Nguyễn dynasty

Last updated

Kingdom of Vietnam(1802-1839)
Việt Nam quốc (越南國)

Empire of Đại Nam(1839-1945)
Đại Nam quốc (大南國)
1802–1945
Royal Flag of Vietnam (1802-1885).svg
First flag of the Nguyen Dynasty.svg
Anthem: "Đăng dàn cung"
Viet Nam thoi Minh Mang.png
Việt Nam at its greatest territorial extent in 1829 (under Emperor Minh Mạng), superimposed on the modern political map
StatusEmpire
(1802–1883)
Chinese vassal (1802–1839)
French Protectorate (1883–1945)
Capital Huế
Common languages Vietnamese
Religion
Neo-Confucianism, Buddhism, Catholicism
Government Absolute monarchy
Emperor  
 1802–1820 (first)
Gia Long
 1926–1945 (last)
Bảo Đại
History 
 Defeat of the Tây Sơn
1802
 Coronation of Gia Long
1 June 1802
1 September 1858
5 June 1862
25 August 1883
6 June 1884
 Part of French Indochina
17 October 1887
22 September 1940
11 March 1945
30 August 1945
Population
 1830
7,600,000
 1860
10,000,000
Currency Văn (Sapèque), Tiền, and Lạng
Piastre (from 1885)
Preceded by
Succeeded by
Royal Flag of Vietnam (1788-1802).svg Tây Sơn dynasty
Cochinchina Flag of France (1794-1815).svg
Annam Flag of Colonial Annam.svg
Tonkin Flag of Colonial Annam.svg
Today part of Vietnam
Laos
Cambodia

The Nguyễn dynasty or House of Nguyễn (Vietnamese : Nhà Nguyễn, 家阮; Hán-Nôm: , Nguyễn triều) was the last imperial family of Vietnam. [1] Their ancestral line can be traced back to the beginning of the Common Era. However, only by the mid-sixteenth century the most ambitious family branch, the Nguyễn Lords had risen to conquer, control and establish feudal rule over large territory. [2]

Vietnamese language official and national language of Vietnam

Vietnamese is an Austroasiatic language that originated in Vietnam, where it is the national and official language. Spoken natively by an estimated 76 million people, it is the native language of the Vietnamese (Kinh) people, as well as a first or second language for the many ethnic minorities of Vietnam. As a result of Vietnamese emigration and cultural influence, Vietnamese speakers are found throughout the world, notably in East and Southeast Asia, North America, Australia and Western Europe. Vietnamese has also been officially recognized as a minority language in the Czech Republic.

Common Era (CE) is one of the notation systems for the world's most widely used calendar era. BCE is the era before CE. BCE and CE are alternatives to the Dionysian BC and AD system respectively. The Dionysian era distinguishes eras using AD and BC. Since the two notation systems are numerically equivalent, "2019 CE" corresponds to "AD 2019" and "400 BCE" corresponds to "400 BC". Both notations refer to the Gregorian calendar. The year-numbering system used by the Gregorian calendar is used throughout the world today, and is an international standard for civil calendars.

Contents

The dynastic rule began with Gia Long ascending the throne in 1802, after ending the previous Tây Sơn dynasty. During its existence, the Empire was gradually absorbed by France over the course of several decades. This began with the Cochinchina Campaign in 1858 which led to the occupation of the southern area of Vietnam. A series of unequal treaties followed; the occupied territory became a French colony in the 1862 Treaty of Saigon and the 1863 Treaty of Huế gave France access to Vietnamese ports and increased control of its foreign affairs. Finally, the 1883 and 1884 Treaties of Huế established a protectorate over the remaining Vietnamese territory, dividing it into the Protectorates of Annam and Tonkin under only nominal Nguyen dynasty rule. They were in 1887 merged with Cochinchina and Cambodia to form French Indochina. [3]

Gia Long Emperor of Vietnam

Gia Long, born Nguyễn Phúc Ánh or Nguyễn Ánh, was the first Emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam. Unifying what is now modern Vietnam in 1802, he founded the Nguyễn dynasty, the last of the Vietnamese dynasties.

Tây Sơn dynasty dynasty

The name Tây Sơn is used in Vietnamese history in various ways to refer to the period of peasant rebellions and decentralized dynasties established between the end of the figurehead Lê dynasty in 1770 and the beginning of the Nguyễn dynasty in 1802. The name of the rebel leaders' home district, Tây Sơn, came to be applied to the leaders themselves, their uprising or their rule.

Cochinchina Campaign

The Cochinchina Campaign ; is the common designation for a series of military operations between 1858 and 1862, launched by a joint naval expedition force on behalf of the French Empire and the Kingdom of Spain against the Nguyễn dynasty of Dai Nam. Initially a limited punitive expedition against the persecution and execution of French Catholic missionaries in Dai Nam, the ambitious French emperor Napoleon III however, authorized the deployment of increasingly larger contingents, that subdued Dai Nam territory and established French military and economic dominance. The war concluded with the founding of the French colony of Cochinchina and inaugurated nearly a century of French colonial dominance in Indochina.

The Nguyễn dynasty remained the formal Emperors of Annam and Tonkin within Indochina until World War II. Japan had occupied Indochina with French collaboration in 1940, but as the war seemed increasingly lost, overthrew the French administration in March 1945 and proclaimed independence for its constituent countries. The Empire of Vietnam under Emperor Bảo Đại was a nominally independent Japanese puppet state during the last months of the war. It ended with Bảo Đại's abdication following the surrender of Japan and communist revolution by the anti-colonial Việt Minh in August 1945. This ended the 143 year rule of the Nguyễn dynasty.

World War II 1939–1945 global war

World War II, also known as the Second World War, was a global war that lasted from 1939 to 1945. The vast majority of the world's countries—including all the great powers—eventually formed two opposing military alliances: the Allies and the Axis. A state of total war emerged, directly involving more than 100 million people from over 30 countries. The major participants threw their entire economic, industrial, and scientific capabilities behind the war effort, blurring the distinction between civilian and military resources. World War II was the deadliest conflict in human history, marked by 70 to 85 million fatalities, most of whom were civilians in the Soviet Union and China. It included massacres, the genocide of the Holocaust, strategic bombing, premeditated death from starvation and disease, and the only use of nuclear weapons in war.

Empire of Japan Empire in the Asia-Pacific region between 1868–1947

The Empire of Japan was the historical nation-state and great power that existed from the Meiji Restoration in 1868 to the enactment of the 1947 constitution of modern Japan.

Japanese invasion of French Indochina battle

The Japanese invasion of French Indochina was a short undeclared military confrontation between Japan and France in northern French Indochina. Fighting lasted from 22 to 26 September 1940, simultaneous with the Battle of South Guangxi in the Sino-Japanese War.

Etymology

Although the nation was given the name Việt Nam (越南) by imperial Chinese decree during Gia Long's reign, it was known as Đại Việt Nam (大越南) by nations other than Qing China. In 1839, under the rule of Emperor Minh Mạng's, Đại Việt Nam was shortened to Đại Nam (大南, which means "Great South"); [4] the abbreviation Đại Việt (大越, which means "Great Viet") was forbidden, since it was the name used by several previous dynasties as well.

Qing dynasty Former empire in Eastern Asia, last imperial regime of China

The Qing dynasty, officially the Great Qing, was the last imperial dynasty of China. It was established in 1636, and ruled from 1644 to 1911. It was preceded by the Ming dynasty and succeeded by the Republic of China. The Qing multi-cultural empire lasted for almost three centuries and formed the territorial base for modern China. It was the fifth largest empire in world history. The dynasty was founded by the Manchu Aisin Gioro clan in Manchuria. In the late sixteenth century, Nurhaci, originally a Ming Jianzhou Guard vassal, began organizing "Banners", military-social units that included Manchu, Han, and Mongol elements. Nurhaci formed the Manchu clans into a unified entity and officially proclaimed the Later Jin in 1616. By 1636, his son Hong Taiji began driving Ming forces out of the Liaodong Peninsula and declared a new dynasty, the Qing.

Minh Mạng Vietnamese emperor

Minh Mạng was the second emperor of the Nguyễn dynasty of Vietnam, reigning from 14 February 1820 until his death, on 20 January 1841. He was the fourth son of Emperor Gia Long, whose eldest son, Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh, had died in 1801. He was well known for his opposition to French involvement in Vietnam and his rigid Confucian orthodoxy.

Đại Việt name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804

Đại Việt is the name of Vietnam for the periods from 1054 to 1400 and 1428 to 1804. Beginning with the rule of Lý Thánh Tông, the third emperor of the Lý Dynasty, until the rule of Gia Long, the first emperor of the Nguyễn Dynasty, it was the second-longest used name for the country after "Văn Lang".

Origins and rise to power

First mentioned in the first century CE, the Nguyễn family clan, that originated in the Thanh Hóa Province exerted substantial political influence and military power, in particular throughout early modern Vietnamese history. Affiliations with the ruling elite date back to the tenth century when Nguyễn Bặc was appointed the first Grand Chancellor of the short-lived Đinh dynasty under Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and its successor Emperor Lê Lợi of the Early Lê dynasty. [5] [6] Nguyễn Thị Anh, a queen consort of emperor Lê Thái Tông served as official regent of Annam for her son emperor Lê Nhân Tông between 1442 and 1453. [7]

Thanh Hóa Province Province in North Central Coast, Vietnam

Thanh Hóa is a province in the North Central Coast region of Vietnam. This is a relatively large province, which ranks as fifth in area and as third in population among 63 central administrative subdivisions. Its capital and largest city is Thanh Hóa City. The province is widely called Xứ Thanh which means Thanh Hóa land in Vietnamese.

History of Vietnam Part of East Asian and Southeast Asian history

Vietnam's recorded history dates back to the mid-to-late 3rd century BC, when Âu Lạc and Nanyue were established. Northern Vietnam was since the late third millennium BC populated by early farming communities, that had expanded from the original centers of rice and millet domestication in the Yangzi and Yellow River valleys. The Red River valley formed a natural geographic and economic unit, bounded to the north and west by mountains and jungles, to the east by the sea and to the south by the Red River Delta. According to legends, the first Vietnamese state was founded in 2879 BC, but archaeological studies suggest development towards chiefdoms during the late Bronze Age Đông Sơn culture.

Nguyễn Bặc, also known with the title Định Quốc Công (定國公) was a Vietnamese mandarin and general who served as the Grand Chancellor of Đinh dynasty and was the first chancellor in Vietnamese history. He helped future emperor Đinh Bộ Lĩnh put an end to the troubles of the Anarchy of the 12 Warlords and to establish the short-lived Đinh dynasty. After Đinh Bộ Lĩnh and his chosen successor Đinh Liễn were murdered by a palace official, Đỗ Thích, Nguyễn Bặc captured the murderer and had him executed. He then tried unsuccessfully to organize resistance to Lê Hoàn. According to Nguyễn Phúc tộc thế phả(Nguyễn Phúc clan Family tree book), Nguyễn Bặc is the ancestor of Nguyễn clan,followed by founding of Nguyễn lords by Nguyễn Hoàng in 1569 and Nguyễn dynasty in 1802 under the emperor Gia Long.Moreover,he was considered as one of the seven heroes of Giao Châu(Giao province) according to Việt Sử tân biên including :Đinh Bộ Lĩnh, Đinh Liễn, Lê Hoàn, Đinh Điền, Phạm Hạp and Phạm Cự Lượng.

In 1527 Mạc Đăng Dung, after defeating and executing the Lê vassal Nguyễn Hoang Du in a civil war emerged as the intermediate victor and established the Mạc dynasty by deposing emperor Lê Cung Hoàng of the once prosperous but rapidly declining later Lê dynasty. Nguyễn Hoang Du's son Nguyễn Kim and his Trịnh lord allies remained loyal to the Lê and attempted to restore the Lê dynasty to power, thereby reigniting the civil war. [8] [9]

Lê–Mạc War was a long time civil war waged between two royal families, House of Mạc and House of Lê.

Mạc dynasty dynasty

The Mạc dynasty, as known as Mạc clan or House of Mạc ruled the whole of Đại Việt between 1527 and 1533 and the northern part of the country from 1533 until 1592, when they lost control over the capital Đông Kinh for the last time. Later Mạc representatives ruled over the province of Cao Bằng until 1677.

Lê Cung Hoàng was the last emperor of the early Lê dynasty of Vietnam. He reigned from 1522 to 1527. Lê Cung Hoàng was put on the throne by the powerful general Mạc Đăng Dung in 1522 in place of the deposed emperor, Lê Chiêu Tông. Eventually Mạc Đăng Dung deposed Lê Cung Hoàng in 1522.

Nguyễn Kim, who had served as leader of the alliance during the six-year conquest of the Southern Dynasty against Mạc Đăng Dung, was assassinated in 1545 by a captured Mạc general. Kim's son-in-law, Trịnh Kiểm (who had killed the eldest son of Nguyễn Kim), took command of the alliance. In 1558, Lê Anh Tông, emperor of the re-established Lê dynasty entrusted Nguyễn Hoàng (Kim's second son) with the lordship of the southern part of central Vietnam, which had been conquered during the 15th century from the Champa principalities. [10]

Nguyễn Hoàng chose the city of Huế as his residence and established the dominion of the Nguyễn Chúa (Vietnamese: lords) in the southern part of the country. Although the Nguyễn and Trịnh lords ruled as de facto kings in their respective lands, they paid official tribute to the Lê emperors in a ceremonial gesture, as imperial power was confined to representation.

Nguyễn Hoàng and his successors continued their rivalry with the Trịnh lords, expanded their territory by making parts of Cambodia a protectorate, invaded Laos, captured the last vestiges of Champa in 1693 and ruled in an unbroken line until 1776. [11] [12] [13]

Struggle for sovereignty

First Tây Sơn–Nguyễn civil war (1771–1785)

The end of the Nguyễn lord reign

The cover of Tan Dan Tu's (1875-1955) 1930 book, Gia Long tau quoc, depicted the exile of Nguyen Anh. Tdtu- gl tau quoc 1.jpg
The cover of Tân Dân Tử's (1875–1955) 1930 book, Gia Long tẩu quốc, depicted the exile of Nguyễn Ánh.

The 17th-century war between the Trịnh and the Nguyễn ended in an uneasy peace, as neither side was capable to unite the country under its rule. After 100 years of domestic peace, the Nguyễn lords were confronted with the Tây Sơn rebellion in 1774. Its military had had considerable losses in manpower after a series of campaigns in Cambodia and proved unable to contain the revolt. By the end of the year, the Trịnh lords had formed an alliance with the Tây Sơn rebels and captured Huế in 1775. [14]

Nguyễn lord Nguyễn Phúc Thuần fled south to the Quảng Nam province, where he left a garrison under co-ruler Nguyễn Phúc Dương. He fled further south to the Gia Định Province (around modern-day Ho Chi Minh City) by sea before the arrival of Tây Sơn leader Nguyễn Nhạc, whose forces defeated the Nguyễn garrison and seized Quảng Nam. [15]

In early 1777 a large Tây Sơn force under Nguyễn Huệ and Nguyễn Lữ attacked and captured Gia Định from the sea and defeated the Nguyễn Lord forces. The Tây Sơn received widespread popular support as they presented themselves as champions of the Vietnamese people, who rejected any foreign influence and fought for the full reinstitution of the Lê dynasty. Hence, the elimination of the Nguyễn and Trinh lordships was considered a priority and all but one member of the Nguyễn family captured at Saigon were executed.

Escape of Nguyễn Ánh

The 13-year-old Nguyễn Ánh escaped and with the help of the Vietnamese Catholic priest Paul Hồ Văn Nghị soon arrived at the Paris Foreign Missions Society in Hà Tiên. With Tây Son search parties closing in, he kept on moving and eventually met the French missionary Pigneau de Behaine. By retreating to the Thổ Chu Islands in the Gulf of Thailand, both escaped Tây Sơn capture. [16] [17] [18]

Pigneau de Behaine resolved to support Ánh, who had declared himself heir of the Nguyễn lordship.> A month later the Tây Sơn army under Nguyễn Huệ had returned to Quy Nhơn. Ánh seized the opportunity and quickly deployed an army at his new base in Long Xuyên, marched to Gia Định in December 1777, raided the palace of Long Hồ and occupied the city. The Tây Sơn returned to Gia Định in February 1778 and recaptured the province. When Ánh approached with his army, the Tây Sơn retreated. [19] [19]

By the summer of 1781, Ánh's forces had grown to 30,000 soldiers, 80 battleships, three large ships and two Portuguese ships procured with the help of de Behaine. Ánh organized an unsuccessful ambush of the Tây Sơn base camps in the Phú Yên province. In March 1782 Tây Sơn emperor Thái Đức and his brother Nguyễn Huệ sent a naval force to attack Ánh. Ánh's army was defeated and he fled via Ba Giồng to Svay Rieng in Cambodia.

Nguyễn–Cambodian agreement

Ánh met with the Cambodian King Ang Eng, who granted him exile and offered support in his struggle with the Tây Sơn. In April 1782 a Tây Sơn army invaded Cambodia, detained and forced Ang Eng to pay tribute, and demanded, that all Vietnamese nationals living in Cambodia were to return to Vietnam. [20]

Chinese Vietnamese support for Nguyễn Ánh

Pigneau de Behaine, the French priest who recruited armies for Nguyen Anh during Anh's war against the Tay Son Pigneau de Behaine portrait.jpg
Pigneau de Behaine, the French priest who recruited armies for Nguyễn Ánh during Ánh's war against the Tây Sơn

Support by the Chinese Vietnamese began when the Qing dynasty overthrew the Ming dynasty. The Han Chinese refused to live under the Manchu Qing and fled to Southeast Asia (including Vietnam). Most were welcomed by the Nguyễn lords to resettle in southern Vietnam for business and trade.

In 1782, Nguyễn Ánh escaped to Cambodia and the Tây Sơn seized southern Vietnam (now Cochinchina). They discriminated against the ethnic Chinese, displeasing the Chinese Vietnamese. That April, Nguyễn loyalists Tôn Thất Dụ, Trần Xuân Trạch, Trần Văn Tự and Trần Công Chương sent military support to Ánh. The Nguyễn army killed grand admiral Phạm Ngạn, who had a close relationship with the emperor Thái Đức, at Tham Lương bridge. [20] Thái Đức, angry, thought that the ethnic Chinese had collaborated in the killing. He sacked the town of Cù lao (present-day Biên Hòa), which had a large Chinese population, [21] [22] and ordered the oppression of the Chinese community to avenge their assistance to Ánh. Ethnic cleansing had previously occurred in Hoi An, leading to support by wealthy Chinese for Ánh. He returned to Giồng Lữ, defeated admiral Nguyễn Học of the Tây Sơn and captured eighty battleships. Ánh then began a campaign to reclaim southern Vietnam, but Nguyễn Huệ deployed a naval force to the river and destroyed his navy. Ánh again escaped with his followers to Hậu Giang. Cambodia later cooperated with the Tây Sơn to destroy Ánh's force and made him retreat to Rạch Giá, then to Hà Tiên and Phú Quốc.

Nguyễn–Thai alliance

Rama I of Siam Buddha Yodfa Chulaloke portrait.jpg
Rama I of Siam

Following consecutive losses to the Tây Sơn, Ánh sent his general Châu Văn Tiếp to Siam to request military assistance. Siam, under Chakri rule, wanted to conquer Cambodia and southern Vietnam. King Rama I agreed to ally with the Nguyễn lord and intervene militarily in Vietnam. Châu Văn Tiếp sent a secret letter to Ánh about the alliance. After meeting with Siamese generals at Cà Mau, Ánh, thirty officials and some troops visited Bangkok to meet Rama I in May 1784. The governor of Gia Định Province, Nguyễn Văn Thành, advised Ánh against foreign assistance. [23] [24]

Rama I, fearing the growing influence of the Tây Sơn dynasty in Cambodia and Laos, decided to dispatch his army against it. In Bangkok, Ánh began to recruit Vietnamese refugees in Siam to join his army (which totaled over 9,000). [25] He returned to Vietnam and prepared his forces for the Tây Sơn campaign in June 1784, after which he captured Gia Định. Rama I nominated his nephew, Chiêu Tăng, as admiral the following month. The admiral led Siamese forces including 20,000 marine troops and 300 warships from the Gulf of Siam to Kiên Giang province. In addition, more than 30,000 Siamese infantry troops crossed the Cambodian border to An Giang province. [26] On 25 November 1784, Admiral Châu Văn Tiếp died in battle against the Tây Sơn in Mang Thít District, Vĩnh Long Province. The alliance was largely victorious from July through November, and the Tây Sơn army retreated north. However, emperor Nguyễn Huệ halted the retreat and counter-attacked the Siamese forces in December. In the decisive battle of Rạch Gầm–Xoài Mút, more than 20,000 Siamese soldiers died and the remainder retreated to Siam. [27]

Ánh, disillusioned with Siam, escaped to Thổ Chu Island in April 1785 and then to Ko Kut Island in Thailand. The Siamese army escorted him back to Bangkok, and he was briefly exiled in Thailand.

1787 French alliance

Louis XVI of France Antoine-Francois Callet - Louis XVI, roi de France et de Navarre (1754-1793), revetu du grand costume royal en 1779 - Google Art Project.jpg
Louis XVI of France
Signatures on the 1787 Treaty of Versailles Signatures of the 1787 Treaty of Versailles.jpg
Signatures on the 1787 Treaty of Versailles

The war between the Nguyễn lord and the Tây Sơn dynasty forced Ánh to find more allies. His relationship with de Behaine improved, and support for an alliance with France increased. Before the request for Siamese military assistance, de Behaine was in Chanthaburi and Ánh asked him to come to Phú Quốc Island. [28] Ánh asked him to contact King Louis XVI of France for assistance; de Behaine agreed to coordinate an alliance between France and Vietnam, and Ánh gave him a letter to present at the French court. Ánh's oldest son, Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh, was chosen to accompany de Behaine. Due to inclement weather, the voyage was postponed until December 1784. The group departed from Phú Quốc Island for Malacca and thence to Pondicherry, and Ánh moved his family to Bangkok. [29] The group arrived in Lorient in February 1787, and Louis XVI agreed to meet them in May.

Treaty of Versailles (1787)

On 28 November 1787, de Behaine signed the Treaty of Versailles with French Minister of Foreign Affairs Armand Marc at the Palace of Versailles on behalf of Nguyễn Ánh. [30] The treaty stipulated that France provide four frigates, 1,200 infantry troops, 200 artillery, 250 cafres (African soldiers), and other equipment. Nguyễn Ánh ceded the Đà Nẵng estuary and Côn Sơn Island to France. [31] The French were allowed to trade freely and control foreign trade in Vietnam. Vietnam had to build one ship per year which was similar to the French ship which brought aid and give it to France. Vietnam was obligated to supply food and other aid to France when the French were at war with other East Asian nations.

French Revolution

On 27 December 1787, Pigneau de Behaine and Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh left France for Pondicherry to wait for the military support promised by the treaty. However, due to the French Revolution and the abolition of the French monarchy, the treaty was never executed. Thomas Conway, who was responsible for French assistance, refused to provide it. Although the treaty was not implemented, de Behaine recruited French businessman who intended to trade in Vietnam and raised funds to assist Nguyễn Ánh. He spent fifteen thousand francs of his own money to purchase guns and warships. Cảnh and de Behaine returned to Gia Định in 1788 (after Nguyễn Ánh had recaptured it), followed by a ship with the war materiel. Frenchmen who were recruited included Jean-Baptiste Chaigneau, Philippe Vannier, Olivier de Puymanel, and Jean-Marie Dayot. A total of twenty people joined Ánh's army. The French purchased and supplied equipment and weaponry, reinforcing the defense of Gia Định, Vĩnh Long, Châu Đốc, Hà Tiên, Biên Hòa, Bà Rịa and training Ánh's artillery and infantry according to the European model. [32]

Second civil war (1787–1802)

Weakening of the Tây Sơn dynasty

Vietnam at the end of the 18th century. The Tay Son army, including Nguyen Hue, ruled the north (purple); Nguyen Nhac the middle (yellow), and Nguyen Anh the south (green). Vietnam at the end of 18th century (Vi).png
Vietnam at the end of the 18th century. The Tây Sơn army, including Nguyễn Huệ, ruled the north (purple); Nguyễn Nhạc the middle (yellow), and Nguyễn Ánh the south (green).

In 1786, Nguyễn Huệ led the army against the Trịnh lords; Trịnh Khải escaped to the north and committed suicide. After the Tây Sơn army returned to Quy Nhơn, subjects of the Trịnh lord restored Trịnh Bồng (son of Trịnh Giang) as the next lord. Lê Chiêu Thống, emperor of the Lê dynasty, wanted to regain power from the Trịnh. He summoned Nguyễn Hữu Chỉnh, governor of Nghệ An, to attack the Trịnh lord at the Imperial Citadel of Thăng Long. Trịnh Bồng surrendered to the Lê and became a monk. Nguyễn Hữu Chỉnh wanted to unify the country under Lê rule, and began to prepare the army to march south and attack the Tây Sơn. Huệ led the army, killed Nguyễn Hữu Chỉnh, and captured the later Lê capital. The Lê royal family were exiled to China, and the later Lê dynasty collapsed.

At that time, Nguyễn Huệ's influence became stronger in northern Vietnam; this made emperor Nguyễn Nhạc of the Tây Sơn dynasty suspect Huệ's loyalty. The relationship between the brothers became tense, eventually leading to battle. Huệ had his army surround Nhạc's capital, at Quy Nhơn citadel, in 1787. Nhạc begged Huệ not to kill him, and they reconciled. In 1788, Lê emperor Lê Chiêu Thống fled to China and asked for military assistance. Qing emperor Qianlong ordered Sun Shiyi to lead the military campaign into Vietnam. The campaign failed, diplomatic relations with Vietnam were normalized, and the Tây Sơn dynasty began to weaken.

Ánh's counter-attack

Ánh began to reorganize a strong armed force in Siam. He left Siam (after thanking King Rama I), and returned to Vietnam. [33] [34] During the 1787 war between Nguyễn Huệ and Nguyễn Nhạc in northern Vietnam, Ánh recaptured the southern Vietnamese capital of Gia Định. Southern Vietnam had been ruled by the Nguyễns and they remained popular, especially with the ethnic Chinese. Nguyễn Lữ, the youngest brother of Tây Sơn (who ruled southern Vietnam), could not defend the citadel and retreated to Quy Nhơn. The citadel of Gia Định was seized by the Nguyễn lords. [35]
In 1788 de Behaine and Ánh's son, Prince Cảnh, arrived in Gia Định with modern war equipment and more than twenty Frenchmen who wanted to join the army. The force was trained and strengthened with French assistance. [36]

Defeat of the Tây Sơn

After the fall of the citadel at Gia Định, Nguyễn Huệ prepared an expedition to reclaim it before his death on 16 September 1792. His young son, Nguyễn Quang Toản, succeeded him as emperor of the Tây Sơn and was a poor leader. [37] In 1793, Nguyễn Ánh began a campaign against Quang Toản. Due to conflict between officials of the Tây Sơn court, Quang Toản lost battle after battle. In 1797, Ánh and Nguyễn Phúc Cảnh attacked Qui Nhơn (then in Phú Yên Province) in the battle of Thị Nại. They were victorious, capturing a large amount of Tây Sơn equipment. [38] Quang Toản became unpopular due to his murders of generals and officials, leading to a decline in the army. In 1799, Ánh captured the citadel of Quy Nhơn. He seized the capital (Phú Xuân) on 3 May 1802, and Quang Toản retreated north. Ánh then executed all the members of the Tây Sơn dynasty that year.

Origin of the dynasty

Unification of Vietnam

Hoang Trieu luat le, Civil law introduced by Gia Long HoangVietLoatLe first page.jpg
Hoàng Triều luật lệ, Civil law introduced by Gia Long

Nguyễn Phúc Ánh united Vietnam after a three-hundred-year division of the country. He celebrated his coronation at Huế on 1 June 1802 and proclaimed himself emperor (Vietnamese : Hoàng Đế), with the era name Gia Long (嘉隆) and the Thế temple name Nguyễn Thế Tổ (阮世祖). Gia Long prioritized the nation's defense, and feared that it could again be divided by civil war. He replaced the feudal system with a reformist Doctrine of the Mean , based on Confucianism. [39] [40]

Government

Emperor

Altar in the shape of a chair, Nguyen dynasty, 19th to early 20th century, crimson and gilded wood, view 2 - National Museum of Vietnamese History - Hanoi, Vietnam - DSC05626.JPG
Con dau.jpg
Nguyễn-dynasty throne (left) and imperial seal

The Nguyễn dynasty maintained the bureaucracy and hierarchic system of former dynasties. The head of state was the emperor, who wielded absolute authority. Under the emperor was the Ministry of Interior (which worked on papers, royal messages and recording) and four Grand Secretariats (Vietnamese : Tứ trụ Đại thần), later renamed the Ministry of Secret Council.[ citation needed ] East Asia's monarchic system consisted of nobles and mandarins. Mandarins were civil or military.

Civil service and bureaucracy

RankCivil positionMilitary position
Upper first rank (Bậc trên nhất phẩm) Imperial Clan Court (Tông Nhân Phủ, Tôn nhân lệnh)
Three Ducal Ministers (Tam công):
* Grand Preceptor (Thái sư)
* Grand Tutor (Thái phó)
* Grand Protector (Thái bảo)
Same
First senior rank (Chánh nhất phẩm)Left Right Imperial Clan Court (Tôn nhân phủ, Tả Hữu tôn chính")
Three Vice-Ducal Ministers (Tam Thiếu)
* Vice Preceptor (Thiếu sư)
* Vice Tutor (Thiếu phó)
* Vice Protector (Thiếu bảo)
Same
First junior rank (Tòng nhất phẩm) Council of State (Tham chính viện)
House of Councillors (Tham Nghị viện)
Grand Secretariat (Thị trung Đại học sĩ)
Banner Unit Lieutenant General, General-in-Chief, Provincial Commander-in-Chief
Second senior rank (Chánh nhị phẩm) 6 ministries (Lục bộ):
* Ministry of Personnel (Bộ Lại)
* Ministry of Rites (Bộ Lễ)
* Ministry of Justice (imperial China) (Bộ Hình)
* Ministry of Finance (Bộ Hộ)
* Ministry of Public Works (Bộ Công)
* Ministry of Defense (Bộ Binh)
Supreme Censorate (Đô sát viện, Tả Hữu Đô ngự sử)
Banner Captain General, Commandants of Divisions, Brigade General
Second junior rank (Tòng nhị phẩm)6 Ministerial Advisors (Lục bộ Tả Hữu Tham tri)
Grand coordinator and provincial governor (Tuần phủ)
Supreme Vice-Censorate (Đô sát viện, Tả Hữu Phó đô ngự sử)
Major General, Colonel
Third senior rank (Chánh tam phẩm)Senior Head of 6 Ministries (Chánh thiêm sự)
Administration Commissioner (Cai bạ)
Surveillance Commissioner (Ký lục)
State Auxiliary Academician of Secretariat (Thị trung Trực học sĩ)
Court Auxiliary Academician (Trực học sĩ các điện)
Court academician (Học sĩ các điện)
Provincial governor (Hiệp trấn các trấn)
Brigadiers of Artillery & Musketry, Brigadier of Scouts, Banner Division Colonel
Third junior rank (Tòng tam phẩm)Junior Head of Six Ministries (Thiếu thiêm sự)
Senior Palace Administration Commissioner (Cai bạ Chính dinh)
Chargé d'affaires (Tham tán)
Court of Imperial Seals (Thượng bảo tự)
General Staff (Tham quân)
Banner Brigade Commander
Fourth senior rank (Chánh tứ phẩm)Provincial Education Commissioner of Guozijian (Quốc tử giám Đốc học)
Head of six ministries (Thiếu thiêm sự)
Junior Court of Imperial Seals (Thượng bảo thiếu Khanh)
Grand Secretaries (Đông các học sĩ)
Administration Commissioner of Trường Thọ palace (Cai bạ cung Trường Thọ)
Provincial Advisor to Defense Command Lieutenant Governor (Tham hiệp các trấn)
Lieutenant Colonel of Artillery, Musketry & Scouts Captain, Police Major
Fourth junior rank (Tòng tứ phẩm)Provincial Vice Education Commissioner of Guozijian (Quốc tử giám phó Đốc học), Prefect (Tuyên phủ sứ),Captain, Assistant Major in Princely Palaces
Fifth senior rank (Chánh ngũ phẩm)Inner Deputy Supervisors of Instruction at Hanlin Institutes, Sub-PrefectsPolice Captain, Lieutenant or First Lieutenant
Fifth junior rank (Tòng ngũ phẩm)Assistant Instructors and Librarians at Imperial and Hanlin Institutes, Assistant Directors of Boards and Courts, Circuit CensorsGate Guard Lieutenants, Second Captain
Sixth senior rank (Chánh lục phẩm)Secretaries & Tutors at Imperial & Hanlin Institutes, Secretaries and Registrars at Imperial Offices, Police MagistrateBodyguards, Lieutenants of Artillery, Musketry & Scouts, Second Lieutenants
Sixth junior rank (Tòng lục phẩm)Assistant Secretaries in Imperial Offices and Law Secretaries, Provincial Deputy Sub-Prefects, Buddhist & Taoist priestsDeputy Police Lieutenant
Seventh senior rank (Chánh thất phẩm)NoneCity Gate Clerk, Sub-Lieutenants
Seventh junior rank (Tòng thất phẩm)Secretaries in Offices of Assistant Governors, Salt Controllers & Transport StationsAssistant Major in Nobles' Palaces
Eighth senior rank (Chánh bát phẩm)NoneEnsigns
Eighth junior rank (Tòng bát phẩm)Sub-director of Studies, Archivists in Office of Salt ControllerFirst Class Sergeant
Ninth senior rank (Chánh cửu phẩm)NoneSecond Class Sergeant
Ninth junior rank (Tòng cửu phẩm)Prefectural Tax Collector, Deputy Jail Warden, Deputy Police Commissioner, Tax ExaminerThird Class Sergeant, Corporal, First & Second Class Privates

Taxes

Nguyen dynasty coins Nguyen Dynasty coinage.jpg
Nguyễn dynasty coins

Vietnam's monetary subunit was the quan (貫). One quan equaled 10 coins, equivalent to 600. Officials received the following taxes (Vietnamese : thuế đầu người):

Pension

When mandarins retired, they could receive one hundred to four hundred quan from the emperor. When they died, the royal court provided twenty to two hundred quan for a funeral.[ citation needed ]

Culture

After Gia Long, other dynastic rulers encountered problems with Catholic missionaries and other Europeans in Indochina. China's Qing Jiaqing Emperor refused Gia Long's request to change his country's name to Nam Việt, changing its name to Việt Nam. [41]

Gia Long's son, Minh Mạng, was then faced with the Lê Văn Khôi revolt in which native Christians and their European clergy tried to replace him and install a grandson of Gia Long who had converted to Roman Catholicism. The missionaries then incited frequent revolts in an attempt to Catholicize the throne and the country, [42] although Minh Mạng set aside public lands as part of his reforms. [43]

Minh Mang engineered the final conquest of the Champa Kingdom after the centuries-long Cham–Vietnamese wars. Cham Muslim leader Katip Suma was educated in Kelantan, returning to Champa to declare a jihad against the Vietnamese after Minh Mang's annexation of the region. [44] [45] [46] [47] The Vietnamese forced Champa's Muslims to eat lizard and pig meat and its Hindus to eat beef to assimilate them into Vietnamese culture. [48]

Ngo Mon (Wu Men ), the main gate of the imperial Nguyen city in Hue La porte du midi (Cite imperiale, Hue).jpg
Ngọ Môn (午門), the main gate of the imperial Nguyễn city in Huế

Minh Mang sinicized ethnic minorities (such as Cambodians), claimed the legacy of Confucianism and China's Han dynasty for Vietnam, and used the term "Han people" (漢人, Hán nhân) to refer to the Vietnamese. [49] [50] According to the emperor, "We must hope that their barbarian habits will be subconsciously dissipated, and that they will daily become more infected by Han [Sino-Vietnamese] customs." [51] These policies were directed at the Khmer and hill tribes. [52] Nguyen Phuc Chu had referred to the Vietnamese as "Han people" in 1712, distinguishing them from the Chams. [53] The Nguyen lords established colonies after 1790. Gia Long said, "Hán di hữu hạn" ( , "The Vietnamese and the barbarians must have clear borders"), distinguishing the Khmer from the Vietnamese. [54] Minh Mang implemented an acculturation policy for minority non-Vietnamese peoples. [55] "Thanh nhân" ( ) or "Đường nhân" (唐人) were used to refer to ethnic Chinese by the Vietnamese, who called themselves "Hán dân" ( ) and "Hán nhân" (漢人) during 19th-century Nguyễn rule. [56] Since 1827, descendants of Ming dynasty refugees were called Minh nhân (明人) or Minh Hương ( ) by Nguyễn rulers, to distinguish with ethnic Chinese. [57] Minh nhân were treated as Vietnamese since 1829. [58] [59] :272 They were not allowed to go to China, and also not allowed to wear the Manchu queue. [60]

"Trung Quốc" (中國) was used as a name for Vietnam by Gia Long in 1805. [61] Due to its dominance during the 19th century, Vietnam regards Cambodia and Laos as tributary states. [62]

1884 drawing of a marriage ceremony in Tonkin Une ceremonie de mariage au Tonkin.jpg
1884 drawing of a marriage ceremony in Tonkin

The Nguyen dynasty popularized Chinese clothing. [63] [64] [65] [66] [67] [68] Trousers were adopted by female White H'mong speakers, [69] replacing their traditional skirts. [70] The traditional Han Chinese Ming tunics and trousers were worn by the Vietnamese. The áo dài was developed in the 1920s, when compact, close-fitting tucks were added to Chinese-style clothing. [71] Chinese trousers and tunics were ordered by Nguyễn Phúc Khoát during the 18th century, replacing Vietnamese sarongs. [72] Although the Chinese trousers and tunic were mandated by the Nguyen government, skirts were worn in isolated north Vietnamese hamlets until the 1920s. [73] Chinese Ming-, Tang-, and Han-dynasty clothing was ordered for the Vietnamese military and bureaucrats by Nguyễn Phúc Khoát. [74]

Nguyen-dynasty elephant parade in Hue ElephantParadeHue.png
Nguyễn-dynasty elephant parade in Huế

An 1841 polemic, "On Distinguishing Barbarians", was based on the Qing sign "Vietnamese Barbarians' Hostel" (越夷會館) on the Fujian residence of Nguyen diplomat and Hoa Chinese Lý Văn Phức (李文馥). [75] [76] [77] [78] It argued that the Qing did not subscribe to the neo-Confucianist texts from the Song and Ming dynasties which were learned by the Vietnamese, [79] who saw themselves as sharing a civilization with the Qing. [80] Non-Chinese highland tribes and other non-Vietnamese peoples living near (or in) Vietnam were called "barbarian" by the Vietnamese imperial court. [81] [82] The essay distinguishes the Yi and Hua, and mentions Zhao Tuo, Wen, Shun and Taibo. [83] [84] [85] [86] [87] Kelley and Woodside described Vietnam's Confucianism. [88]

Emperors Minh Mạng, Thiệu Trị and Tự Đức, were opposed to French involvement in Vietnam, and tried to reduce the country's growing Catholic community. The imprisonment of missionaries who had illegally entered the country was the primary pretext for the French to invade (and occupy) Indochina. Like Qing China, a number of incidents involved other European nations during the 19th century.

The last independent Nguyễn emperor was Tự Đức. A succession crisis followed his death, as the regent Tôn Thất Thuyết orchestrated the murders of three emperors in a year. This allowed the French to take control of the country and its monarchy. All emperors since Đồng Khánh were chosen by the French, and only ruled symbolically.

French protectorate

Napoleon III took the first steps to establish a French colonial influence in Indochina. He approved the launching of a Punitive expedition in 1858 to punish the Vietnamese for their mistreatment of European Catholic missionaries and force the court to accept a French presence in the country. However, the expedition quickly evolved into a full invasion. Factors in Napoelons decision were the belief that France risked becoming a second-rate power by not expanding its influence in East Asia, and the expanding idea that France had a civilizing mission. By 18 February 1859 France conquered Saigon and three southern Vietnamese provinces: Biên Hòa, Gia Định and Định Tường.

Signing of the Treaty of Hue, 25 August 1883 Signature of 1883 Treaty of Hue.jpg
Signing of the Treaty of Huế, 25 August 1883

By 1862, the war was over and in the Treaty of Saigon Vietnam was forced to concede the three provinces in the south, which became the colony of French Cochinchina. The subsequent 1863 Treaty of Huế also saw the Vietnamese Empire open three ports to French trade, allowed free passage of French warships to Kampuchea (which led to the French protectorate of Kampuchea), allowed freedom for French missionaries, and gave France a large indemnity for the cost of the war. France did not intervene in the Christian-supported Vietnamese rebellion in Bắc Bộ (despite missionary urging) or the subsequent massacre of thousands of Christians after the rebellion, suggesting that persecution of Christians prompted the original intervention but military and political reasons drove continued colonization of Vietnam.

In the following decades Vietnam was gradually absorbed under French control. Further unequal treaties. The Second Treaty of Saigon in 1874 reiterated the stipulations of the previous treaty. When both China and France claimed sovereignty over Vietnamese territory, France deemed the treaty unfulfilled and occupied Hanoi in 1882. The 1883 Treaty of Huế led to the rest of Vietnam becoming French protectorates, divided into the Protectorates of Annam and Tonkin. The terms were however considered overly harsh in French diplomatic circles and never ratified in France. The following 1884 Treaty of Huế provided a softened version of the previous treaty.

After this the Nguyễn dynasty only nominally ruled the French protectorates. Annam, Tonkin, as well as Cochinchina, were in 1887 combined with the neighboring Cambodian protectorate to form the Union of French Indochina, which the became the administrative components of.

French rule also added new ingredients to Vietnam's cultural stew: Catholicism and a Latin-based alphabet. The spelling used in the Vietnamese transliteration was Portuguese, because the French relied on a dictionary compiled earlier by a Portuguese cleric. [3]

World War I

While seeking to maximize the use of Indochina's natural resources and manpower to fight World War I, France cracked down on Vietnam's patriotic mass movements. Indochina (mainly Vietnam) had to provide France with 70,000 soldiers and 70,000 workers, who were forcibly drafted from villages to serve on the French battlefront. Vietnam also contributed 184 million piastres in loans and 336,000 tons of food.

These burdens proved heavy, since agriculture experienced natural disasters from 1914 to 1917. Lacking a unified nationwide organization, the vigorous Vietnamese national movement failed to use the difficulties France had as a result of war to stage significant uprisings.

In May 1916, sixteen-year-old emperor Duy Tân escaped from his palace in order to participate in an uprising of Vietnamese troops. The French were informed of the plan, and its leaders were arrested and executed. Duy Tân was deposed and exiled to the island of Réunion in the Indian Ocean.

World War II

Nationalist sentiment intensified in Vietnam (especially during and after the First World War), but uprisings and tentative efforts failed to obtain concessions from the French. The Russian Revolution greatly impacted 20th-century Vietnamese history.

For Vietnam, the outbreak of World War II on 1 September 1939 was as decisive as the 1858 French seizure of Đà Nẵng. The Axis power of Japan invaded Vietnam on 22 September 1940, attempting to construct military bases to strike against Allied forces in Southeast Asia. This led to a period of Indochina under Japanese occupation with cooperation of the collaborationist Vichy French, who still retained administration of the colony. During this time the Viet Minh, a communist resistance movement, developed under Ho Chi Minh from 1941, with allied support. During a 1944–1945 famine in northern Vietnam, over one million people starved to death.

In March 1945, after the liberation of France in Europe and heavy setbacks in the war. In a last ditch effort to gather support, the Japanese overthrew the French administration, imprisoned their civil servants and proclaimed independence for Cambodia, Laos and Vietnam, which became the Empire of Vietnam with Bảo Đại as its Emperor.

The Empire of Vietnam was however just a puppet state for the Japanese, and after their defeat in August 1945 Bảo Đại abdicated while the Viet Minh launched the August Revolution. This ended the 143-year reign of the Nguyễn dynasty.

Dynastic succession

After the war France had reestablished control of French Indochina, which had led to the First Indochina War with the Viet Minh. In 1949 thee French persuaded Bảo Đại to return as Chief of State (Quốc Trưởng) of the State of Vietnam (Quốc Gia Việt Nam), set up by France over the former areas of Annam, Tonkin and Cochinchina. Bảo Đại spent much of his time during the war in his luxurious home in Đà Lạt or in Paris. The war ended with the French defeat at Điện Biên Phủ in 1954.

The 1954 Geneva Conference provisionally the country divided into North Vietnam (governed by the Viet Minh) and South Vietnam, with a new government. Bảo Đại's prime minister, Ngô Đình Diệm, defeated him in a 1955 referendum generally regarded as rigged; an improbable 98 percent of voters supported Diem's proposal for a republic, and the number of votes for the republic far exceeded the number of registered voters. Diem became president of the Republic of Vietnam (Việt Nam Cộng Hòa), fully ending Bảo Đại's involvement in Vietnamese affairs.

Bảo Đại went into exile in France, where he died in 1997 and was buried in Cimetière de Passy. Crown Prince Bảo Long succeeded him as head of the imperial house of Vietnam on 31 July of that year and was succeeded by his brother, Bảo Thắng, on 28 July 2007.

Bảo Thắng died on 15 March 2017 without an heir leaving the succession to the youngest half brother Bảo Ân.

Legacy

Art

Historical records

Emperors

The following list is the emperors' era names, which have meaning in Chinese and Vietnamese. For example, the first ruler's era name, Gia Long, is the combination of the old names for Saigon (Gia Định) and Hanoi (Thăng Long) to show the new unity of the country; the fourth, Tự Đức, means "Inheritance of Virtues"; the ninth, Đồng Khánh, means "Collective Celebration".

Temple name Posthumous name Personal nameLineageReign Regnal name TombEvents
GiaLong.jpg Thế TổKhai Thiên Hoằng Đạo Lập Kỷ Thùy Thống Thần Văn Thánh Vũ Tuấn Đức Long Công Chí Nhân Đại Hiếu Cao Hoàng ĐếNguyễn Phúc Ánh Nguyễn lords 1802–20 Gia Long Thiên Thọ lăng Unified and named Vietnam, founded its last dynasty
Minh Mang.gif Thánh TổThể Thiên Xương Vận Chí Hiếu Thuần Đức Văn Vũ Minh Đoán Sáng Thuật Đại Thành Hậu Trạch Phong Công Nhân Hoàng ĐếNguyễn Phúc ĐảmSon1820–41 Minh Mệnh Hiếu LăngAnnexed the remaining Panduranga kingdom, renamed Vietnam Đại Nam (Great Nam/Great South), suppressed religion
Gold lang Thieu Tri CdM.jpg Hiến TổThiệu Thiên Long Vận Chí Thiện Thuần Hiếu Khoan Minh Duệ Đoán Văn Trị Vũ Công Thánh Triết Chượng Chương Hoàng ĐếNguyễn Phúc Miên TôngSon1841–47 Thiệu Trị Xương Lăng
Vua Tu Duc.jpg Dực TôngThể Thiên Hanh Vận Chí Thành Đạt Hiếu Thể Kiện Đôn Nhân Khiêm Cung Minh Lược Duệ Văn Anh Hoàng ĐếNguyễn Phúc Hồng NhậmSon1847–83 Tự Đức Khiêm Lăng Faced French invasion and ceded Cochinchina to France
An lang.jpg Cung TôngHuệ Hoàng ĐếNguyễn Phúc Ưng ChânNephew (adopted son of Tự Đức)1883 Dục Đức An Lăng Three-day emperor (20–23 July 1883)
Văn Lãng Quận VươngNguyễn Phúc Hồng DậtUncle (son of Thiệu Trị)1883 Hiệp Hòa Four-month emperor (30 July – 29 November 1883)
Giản TôngThiệu Đức Chí Hiếu Uyên Duệ Nghị Hoàng ĐếNguyễn Phúc Ưng ĐăngNephew (son of Hiệp Hòa's brother)1883–84 Kiến Phúc Bồi LăngEight-month emperor (2 December 1883 – 31 July 1884)
Emperor Ham Nghi.jpg Nguyễn Phúc Ưng LịchYounger brother1884–85 Hàm Nghi Thonac Cemetery, FranceDethroned after one year, continuing his rebellion until was captured in 1888 and fled to Algeria
DongKhanh.jpg Cảnh TôngHoằng Liệt Thống Thiết Mẫn Huệ Thuần Hoàng ĐếNguyễn Phúc Ưng KỷOlder brother1885–89 Đồng Khánh Tư LăngPro-West
Emperor Thanh Thai.jpg Hoài Trạch CôngNguyễn Phúc Bửu LânCousin (son of Dục Đức)1889–1907 Thành Thái An Lăng
Vua Duy Tan nho.jpg Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh Sanson1907–16 Duy Tân An Lăng
Emperor Khai Dinh 1916.jpg Hoằng TôngTự Đại Gia Vận Thánh Minh Thần Trí Nhân Hiếu Thành Kính Di Mô Thừa Liệt Tuyên Hoàng ĐếNguyễn Phúc Bửu ĐảoCousin (son of Đồng Khánh)1916–25 Khải Định Ứng Lăng Collaborated with the French, and was a political figurehead for French colonial rulers. Unpopular with the Vietnamese people, nationalist leader Phan Châu Trinh accused him of selling Vietnam to the French and living in imperial luxury while the people were exploited.
Baodai.jpg Nguyễn Phúc Vĩnh ThụySon1926–45 Bảo Đại Cimetière de Passy, FranceCreated the Empire of Vietnam under Japanese occupation during World War II; abdicated and transferred power to the Viet Minh in 1945, ending the Vietnamese monarchy. Removed as head of state of the State of Vietnam, changing it to a republic with Ngo Dinh Diem as president. Unpopular, considered an impotent puppet of the French colonial regime.

After the death of Emperor Tự Đức (and according to his will), Dục Đức ascended to the throne on 19 July 1883. He was dethroned and imprisoned three days later, after being accused of deleting a paragraph from Tự Đức's will. With no time to announce his dynastic title, his era name was named for his residential palace.

Lineage

1
Gia Long
1802–1819
 
 
2
Minh Mệnh
1820–1840
 
 
3
Thiệu Trị
1841–1847
 
 
     
4
Tự Đức
1847–1883
  Thoại Thái Vương   Kiên Thái Vương  6
Hiệp Hoà
1883
  
       
5
Dục Đức
1883
 9
Đồng Khánh
1885–1889
 8
Hàm Nghi
1884–1885
 7
Kiến Phúc
1883–1884
  
10
Thành Thái
1889–1907
 12
Khải Định
1916–1925
 
  
11
Duy Tân
1907–1916
 13
Bảo Đại
1926–1945
 

Note:

See also

Notes

    Related Research Articles

    Nguyễn lords Noble feudal clan of Vietnam

    The Nguyễn lords, also known as Nguyễn clan or House of Nguyễn, were rulers of the Kingdom of Đàng Trong in Central and Southern Vietnam, as opposed to Đàng Ngoài or Outer Realm, ruled by the Trịnh lords.

    Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút battle

    The Battle of Rạch Gầm-Xoài Mút was fought between the Vietnamese Tây Sơn forces and an army of Siam in present-day Tiền Giang Province on January 20, 1785. It is considered one of the greatest victories in Vietnamese history.

    Võ Tánh was an 18th-century Vietnamese military commander, best known for his role as a general of Nguyễn Ánh, who unified modern-day Vietnam and ruled as Emperor Gia Long.

    Nguyễn Huệ Vietnamese emperor

    Nguyễn Huệ, also known as Nguyễn Quang Bình or Emperor Quang Trung (Vietnamese: [kwāːŋ ʈūŋm] Hán tự: 光中, 1753 – 16 September 1792), was the second emperor of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1788 until 1792. He was also one of the most successful military commanders in Vietnam's history, though he was known to have attained these achievements by ruthless, massive killing of especially the entire Nguyễn lords families. Nguyễn Huệ and his brothers, Nguyễn Nhạc and Nguyễn Lữ, together known as the Tây Sơn brothers, were the leaders of the Tây Sơn rebellion. As rebels, they conquered Vietnam, overthrowing the imperial Later Lê dynasty and the two rival feudal houses of the Nguyễn in the south and the Trịnh in the north.

    Citadel of Saigon Fortress in Saigon

    The Citadel of Saigon also known as the Citadel of Gia Định was a late 18th-century fortress that stood in Saigon, Vietnam from its construction in 1790 until its destruction in February 1859. It was destroyed in a French naval bombardment as part of the colonisation of southern Vietnam which became the French colony of Cochinchina. The citadel was only used once prior to its destruction, when it was captured by Lê Văn Khôi in 1833 and used in a revolt against Emperor Minh Mạng.

    Empress Thuận Thiên, born Trần Thị Đang in Văn Xá village, Hương Trà, Thừa Thiên, was the second wife of Emperor Gia Long of Vietnam and mother of Emperor Minh Mạng.

    Châu Văn Tiếp, born Châu Doãn Ngạnh (朱尹梗), was an 18th-century Vietnamese military commander, best known for his role as a general of Nguyễn Ánh.

    Lê Văn Duyệt Vietnamese general, mandarin

    Lê Văn Duyệt was a Vietnamese general who helped Nguyễn Ánh—the future Emperor Gia Long—put down the Tây Sơn rebellion, unify Vietnam and establish the Nguyễn Dynasty. After the Nguyễn came to power in 1802, Duyệt became a high-ranking mandarin, serving under the first two Nguyễn emperors Gia Long and Minh Mạng.

    Nguyễn Nhạc Vietnamese emperor

    Nguyễn Nhạc was the founder of the Tây Sơn dynasty, reigning from 1778 to 1793.

    Political organizations and Armed forces in Vietnam

    Political organizations and Armed forces in Vietnam, since 1912 :

    Nguyễn Lữ Vietnamese general

    Nguyễn Lữ, also known by the title of Đông Định vương, was the one of the Tây Sơn brothers who formed short-lived Tây Sơn dynasty of Vietnam.

    Tây Sơn military tactics and organization

    The Tây Sơn rebel army incorporated during the three decades of its existence new and unconventional ideas of tactics and organization. Logistic and tactical aspects like intelligence analysis, troop co-operation, transport and movement were radically revised, imposed and coupled with deception, diplomacy and guerilla tactics, that eventually proved remarkably efficient. Conceived and applied by military leader Nguyen Hue under whom the Tây Sơn forces engaged into a series of combat operations and skillfully defeated experienced and trained, regular troops, of Cambodia, Siam, Laos, the Chinese Qing empire and the domestic feudal armies of the Trịnh Lords, Nguyễn Lords and the imperial Lê dynasty. Some of the Tây Sơn victories rank among the greatest achievements in Vietnamese military history.

    Phạm Ngạn was a general of Tây Sơn dynasty, Vietnam.

    Đặng Văn Chân, or Đặng Văn Trấn (鄧文鎮), was an admiral of the Tây Sơn dynasty, Vietnam.

    Trương Văn Đa was a general of Tây Sơn dynasty, Vietnam.

    References

    1. Li, Tana; Reid, Anthony (1993). Southern Vietnam under the Nguyễn. Economic History of Southeast Asia Project. Australian National University. ISBN   981-3016-69-8.
    2. "Brief history of the Nguyen dynasty". Hue Monuments Conservation Centre. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
    3. 1 2 "The conquest of Vietnam by France". Encyclopedia Britannica. Retrieved 31 January 2019.
    4. "韩周敬:越南阮朝嘉、明时期国号问题析论". 越南历史研究 . Retrieved 31 August 2018.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |website= (help)
    5. "Ai là tể tướng đầu tiên trong lịch sử Việt Nam? (Who is the first prime minister in Vietnamese history?)". Vietnam Union of Science and Technology Associations. 5 February 2014. Retrieved 5 February 2019.
    6. "VIETNAM BRIEF HISTORY". 4 DW. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
    7. "The development of Le government in fifteenth century Vietnam". Research Gate. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
    8. Bui Ngoc Son. "Confucian Constitutionalism in Imperial Vietnam" (PDF). National Taiwan University. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
    9. K. W. Taylor (9 May 2013). A History of the Vietnamese. Cambridge University Press. pp. 232–. ISBN   978-0-521-87586-8.
    10. "A GLIMPSE OF VIETNAM'S HISTORY". Web Cite. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
    11. Danny Wong Tze Ken. "Vietnam-Champa Relations and the Malay-Islam Regional Network in the 17th–19th Centuries – The Vietnamese Victory over Champa in 1693". web archive. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
    12. George Coedes (15 May 2015). The Making of South East Asia (RLE Modern East and South East Asia). Taylor & Francis. pp. 175–. ISBN   978-1-317-45094-8.
    13. Michael Arthur Aung-Thwin; Kenneth R. Hall (13 May 2011). New Perspectives on the History and Historiography of Southeast Asia: Continuing Explorations. Routledge. pp. 158–. ISBN   978-1-136-81964-3.
    14. "A BRIEF HISTORY OF THE TAY SON MOVEMENT (1771–1802)". EnglishRainbow. Retrieved 2 February 2019.
    15. Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973 , p. 89
    16. Thụy Khuê 2017 , pp. 140–142
    17. Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973 , p. 91
    18. Naval Intelligence Division (Anh Quốc) (11 January 2013). Indo-China. Routledge. p. 176. ISBN   978-1-136-20911-6.
    19. 1 2 Phan Khoang 2001 , p. 508
    20. 1 2 Quốc sử quán triều Nguyễn 2007 , p. 188
    21. Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973 , pp. 110–111
    22. Phan Khoang 2001 , pp. 522–523
    23. Phan Khoang 2001 , p. 517
    24. Huỳnh Minh 2006 , p. 143
    25. Quốc sử quán triều Nguyễn 2007 , p. 195
    26. Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973 , p. 124
    27. Nguyễn Khắc Thuần (2005), Danh tướng Việt Nam, tập 3, Việt Nam: Nhà xuất bản Giáo dục, tr. 195
    28. Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973 , pp. 178
    29. Trần Trọng Kim 1971 , pp. 111
    30. Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973 , pp. 182–183
    31. Tạ Chí Đại Trường 1973 , pp. 183
    32. Nguyễn Quang Trung Tiến 1999
    33. Đặng Việt Thủy & Đặng Thành Trung 2008 , p. 279
    34. Phan Khoang 2001 , p. 519
    35. Sơn Nam 2009 , pp. 54–55
    36. Quốc sử quán triều Nguyễn 2007 , p. 203
    37. Trần Trọng Kim 1971 , pp. 155
    38. Quốc sử quán triều Nguyễn 2007 , pp. 207–211
    39. Kamm 1996 , p. 83
    40. Tarling 1999 , pp. 245–246
    41. Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 120–. ISBN   978-0-674-93721-5.
    42. Jacob Ramsay -Mandarins and Martyrs: The Church and the Nguyễn Dynasty in Early ... 2008 "This book is about the rise of anti-Catholic violence in early nineteenth-century Vietnam under the Nguyễn Dynasty, and the profound social and political changes it created in the decades preceding French colonialism."
    43. Choi Byung Wook Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): 2004 Page 161 "These authors identify the creation of public land as the most important result of land measurement, and they judge that project to have been a significant achievement of the Nguyen dynasty, writing: 'Minh Mang clearly did not want southern ...'"
    44. Jean-François Hubert (8 May 2012). The Art of Champa. Parkstone International. pp. 25–. ISBN   978-1-78042-964-9.
    45. "The Raja Praong Ritual: A Memory of the Sea in Cham- Malay Relations". Cham Unesco. Archived from the original on 6 February 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    46. (Extracted from Truong Van Mon, "The Raja Praong Ritual: a Memory of the sea in Cham- Malay Relations", in Memory And Knowledge Of The Sea In South Asia, Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences, University of Malaya, Monograph Series 3, pp, 97–111. International Seminar on Maritime Culture and Geopolitics & Workshop on Bajau Laut Music and Dance", Institute of Ocean and Earth Sciences and the Faculty of Arts and Social Sciences, University of Malaya, 23-24/2008)
    47. Dharma, Po. "The Uprisings of Katip Sumat and Ja Thak Wa (1833–1835)". Cham Today. Archived from the original on 26 June 2015. Retrieved 25 June 2015.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    48. Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 141–. ISBN   978-0-87727-138-3.
    49. Norman G. Owen (2005). The Emergence of Modern Southeast Asia: A New History. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 115–. ISBN   978-0-8248-2890-5.
    50. Zottoli, Brian A. (2011). Reconceptualizing Southern Vietnamese Hi story from the 15th to 18th Centuries: Competition along the Coasts from Guangdong to Cambod (A dissertation submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirements for the degree of Doctor of Philosophy (History) in The University of Michigan). p. 14. Archived from the original on 29 January 2017. Retrieved 29 January 2017.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    51. A. Dirk Moses (1 January 2008). Empire, Colony, Genocide: Conquest, Occupation, and Subaltern Resistance in World History. Berghahn Books. pp. 209–. ISBN   978-1-84545-452-4. Archived from the original on 2008.
    52. Randall Peerenboom; Carole J. Petersen; Albert H.Y. Chen (27 September 2006). Human Rights in Asia: A Comparative Legal Study of Twelve Asian Jurisdictions, France and the USA. Routledge. pp. 474–. ISBN   978-1-134-23881-1.
    53. "Vietnam-Champa Relations and the Malay-Islam Regional Network in the 17th–19th Centuries". Web.archive.org. 17 June 2004. Archived from the original on 17 June 2004. Retrieved 19 November 2017.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)
    54. Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 34–. ISBN   978-0-87727-138-3.
    55. Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 136–. ISBN   978-0-87727-138-3.
    56. Choi Byung Wook (2004). Southern Vietnam Under the Reign of Minh Mạng (1820–1841): Central Policies and Local Response. SEAP Publications. pp. 137–. ISBN   978-0-87727-138-3.
    57. Nguyễn Đức Hiệp. Về lịch sử người Minh Hương và người Hoa ở Nam bộ. Văn hóa học, 21 February 2008. Retrieved 28 November 2015.
    58. 蔣為文 (2013). "越南的明鄉人與華人移民的族群認同與本土化差異" (PDF). 台灣國際研究季刊 (in Chinese). 國立成功大學越南研究中心. 9 (4): 8. Retrieved 23 June 2014.
    59. Leo Suryadinata (1997). Ethnic Chinese as Southeast Asians. Institute of Southeast Asian Studies. ISBN   9813055502 . Retrieved 7 July 2014.
    60. "明鄉人". Chinese Encyclopedia (in Chinese). Chinese Culture University. 1983. Retrieved 24 June 2014.
    61. Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 18–. ISBN   978-0-674-93721-5.
    62. "Laos and Cambodia". Country Studies. U.S. Library of Congress.
    63. Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 134–. ISBN   978-0-674-93721-5.
    64. Globalization: A View by Vietnamese Consumers Through Wedding Windows. ProQuest. 2008. pp. 34–. ISBN   978-0-549-68091-8.
    65. "Angelasancartier.net". angelasancartier.net. Retrieved 19 November 2017.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |website= (help)
    66. "#18 Transcultural Tradition of the Vietnamese Ao Dai". Beyondvictoriana.com. 14 March 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2017.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |website= (help)
    67. "Ao Dai – LoveToKnow". Fashion-hjistory.lovetoknow.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
    68. "The Ao Dai and I: A Personal Essay on Cultural Identity and Steampunk". Tor.com. 20 October 2010. Retrieved 19 November 2017.Italic or bold markup not allowed in: |website= (help)
    69. Vietnam. Michelin Travel Publications. 2002. p. 200.
    70. Gary Yia Lee; Nicholas Tapp (16 September 2010). Culture and Customs of the Hmong. ABC-CLIO. pp. 138–. ISBN   978-0-313-34527-2.
    71. Anthony Reid (2 June 2015). A History of Southeast Asia: Critical Crossroads. John Wiley & Sons. pp. 285–. ISBN   978-0-631-17961-0.
    72. Anthony Reid (9 May 1990). Southeast Asia in the Age of Commerce, 1450–1680: The Lands Below the Winds. Yale University Press. pp. 90–. ISBN   978-0-300-04750-9.
    73. A. Terry Rambo (2005). Searching for Vietnam: Selected Writings on Vietnamese Culture and Society. Kyoto University Press. p. 64. ISBN   978-1-920901-05-9.
    74. Jayne Werner; John K. Whitmore; George Dutton (21 August 2012). Sources of Vietnamese Tradition. Columbia University Press. pp. 295–. ISBN   978-0-231-51110-0.
    75. Alexander Woodside (1971). Vietnam and the Chinese Model: A Comparative Study of Vietnamese and Chinese Government in the First Half of the Nineteenth Century. Harvard Univ Asia Center. pp. 117–. ISBN   978-0-674-93721-5.
    76. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 29 August 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    77. "Archived copy". Archived from the original on 16 September 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    78. "越南名儒李文馥-龙文,乡贤,名儒-龙文新闻网". Lwxww.cn. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
    79. John Gillespie; Albert H.Y. Chen (30 July 2010). Legal Reforms in China and Vietnam: A Comparison of Asian Communist Regimes. Taylor & Francis. pp. 6–. ISBN   978-0-203-85269-9.John Gillespie; Albert H.Y. Chen (13 September 2010). Legal Reforms in China and Vietnam: A Comparison of Asian Communist Regimes. Routledge. pp. 6–. ISBN   978-1-136-97843-2.John Gillespie; Albert H.Y. Chen (13 September 2010). Legal Reforms in China and Vietnam: A Comparison of Asian Communist Regimes. Routledge. pp. 6–. ISBN   978-1-136-97842-5.
    80. Charles Holcombe (January 2001). The Genesis of East Asia: 221 B.C. – A.D. 907. University of Hawaii Press. pp. 41–. ISBN   978-0-8248-2465-5.
    81. Pamela D. McElwee (2003). 'Lost worlds' or 'lost causes'?: biodiversity conservation, forest management, and rural life in Vietnam. Yale University. p. 67.Pamela D. McElwee (2003). 'Lost worlds' or 'lost causes'?: biodiversity conservation, forest management, and rural life in Vietnam. Yale University. p. 67.
    82. Journal of Vietnamese Studies. University of California Press. 2006. p. 317.
    83. Journal of Vietnamese Studies. University of California Press. 2006. p. 325.
    84. Kelley, L. (2006). ""Confucianism" in Vietnam: A State of the Field Essay". Journal of Vietnamese Studies. 1 (1–2): 325. JSTOR   10.1525/vs.2006.1.1-2.314?seq=12.
    85. ""Confucianism" in Vietnam: A State of the Field Essay". ResearchGate. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
    86. Kelley, Liam C. (1 February 2006). ""Confucianism" in Vietnam: A State of the Field Essay". Journal of Vietnamese Studies. 1 (1–2): 314–370. doi:10.1525/vs.2006.1.1-2.314 . Retrieved 19 November 2017.
    87. "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 6 October 2016. Retrieved 9 August 2016.Cite uses deprecated parameter |deadurl= (help)CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
    88. Woodside; Kelley; Cooke (9 March 2016). "Q. How Confucian is/was Vietnam?". Cindyanguyen.wordpress.com. Retrieved 19 November 2017.
    Royal house
    Nguyễn dynasty
    Founding year: 1802
    Deposition: 1945
    Preceded by
    Tây Sơn dynasty
    Dynasty of Vietnam
    1 June 1802 – 30 August 1945
    Vacant