apanui Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

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Nūhaka Place in New Zealand

Nūhaka is a small settlement in the northern Hawke's Bay Region of New Zealand's eastern North Island, lying on State Highway 2 between Wairoa and Gisborne.

Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti

Te Aitanga-a-Hauiti is a Māori iwi (tribe) on the East Coast of New Zealand's North Island. Its rohe covers the area from Tawhiti-a-Paoa Tokomaru Bay to Te Toka-a-Taiau Gisborne on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand.

Te Araroa (town)

Te Araroa is a town in the Gisborne Region of the North Island of New Zealand. It is situated 175 km north of Gisborne city, along State Highway 35 between Tokata and Awatere. Te Araroa is the birthplace of noted Māori politician Sir Āpirana Ngata. Māori in the area are generally associated with the Ngāti Porou iwi. It is 100 metres from its local beach.

Hicks Bay Town in Gisborne District, New Zealand

Wharekahika / Hicks Bay, formerly called Hicks Bay, is a bay and coastal area in the Gisborne District of the North Island of New Zealand. It is situated 150 km east of Opotiki and 186 km north of Gisborne city, along State Highway 35 between Potaka and Te Araroa.

Ngāi Tāmanuhiri Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

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Rongowhakaata Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Rongowhakaata is a Māori iwi of the Gisborne region of New Zealand.

Te Aitanga-a-Māhaki Māori iwi (tribe) in Aotearoa New Zealand

Te Aitanga-a-Mahaki is one of the three principal Māori iwi of the Tūranga district; the others being Rongowhakaata and Ngai Tamanuhiri. It is numerically the largest of the three, with 6,258 affiliated members as of 2013.

Tikitiki Place in Gisborne Region, New Zealand

Tikitiki is a small town in Waiapu Valley on the north bank of the Waiapu River in the Gisborne Region of the North Island of New Zealand. The area in which the town resides was formerly known as Kahukura. By road, Tikitiki is 145 km (90 mi) north-northeast of Gisborne, 20 km (12 mi) northeast by north of Ruatoria, and 24 km (15 mi) south by east of Te Araroa. The name of the town comes from the full name of Māui, Māui-tikitiki-a-Taranga. State Highway 35 passes through the town at the easternmost point of the New Zealand state highway network.

Rangitukia is a small settlement 10 kilometres south of East Cape in the northeast of New Zealand's North Island. It is located close to the mouth of the Waiapu River.

Waiapu Valley Place in Gisborne Region, New Zealand

Waiapu Valley, also known as the Waiapu catchment, Waiapu River valley or simply Waiapu, is a valley in the north of the Gisborne Region on the East Coast of the North Island of New Zealand. It is the catchment area for the Waiapu River and its tributaries, and covers 1,734 square kilometres (670 sq mi). The Raukumara Range forms the western side of the valley, with Mount Hikurangi in the central west. The towns of Ruatoria and Tikitiki are in the north-east of the valley.

Akuaku Village in Gisborne Region, New Zealand

Akuaku, also known as Aku Aku, was a settlement approximately halfway between Waipiro Bay and Whareponga in the East Coast region of New Zealand's North Island. A traditional landing point for waka taua, the town is most notable now as the former home of Major Ropata Wahawaha, N.Z.C, as well as the ancestral home of Te Whānau-a-Rākairoa.

The Gisborne Region has a deep and complex history which dates back to the early 1300s. The region, on the East Coast of New Zealand's North Island, has many culturally and historically significant sites that relate to early Māori exploration in the 14th century and important colonial events, such as Captain Cook's first landfall in New Zealand.

Anaura Bay

Anaura Bay is a bay and community in the Gisborne District of New Zealand's North Island. It is located just south of Tokomaru Bay and north of Tolaga Bay.

References

  1. "2013 Census iwi individual profiles: Ngāti Porou". www.stats.govt.nz. Stats NZ. Retrieved 13 June 2017.
  2. "2006 Census – QuickStats About Māori (revised)". Statistics New Zealand. 2007-04-04. Archived from the original on 2007-09-28. Retrieved 2007-05-25.
  3. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 "TKM Ngāti Porou". tkm.govt.nz. Te Puni Kōkiri, New Zealand Government . Retrieved 2 March 2016.
  4. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Mahuika AT (1993-05-25). "History: Porourangi & Ngāti Porou". Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou. Archived from the original on 2006-12-11. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  5. 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 Reedy, Tamati Muturangi (2006-12-21). "Ngāti Porou". Te Ara – the Encyclopedia of New Zealand. Archived from the original on 2007-04-30. Retrieved 2007-04-10.
  6. Ngata, Apirana Turupa; Te Hurinui, Pei (1970). Nga moteatea: he maramara rere no nga waka maha, he mea kohikohi na A.T. Ngata; na Pei Te Hurinui i whakapakeha. 3. The Polynesian Society. p. 323. Retrieved 2015-05-26. That line traces out to Porou-rangi, whose (original?) name was Porou-ariki te mata-tara-a-whare, and Te Tuhi-marei-kura of Rauru.
  7. Reedy, Tamati Muturangi (24 September 2011). "Ngāti Porou: Porourangi whare, Waiomatatini". Te Ara - the Encyclopedia of New Zealand . Wellington, New Zealand: Manatū Taonga | Ministry for Culture and Heritage . Retrieved 12 May 2012.
  8. "Te Rūnanga o Ngāti Porou mission statement". Archived from the original on 2008-01-17. Retrieved 2007-05-17.
  9. "Radio Ngati Porou". Radio Ngati Porou. RNP. Retrieved 14 June 2015.
  10. "Iwi Radio Coverage" (PDF). maorimedia.co.nz. Māori Media Network. 2007. Retrieved 14 June 2015.